Notes from a class given by Rabbi Torczyner at Shaarei Shomayim in Toronto.
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IYOV:INTRODUCTION

Chapters 1-2
Dialogue between Gd and Satan
Chapter 3
Iyov suffers, (1,2) and comes to curse his own birth
Chapters 4-14
First round of debates: Eliphaz, Iyov, Bildad, Iyov, Tzofar, Iyov
Chapters 15-21
Second round of debates: Eliphaz, Iyov, Bildad, Iyov, Tzofar, Iyov
Chapters 22-26
Third round of debates: Eliphaz, Iyov, Bildad, Iyov
Chapters 27-31
Iyov re-states his case
Chapters 32-37
Elihu's argument (2,3,4,4b)
Chapters 38-41
Gd addresses Iyov
Chapter 42
Iyov responds, and Epilogue
1-3 are prose, narrative. 4-41 are poetry, building חוליה על חוליה as per source 4 below, and 42 is the story again.

The book of Iyov deals not only with the question of theodicy - why do good people suffer, or more generally, why does our experience of the world not seem to fit our own sense of justice - but also (perhaps more so) the question of human motivation: Why do people do good things? It begins with the Satan's accusation that Iyov - and perhaps, implicitly, all of mankind - serves Gd because Gd is good to him. Gd agrees to test this, and Iyov, though initially loyal, appears to fail as Satan pushes harder. As Iyov's rather callous friends attempt to convince him of his own need for repentance and the ultimate goodness of Gd, he lashes out at them, the world, and Gd.

See also a more detailed overview below
Iyov challenges Gd. Is there room for this in Judaism? 2. Talmud, Berachot 31b-32a ואמר רבי אלעזר: חנה הטיחה דברים כלפי מעלה, שנאמר: ותתפלל על ד' - מלמד, שהטיחה דברים כלפי מעלה. ואמר רבי אלעזר אליהו הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה שנאמר +מלכים א' י"ח+ ואתה הסבת את לבם אחרנית. אמר רבי שמואל בר רבי יצחק מנין שחזר הקב"ה והודה לו לאליהו דכתיב +מיכה ד'+ ואשר הרעתי... ואמר רבי אלעזר משה הטיח דברים כלפי מעלה שנאמר ויתפלל משה אל ד' אל תקרי אל ד' אלא על ד'... דבי רבי ינאי אמרי מהכא ודי זהב מאי ודי זהב אמרי דבי רבי ינאי כך אמר משה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע בשביל כסף וזהב שהשפעת להם לישראל עד שאמרו די הוא גרם שעשו את העגל And Rabbi Elazar said: Chanah launched words heavenward, as Shemuel I 1:10 says, "And she prayed upon Gd" – this teaches that she launched words heavenward. And Rabbi Elazar said: Eliyahu launched words heavenward, as Melachim I 18:37 says, "You turned their hearts back." Rabbi Shemuel bar R' Yitzchak said: How do we know that Gd acknowledged this to Eliyahu? Michah 4:6 says, "[I will gather in] those whom I made ra."… And Rabbi Elazar said: Moshe launched words heavenward, as Bamidbar 11:2 says, "And Moshe prayed to Gd" – read it not as "to Gd" but as "upon Gd." Rabbi Yannai's yeshiva taught it from Devarim 1:1, "ודי זהב " – Moshe said before Gd, "Master of the universe! The silver and gold You flowed upon the Jews until they said די [enough] is what caused them to create the calf!" Indeed, Chana is described as challenging Gd in her tefilla. Moshe objected to Gd's plan to destroy the Jews. Avraham objects to the impending destruction of Sdom. 3.Talmud Yerushalmi, Berachot 7:3 ...דניאל אמר [דניאל ט ד] "הא--ל הגדול והנורא" ולא אמר "הגבור" - בניו מסורין בקולרין, היכן היא גבורתו?... ובשר ודם יש בו כח ליתן קצבה לדברים הללו?! אמר ר' יצחק בן אלעזר יודעין הן הנביאים שאלוקן אמיתי ואינן מחניפין לו: …Daniel said "The powerful, the great, the awesome," but he did not say, "the mighty." His children are in chains, where is His might?... But is flesh and blood empowered to make such decisions?! Rabbi Yitzchak ben Elazar said: His prophets know that their Gd is a Gd of truth, and so they do not flatter Him. Daniel refused to call Gd גבור. This is a very forward declaration.

Evidently the Anshei Kneset haGdola felt this book is sufficiently Jewish to be part of Tanach. Shir haShirim, Mishlei and Kohelet almost didn't make it into tanach, and there's a discussion about this. 4. Amos Chacham, Daat Mikra to Iyov pg.9 - the story is built on by the intervening poetic conversations. סיפור המעשה אינו נפסק עם תחילת תלונת איוב, אלא נמשך והולך בכל הספר. כל מענה ומענה הוא חוליה נוספת בסיפור המעשה... סיפור המעשה והשיחות (מענות) משלימים זה את זה וצריכים זה לזה. לא נבין את דברי השיחות אם לא נקרא תחילה את סיפור המעשה שבראש הספר. והמעשה עצמו לא יהא שלם ואף לא מובן, אם נדלג על המענות ונעבור מן הסיפור שבפתיחה אל הסיפור שבסיום. ואף בתוך הסיפור הבא בפתיחה ובסיום כלולות שיחות, שהן עיקר להבנת מהלך הרעיונות שבספר... The narrative does not stop with the start of Iyov's complaint; rather, it continues throughout the book. Each presentation is another layer in the narrative… The narrative and the conversations (presentations) complete each other and need each other. We would not understand the conversations unless we would first read the narrative at the start of the book. And the story itself would be neither complete nor comprehensible if we would skip the presentations and pass from the story at the start to the story at the end. And even the story at the start and the story at the end include conversations, which are essential to understanding the flow of ideas in the book…

Who was Iyov?

Did he even exist?
Possible answers per src 6, below: Iyov is mentioned in Yechezkel, along with Noach and Dan[i]el, as one who is righteous; in the Gemara as one of Pharaoh's advisors; and by Pesikta Rabti, which uses him as a mashal to the suffering of Israel. Rambam seems to think his non-existence is a strong view. Question to email Rabbi Torcz: Is that the same Rabbi Elazar holding two different opinions? [Presumably not, actually, because that one's speaking Aramaic and the other, Hebrew.] 5. Talmud, Sanhedrin 106a - שלשה היו באותה עצה, אלו הן: בלעם איוב ויתרו.
שלשה היו באותה עצה, אלו הן: בלעם איוב ויתרו. בלעם שיעץ נהרג, איוב ששתק נידון ביסורין, ויתרו שברח זכו בני בניו...
Three were in the plot [to throw baby boys into the river in Egypt]: Bilam, Iyov and Yitro. Bilam counseled it and was killed. Iyov was silent and was punished with suffering. Yitro fled, and his children merited…
All three of these people mentioned as advisors to Pharaoh are associated with the word עצה.
Bilam offers advice to Balak, saying לְכָה, אִיעָצְךָ. Yisro offers eitza to Moshe regarding how to judge the people, and Iyov has this word eitza as well; we'll see it later in the sefer.
Reminds me of Natan haNavi too. 6. Talmud, Bava Batra 15a-b - Who was Iyov?"משה כתב ספרו ופרשת בלעם ואיוב." מסייעא ליה לר' לוי בר לחמא, דא"ר לוי בר לחמא: איוב בימי משה היה, כתיב הכא: "מי יתן אפוא ויכתבון מלי," וכתיב התם: "ובמה יודע אפוא."
ואימא בימי יצחק, דכתיב מי אפוא הוא הצד ציד! ואימא בימי יעקב, דכתיב "אם כן אפוא זאת עשו!" ואימא בימי יוסף, דכתיב "איפה הם רועים!"
לא ס"ד, דכתיב "מי יתן בספר ויוחקו," ומשה הוא דאיקרי מחוקק, דכתיב "וירא ראשית לו כי שם חלקת מחוקק ספון."
"Moshe wrote his book, the passage of Bilam and Iyov." This supports Rabbi Levi bar Lachma's statement: Iyov was in Moshe's time. Iyov 19:23 uses the word אפו and in Shemot 33:16 Moshe used the word אפוא . But then he could have been in Yitzchak's time (Bereishit 27:33) or Yaakov's time (Bereishit 43:11) or Yosef's time (Bereishit 37:16)! Don't think that; Iyov 19:23 also uses the term יוחקו, and Moshe was called מחוקק, as in Devarim 33:21.

He must have been at Moshe's time, because of the use of the word אפוא - but this word is used elsewhere. Rather, it is the word חוקק in this pasuk that is distinct. רבא אמר איוב בימי מרגלים היה, כתיב הכא "איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו," וכתיב התם, "היש בה עץ." מי דמי? הכא עוץ, התם עץ! הכי קאמר להו משה לישראל: ישנו לאותו אדם, ששנותיו ארוכות כעץ ומגין על דורו כעץ. Rava said Iyov was in the Spies' time; Iyov 1:1 says, "There was a man in the land of עוץ , and his name was Iyov," and Bamidbar 13:20 says, "Is there an עץ ." But are they similar? One is עוץ , the other is עץ ! True; Moshe was saying to the Jews, "There is a man whose years are as long as a tree's span, and who protects his generation like a tree." Did Iyov even exist?
יתיב ההוא מרבנן קמיה דר' שמואל בר נחמני, ויתיב וקאמר איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה. א"ל, עליך אמר קרא, "איש היה בארץ עוץ איוב שמו."
אלא מעתה, "ולרש אין כל כי אם כבשה אחת קטנה אשר קנה ויחיה וגו'," מי הוה? אלא משל בעלמא, הכא נמי משל בעלמא.
א"כ, שמו ושם עירו למה?
A sage before Rabbi Shemuel bar Nachmani said: Iyov did not exist and was not created; he was a parable.
Rabbi Shemuel bar Nachmeni said: To you it says, "There was a man in the land of Utz, and his name was Iyov!"
But then Shemuel II 12:3, "The pauper had naught but one small lamb he had bought, and he nurtured her, etc." – was there such a person? He was a parable, and so too here!
But then why tell his name and city?
רבי יוחנן ורבי אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו, איוב מעולי גולה היה, ובית מדרשו בטבריא היה.
מיתיבי, "ימי שנותיו של איוב משעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד שיצאו!" אימא כמשעה שנכנסו ישראל למצרים ועד שעה שיצאו. The idea that he lived in the time of the Babylonian exile fits very well with things we'll see later in the sefer.
Rabbi Yochanan and Rabbi Elazar said: Iyov was among those who ascended from the [Babylonian] Diaspora, and his study hall was in Tiberias.
But we have learned, "Iyov's years were from the time Israel entered Egypt until they left!" It means "like from the time they left Egypt until they left."

מיתיבי, "שבעה נביאים נתנבאו לאומות העולם, ואלו הן: בלעם ואביו, ואיוב, אליפז התימני, ובלדד השוחי, וצופר הנעמתי, ואליהוא בן ברכאל הבוזי!" וליטעמיך, אליהוא בן ברכאל לאו מישראל הוה? והא כתי' ממשפחת רם! אלא אינבוי אינבי לאומות העולם, ה"נ איוב אינבוי אינבי לאומות העולם. אטו כולהו נביאי מי לא אינבוי לאומות העולם? התם עיקר נביאותייהו לישראל, הכא עיקר נביאותייהו לאומות העולם.
מיתיבי, "חסיד היה באומות העולם ואיוב שמו, ולא בא לעולם אלא כדי לקבל שכרו, הביא הקב"ה עליו יסורין התחיל מחרף ומגדף, כפל לו הקב"ה שכרו בעוה"ז כדי לטרדו מן העולם הבא!"
But we have learned, "Seven prophets prophesied for the nations of the world: Bilam, his father, Iyov, Elifaz of Teman, Bildad of Shuchah, Tzofar of Naamah and Elihu ben Berachel haBuzi!" Well even according to you, wasn't Elihu Jewish? It says he was "from the Romm family"! Elihu [was Jewish, and he] prophesied for the nations, and the same is true for Iyov. But didn't all prophets prophesy for the nations of the world? Yes, but their main prophecy was for Israel; here, their main prophecy was for the nations.
But we have learned, "There was a pious non-Jew, his name was Iyov, and he entered the world only to be rewarded. Gd made him suffer and he began to blaspheme. Gd doubled his reward in this world, to chase him from the next!"
תנאי היא; דתניא:
"רבי אלעזר אומר: איוב בימי שפוט השופטים היה, שנאמר 'הן אתם כולכם חזיתם ולמה זה הבל תהבלו,' איזה דור שכולו הבל? הוי אומר זה דורו של שפוט השופטים.
This question [whether Iyov was Jewish] is the subject of a debate of the mishnaic sages, as we have learned:
"Rabbi Elazar said: Iyov was in the time of the Judges, as in Iyov 27:12, 'You have all seen; why do you speak hevel?' What generation was entirely hevel? This was the generation of the Judges.
רבי יהושע בן קרחה אומר: איוב בימי אחשורוש היה, שנאמר, 'ולא נמצא נשים יפות כבנות איוב בכל הארץ,' איזהו דור שנתבקשו בו נשים יפות? הוי אומר זה דורו של אחשורוש." ואימא בימי דוד, דכתיב "ויבקשו נערה יפה!" התם "בכל גבול ישראל", הכא "בכל הארץ." Rabbi Yehoshua ben Karcha said: Iyov was in the time of Achashverosh, as in Iyov 42:15, "No women as beautiful as Iyov's daughters was found in the entire land." In what generation did they seek beautiful women? The generation of Achashverosh." But perhaps this was Dovid's time, as in Melachim I 1:3, "And they sought a beautiful girl?" That was "in the entire boundary of Israel," here it was "in the entire land." "רבי נתן אומר: איוב בימי מלכות שבא היה, שנאמר, 'ותפל שבא ותקחם.'
וחכ"א איוב בימי כשדים היה, שנאמר: 'כשדים שמו שלשה ראשים.'
ויש אומרים איוב בימי יעקב היה ודינה בת יעקב נשא, כתיב הכא 'כדבר אחת הנבלות תדברי,' וכתיב התם: 'כי נבלה עשה בישראל.'"
"Rabbi Natan said: Iyov was in the time of the nation of Sheba, as in Iyov 1:15, 'And people of Sheba fell upon them and took them.'
And the Sages said: Iyov was in the time of the Chaldeans, as in Iyov 1:17, 'Chaldeans came in three branches.'
And some say Iyov was in Yaakov's time, and he married Dinah, daughter of Yaakov. Iyov 2:10 says, 'You speak like of the nevalot,' and Bereishit 34:7 said, 'A nevalah was done in Israel.'"
וכולהו תנאי סבירא להו דאיוב מישראל הוה, לבר מיש אומרים, דאי ס"ד מאומות העולם הוה, בתר דשכיב משה מי שריא שכינה על עובדי כוכבים? והא אמר מר: בקש משה שלא תשרה שכינה על עובדי כוכבים ונתן לו, שנאמר: 'ונפלינו אני ועמך'!All of those sages believed that Iyov was Jewish, other than the "some say" author, for if Iyov was not Jewish, was the Shechinah manifest upon idolaters after Moshe's death? Have we not learned, "Moshe requested that the Shechinah not be manifest upon idolaters, as in Shemot 33:16, 'And I and Your nation shall be set apart'!"
He's going to make very harsh declarations against Gd, claiming He's not in charge. Does somebody described as a tzadik (kinda ~Dlater) and a Jew (or not ~Dlater) get to say things like that and still be called righteous?
Rambam actually devotes a whole chapter to Iyov. 7. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:22 ענין איוב הנפלא הוא מכת מה שאנחנו בו, ר"ל שהוא משל לבאר דיעות בני אדם בהשגחה, וכבר ידעת באורם ומאמר קצתם "איוב לא היה ולא נברא אלא משל היה," ואשר חשבו שהיה ונברא ושהוא ענין שאירע, לא ידעו לו לא זמן ולא מקום... וזה ממה שיחזק מאמר מי שאמר לא היה ולא נברא...
The incredible matter of Iyov is of the type we have been discussing, a parable to explain human views regarding Divine supervision. You already know their explanation, and how some have said, "Iyov did not exist and was not created; he was a parable," and how those who thought he existed and was created and his story is about a real event knew neither his time nor his location… This strengthens the view that he did exist and was not created…
So Iyov may have existed and this may be his story, or he may have never existed at all, but there is a third possibility: Perhaps Iyov existed and was known at the time this was written, and the author of this book decided to map his story to this known historical figure - rather like the Kuzari.
< / firstclass >

Saying it's a parable to a certain extent almost begs us to trivialise the book - but we dare not do that. The fact that it's canonized as part of tanach the Anshei Knesset haGdola thought it was important enough to include it in Tanach, alongside Tehillim, Esther, Ezra, Nechemia, Divrei haYamim... These are not minor works, not things we can simply dismiss, and so we can't dismiss Iyov either. Whatever we define Torah/Judaism/whatever as, this is in it.
There are three figures invoked by Yechezkel: Noach, Daniel [spelled without the yud] and Iyov. 1. Ezekiel 14:12-23 יב וַיְהִי דְבַר-יְהוָה, אֵלַי לֵאמֹר.
יג בֶּן-אָדָם, אֶרֶץ כִּי תֶחֱטָא-לִי לִמְעָל-מַעַל, וְנָטִיתִי יָדִי עָלֶיהָ, וְשָׁבַרְתִּי לָהּ מַטֵּה-לָחֶם; וְהִשְׁלַחְתִּי-בָהּ רָעָב, וְהִכְרַתִּי מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה.
יד וְהָיוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה, בְּתוֹכָהּ--נֹחַ, דנאל (דָּנִיֵּאל) וְאִיּוֹב: הֵמָּה בְצִדְקָתָם יְנַצְּלוּ נַפְשָׁם, נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה. This isn't our Daniel; it's someone else, known from some ancient inscriptions, and he's not Jewish. Nor is Noach, and so probably not Iyov.
טו לוּ-חַיָּה רָעָה אַעֲבִיר בָּאָרֶץ, וְשִׁכְּלָתָּה; וְהָיְתָה שְׁמָמָה מִבְּלִי עוֹבֵר, מִפְּנֵי הַחַיָּה.
טז שְׁלֹשֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה, בְּתוֹכָהּ--חַי-אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה, אִם-בָּנִים וְאִם-בָּנוֹת יַצִּילוּ: הֵמָּה לְבַדָּם יִנָּצֵלוּ, וְהָאָרֶץ תִּהְיֶה שְׁמָמָה.
יז אוֹ חֶרֶב אָבִיא, עַל-הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא; וְאָמַרְתִּי, חֶרֶב תַּעֲבֹר בָּאָרֶץ, וְהִכְרַתִּי מִמֶּנָּה, אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה.
יח וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת הָאֲנָשִׁים הָאֵלֶּה, בְּתוֹכָהּ--חַי-אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה, לֹא יַצִּילוּ בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת: כִּי הֵם לְבַדָּם, יִנָּצֵלוּ.
יט אוֹ דֶּבֶר אֲשַׁלַּח, אֶל-הָאָרֶץ הַהִיא; וְשָׁפַכְתִּי חֲמָתִי עָלֶיהָ בְּדָם, לְהַכְרִית מִמֶּנָּה אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה.
כ וְנֹחַ דנאל (דָּנִיֵּאל) וְאִיּוֹב, בְּתוֹכָהּ--חַי-אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה, אִם-בֵּן אִם-בַּת יַצִּילוּ: הֵמָּה בְצִדְקָתָם, יַצִּילוּ נַפְשָׁם. {פ}
כא כִּי כֹה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה, אַף כִּי-אַרְבַּעַת שְׁפָטַי הָרָעִים חֶרֶב וְרָעָב וְחַיָּה רָעָה וָדֶבֶר, שִׁלַּחְתִּי, אֶל-יְרוּשָׁלִָם--לְהַכְרִית מִמֶּנָּה, אָדָם וּבְהֵמָה.
כב וְהִנֵּה נוֹתְרָה-בָּהּ פְּלֵטָה, הַמּוּצָאִים בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת--הִנָּם יוֹצְאִים אֲלֵיכֶם, וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת-דַּרְכָּם וְאֶת-עֲלִילוֹתָם; וְנִחַמְתֶּם, עַל-הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר הֵבֵאתִי עַל-יְרוּשָׁלִַם--אֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר הֵבֵאתִי, עָלֶיהָ.
כג וְנִחֲמוּ אֶתְכֶם, כִּי-תִרְאוּ אֶת-דַּרְכָּם וְאֶת-עֲלִילוֹתָם; וִידַעְתֶּם, כִּי לֹא חִנָּם עָשִׂיתִי אֵת כָּל-אֲשֶׁר-עָשִׂיתִי בָהּ--נְאֻם, אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה. {פ}
12 And the word of the LORD came unto me, saying:
13 'Son of man, when a land sinneth against Me by trespassing grievously, and I stretch out My hand upon it, and break the staff of the bread thereof, and send famine upon it, and cut off from it man and beast;
14 though these three men, Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, they should deliver but their own souls by their righteousness, saith the Lord GOD.
15 If I cause evil beasts to pass through the land, and they bereave it, and it be desolate, so that no man may pass through because of the beasts;
16 though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters; they only shall be delivered, but the land shall be desolate.
17 Or if I bring a sword upon that land, and say: Let the sword go through the land, so that I cut off from it man and beast;
18 though these three men were in it, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, they shall deliver neither sons nor daughters, but they only shall be delivered themselves.
19 Or if I send a pestilence into that land, and pour out My fury upon it in blood, to cut off from it man and beast;
20 though Noah, Daniel, and Job, were in it, as I live, saith the Lord GOD, they shall deliver neither son nor daughter; they shall but deliver their own souls by their righteousness. {P}
21 For thus saith the Lord GOD: How much more when I send My four sore judgments against Jerusalem, the sword, and the famine, and the evil beasts, and the pestilence, to cut off from it man and beast.
22 And, behold, though there be left a remnant therein that shall be brought forth, both sons and daughters; behold, when they come forth unto you, and ye see their way and their doings, then ye shall be comforted concerning the evil that I have brought upon Jerusalem, even concerning all that I have brought upon it;
23 and they shall comfort you, when ye see their way and their doings, and ye shall know that I have not done without cause all that I have done in it, saith the Lord GOD.' {P}
"If you look at the way it's written, it's written without the yud. This is a figure by the name of "Danel". We know who Danel is, because in ancient near-east inscriptions there are stories of a fellow who was not Jewish but who was known for his righteousness and his name is Danel." They're not Jewish and they're righteous.
@RabbiTorcz: Is that something you usually do with kri and ketiv? What evidence do you have that it's referring to that inscriptions-Danel specifically? Is this really strong enough to extrapolate from it, as you did in the shiur, that Iyov is not Jewish? (It also seems as though the fact that it's describing a dramatic being-saved would point to our Daniel as well.) Noach was saved, Daniel was saved, and you said that Iyov was the lone survivor of his family when his sons and daughters died. What makes us think this is that specific Danel? I suppose the fact that he's spoken about as if he is "known". Is there some good reason to ignore the kri?
that part of Yechekel is an early nevuah of his, from the end of the second (prob. first. ~D) Beis haMikdash. At that time, our Daniel would have been a very young child; he was a youth when he was captured by the Babylonians at the end of the second (also prob. first. ~D) Beis haMikdash, and he certainly was not known as a righteous leader. So I find it difficult to think that Yechezkel could have been referring to him. Add in the fact that Yechezkel also mentions Noach and Iyov, and Noach is clearly not Jewish and there is reason to argue that Iyov is not Jewish as well, and identifying Danel with the non-Jewish Danel has a logical argument.

2. "Mashal" Devarim 28:37; Samuel I 24:13; Kings I 5:12 3. Rabbi Eliezer Berkovits, What is Jewish Philosophy? Pp. 126-127
Modern science began when the human intellect finally realized that it could not ignore what Galileo called "irreducible and stubborn facts", and that, on the contrary, its task was to seek to understand and to interpret them… The Jew who does not acknowledge the "irreducible and stubborn facts" of Judaism remains a Jew, of course, and he may even be a thinking Jew; but he is not a Jewish thinker.

Is Iyov supposed to be Jewish?

Yes
Canonization - most Tanach heroes are Jewish. (Not all - see Ruth, Yisro etc - but most.)
The Jewish Experience - that mirroring seen above (national suffering compared to Iyov's personal suffering
No
Yechezkel grouping him with Yisro and - ?Danel.
Minimal mention of the Next World - Though the idea of life after death is found elsewhere in Tanach (see late-daniel, where the dead rise again), we don't see it here (possible mention in ch.19; arguable). If he wasn't Jewish, that's not something he'd be thinking about. Neviim leave out much of what we consider basic jewish life - but in Iyov there's really none. It fits a story of somebody who is not Jewish.
Language - it's exotic language; other Semitic languages are drawn in.
The problem of good people suffering is a global issue - not particularly a Jewish problem, but a human problem.
R'Torcz actually looked for parallel stories in other cultures but didn't find any. But he did look. and found a possible Sumerian analogue [no online link]:
as the ancient author himself describes it, is an edifying poetic essay composed, no doubt, for the purpose of prescribing the proper attitude and conduct for a victim of cruel and seemingly undeserved misfortune, The Sumerians, like all peoples throughout the ages, were troubled by the problem of human suffering, particularly relative to its rather enigmatic causes and potential remedies. Their teachers and sages believed and taught the doctrine that man's misfortunes were the result of his sins and misdeeds. They were convinced, moreover, that no man is without guilt; as our Sumerian poet-theologian puts it: "Never was a sinless child born to its mother." In spite of surface appearances to the contrary, therefore, there are no cases of unjust and undeserved human suffering; it is always man who is to blame, not the gods. But the truth of such theological premises and conclusions is by no means readily apparent, and in moments of adversity, more than one sufferer must have been tempted to challenge the fairness and justice of the gods, and to blaspheme against them. It may well be that it was in an effort to forestall such resentment against the gods and to ward off potential disillusionment with the divine order, that one of the sages of the Sumerian academy, the edubba, composed this instructive essay. (More on this later; it will be suggested that Iyov is meant to specifically reject the message of this Sumerian text. More details on its actual contents below as well.)
5. Midrash, Pesikta Rabti 26 אמר ירמיהו כשהייתי עולה לירושלים נטלתי עיני וראיתי אשה אחת יושבת בראש ההר... אמר לה ירמיה דומה מכתך למכתו של איוב, מאיוב נטלו בניו ובנותיו, וממך נטלו בנייך ובנותייך, מאיוב נטלתי כספו וזהבו, וממך נטלתי כספך וזהבך, לאיוב השלכתי לתוך האשפה, וליך עשיתי אשפה של זבל, וכשם שחזרתי ונחמתי את איוב כך אני עתיד לחזור ולנחמך, לאיוב כפלתי בניו ובנותיו וליך אני עתיד לכפול בנייך ובנותייך, לאיוב כפלתי כספו וזהבו וליך אני עתיד לעשות כן, לאיוב נערתי מן אשפה ועליך הוא אומר התנערי מעפר קומי שבי ירושלים (ישעיה נ"ב ב')... Yirmiyahu said: When I ascended to Jerusalem I lifted my eyes and saw a woman seated atop the mountain… Yirmiyah said to her: Your blows resemble the blows of Iyov. Iyov's sons and daughters were taken from him, and your sons and daughters were taken from you. I took Iyov's silver and gold, and I took your silver and gold. I cast Iyov into the heap, and I made you a heap of manure. And just as I returned and comforted Iyov, so I will return and comfort you. I doubled Iyov's sons and daughters, and I will double your sons and daughters. I doubled Iyov's silver and gold, and I will do so for you. I moved Iyov from the heap, and regarding you (in Yeshayah 52:2) it says, "Shake yourself from the dust, arise, return to Jerusalem"… Midrashic parallel between suffering of the Jewish nation and Iyov's personal suffering.

According to Amos Chacham of the Daat Mikra edition, the language of the book seems to fit the period of the Avot. There's a lot of language that only appears in those early times and here in Iyov; the word ksita, for instance, appears only in the Yaakov's buying of Shechem and here. There is an attempt to date it to then.

When is the story written down?

End of the First Temple.
Personal focus: Once the Jews were exiled from the land, the focus would have shifted from the suffering of an individual to the suffering of the nation at large; the poverty and disease and uprooting of a nation by the Babylonians. When something real is going on, the smaller troubles are no longer interesting to the public.
Non-Jewish hero: This would not be a time to hold up someone from outside the nation as an example.
(Olam HaTanach series.)
Between Temples.
Iyov was a known figure, mentioned in Yechezkel (? must checkdate on Yechezkel)
Mirroring Jewish suffering (src 5, above; Psikta Rabti uses Iyov as a mashal).
A time of spiritual crisis re: the suffering Gd allows in this world.
(Amos Chacham of the Daat Mikra edition.)
Early Second Temple (when the Great Assembly exists)
We'll see a dialogue between Gd and Satan. Zecharia also has such a conversation - we don't really see that earlier in Tanach
Caravans from Tema and Sheba in Ch.6 also fits that time
Describes inscribing something with an iron pen on stone, called Behistun, which we also see with King Daryavesh.
Language has a lot of Aramaic influence, hebrew used in grammatical ways not seen in other parts of tanach. May be a literary device - foreign-sounding words and structures to make it sound like not a specifically Jewish work.
It's interesting which kinds of evidence are considered valid. (Only Gemara, only Jewish sources, also history, primarily history...) Unfortunately / ironically, I'm not any better equipped to make judgements based on "It has echoes you won't hear of Semitic languages you don't know that other people recognize as associated with a given culture or time period" than "a rabbi you've never heard of who is important for reasons you don't know has stated with an unknown amount of authority that it took place at a given time." I wonder why the sages of the gemara didn't note these Aramaic echoes (considering it's their native tongue) and use them as a hint to determine when it took place. See also Rabbi Torczyner's defense of his use of external (non-Jewish) sources below.

Everything is conjecture here; we have very little information. (See also Ibn Ezra's view, later. He suggests that Iyov is translated, but doesn't give a source or explanation for his reasoning.)


Another interesting thought:
In some ways, Tehillim is the mirror image of Iyov. They're both asking the same question.
Tehillim is full of "I am suffering. keli, keli, lamah azavtani?"
But the answer is the opposite. Tehillim answers: Gd will help me, Gd will save me.
In Iyov, the answer is to ... give up on Gd, effectively. Not that I've read it yet, and that's my own phrasing. We'll see. He says that Gd put the constellations in charge and is not listening.

(Compare also, fifty-odd classes later, the parallels between Iyov and Shir haShirim.)

Overview of Jewish viewpoints on theodicy:

Do we see justice in this world? Why does Gd allow good people to suffer? 7. The biblical conflict
  • Bereishit 9:6 "שֹׁפֵךְ דַּם הָאָדָם, בָּאָדָם דָּמוֹ יִשָּׁפֵךְ" - direct justice. (We seem to be taking this as Divinely-ordained, not man-executed, punishment.)
  • Devarim 11:13-17 וְהָיָה, אִם-שָׁמֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶל-מִצְו‍ֹתַי... וְנָתַתִּי מְטַר-אַרְצְכֶם בְּעִתּוֹ, ... (Gd's promises to reward us for serving Him) vs.
  • Bereishit 18 Avraham's argument: וַיִּפְנוּ מִשָּׁם הָאֲנָשִׁים, וַיֵּלְכוּ סְדֹמָה;... וַיִּגַּשׁ אַבְרָהָם, וַיֹּאמַר: הַאַף תִּסְפֶּה, צַדִּיק עִם-רָשָׁע.? Will you destroy the righteous amongst the wicked? And if there are less than ten, indeed they're going down.
  • Yonah, which he describes as essentially a polemic against people who do bad things but don't suffer for it. Yonah is tired of this mercy Hashem keeps showing (though the ultimate fate of the people of Ninveh comes up in Sefer Nechemya, and it doesn't sound from the tone of voice like it's good, though I haven't learned it).
  • Iyov itself talks about a righteous man suffering.
  • Also Yaakov, who suffers terribly for his whole life despite apparently doing everything Gd tells him to do.
Four possible perspectives: 8. Vayikra 26:40-42 9. Talmud, Berachot 5a Implication that man's deeds are the cause of his suffering
אם רואה אדם שיסורין באין עליו, יפשפש במעשיו, שנא' "נחפשה דרכינו ונחקורה ונשובה עד ד'." פשפש ולא מצא, יתלה בבטול תורה, שנא' "אשרי הגבר אשר תיסרנו י-ה ומתורתך תלמדנו." ואם תלה ולא מצא, בידוע שיסורין של אהבה הם, שנא' "כי את אשר יאהב ד' יוכיח."
One who sees that he is suffering should examine his deeds, as in Lamentations 3:40, "Let us examine our path and seek and return to Gd." If he finds nothing wrong then he should pin it on having wasted time from Torah study, as in Psalms 94:12, "Fortunate is the man who Gd will rebuke, and from His Torah He will teach him." If he finds that he has not sinned in that area either, then he should assume that these are sufferings of love, as in Proverbs 3:12, "For He rebukes the one He loves."
10. Talmud, Chullin 142a The reward for a mitzvah is not in this world. 11. Devarim 8:2 וְזָכַרְתָּ אֶת-כָּל-הַדֶּרֶךְ, אֲשֶׁר הוֹלִיכְךָ ה' אלקיך זֶה אַרְבָּעִים שָׁנָה--בַּמִּדְבָּר: לְמַעַן עַנֹּתְךָ לְנַסֹּתְךָ, לָדַעַת אֶת-אֲשֶׁר בִּלְבָבְךָ הֲתִשְׁמֹר מִצְו‍ֹתָו--אִם-לֹא. 12. Shemot 20:4 לֹא-תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם, וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם: כִּי אָנֹכִי ה' אלקיך , אֵל קַנָּא--פֹּקֵד עֲו‍ֹן אָבֹת עַל-בָּנִים עַל-שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל-רִבֵּעִים, לְשֹׂנְאָי. 13. Talmud, Berachot 7a כתיב "פקד עון אבות על בנים", וכתיב "ובנים לא יומתו על אבות"... לא קשיא, הא כשאוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם, הא כשאין אוחזין מעשה אבותיהם בידיהם Shemot 34:7 says, "He brings the sin of fathers upon sons," and Devarim 24:16 says, "Sons will not be killed for their fathers!... This is not a problem - one is where they embrace the deeds of their ancestors in their hands, and one is where they do not embrace the deeds of their ancestors in their hands. 14. Talmud, Sanhedrin 43b "הנסתרת לד' אלקינו והנגלת לנו ולבנינו עד עולם." למה נקוד על "לנו ולבנינו" ועל עי"ן שב"עד"? מלמד שלא ענש על הנסתרות עד שעברו ישראל את הירדן, דברי רבי יהודה. אמר ליה רבי נחמיה... כשם שלא ענש על הנסתרות, כך לא ענש על עונשין שבגלוי עד שעברו ישראל את הירדן. Devarim 29:28 says, "That which is secret is for HaShem our Gd, and that which is revealed is for us and for our descendants, eternally, to fulfill all of the words of this Torah." Why are dots placed atop "for us and our descendants eternally" and the ע in עד ? To teach that Gd did not punish the Jews for secret sins until they crossed the Jordan, according to Rabbi Yehudah. Rabbi Nechemiah replied… It teaches that just as Gd did not punish for secret sins until then, so He did not punish for public sins until they crossed the Jordan River. 15. Talmud, Shabbat 55a אמרה מדת הדין לפני הקב"ה: רבונו של עולם, מה נשתנו אלו מאלו? אמר לה: הללו צדיקים גמורים, והללו רשעים גמורים. The trait of Justice said before Gd: Master of the Universe, what is the difference between these and those?
Gd responded: These are completely righteous, those are completely wicked!
אמרה לפניו: רבונו של עולם, היה בידם למחות ולא מיחו! It said: Master of the Universe, they ought to have protested, and they did not do so! אמר לה: גלוי וידוע לפני, שאם מיחו בהם - לא יקבלו מהם.
אמרה לפניו: רבונו של עולם, אם לפניך גלוי - להם מי גלוי?
Gd responded: I know clearly that had they protested, the people would not have accepted it from them.
It said: Master of the Universe, if to You it is clear, to them is it clear?
16. Proverbs 22:5 17. Talmud, Chullin 142a
האמר רבי אלעזר: שלוחי מצוה אינן נזוקים, לא בהליכתן ולא בחזרתן! סולם רעוע הוה, ומקום דקבוע היזקא שאני, דכתיב: ויאמר שמואל איך אלך ושמע שאול והרגני.
But didn't Rabbi Elazar say, "A person performing a mitzvah will not be harmed, whether en route or on the way back!" Yes, but the ladder was rotten, and a situation involving expected harm is different. It is like Samuel I 16:2, "And Samuel said: How could I go? Saul will hear and kill me!"
18. Rabbi Naftali Tzvi Yehudah Berlin, Emek haNetziv, Sifri Naso 42 הרעה שעשה לעצמו עושה את שלה, והטוב עושה את שלה... כך עלה במחשבתו יתברך ביצירת העולם, ש"ישלט האדם באדם לרע לו" (קהלת ח:ט), או צבא ל"אדם עלי ארץ" (איוב כ:ד) במזלו הרע. The evil a person commits generates its own evil, and the good generates its own good… This is what Gd desired when He created the world, that "one human being could affect another, even to harm him", and even for a force to " a person on earth" because of his bad mazal. 19. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:51 הסבה בהיות איש מבני אדם מופקר למקרה ויהיה מזומן ליאכל כבהמות, הוא היותו נבדל מד', אבל מי שאלקיו בקרבו לא יגע בו רע כל עיקר. אמר הש"י "אל תירא כי [עמך] אני, ואל תשתע כי אני אלקיך. (ישעיה מא:י)." The cause for a person being left openly vulnerable to happenstance and given over as prey, like an animal, is his hiddenness from Gd. If Gd were in his midst then he could not be touched by evil at all. Gd said, "Do not fear, for I am with you; do not stray, for I am your Gd."
< /secondclass >


The Message of the Book of Job 1. Simon N. Kramer, Sumerian Wisdom Text: A Sumerian Variation of the "Job" Motif Structurally speaking, our poetic tract may be tentatively divided into five sections. First comes a brief introductory exhortation that man should praise and exalt his god and soothe him with lamentations. The poet then introduces the unnamed individual who, upon being smitten with sickness and misfortune, addresses his god with tears and prayers. There follows the sufferer's petition which constitutes the major part of the poem. It begins with a description of the ill treatment accorded him by his fellow men, friend and foe alike; continues with a lament against his bitter fate, including a rhetorical request to his kin and to the professional singers to do likewise; and concludes with a confession of guilt and a direct plea for relief and deliverance. Finally comes the "happy ending," in which the poet informs us that the man's prayer did not go unheeded, and that his god accepted the entreaties and delivered him from his afflictions. All this leads, of course, to a further glorification of his god. The fellow who is suffering turns to god for help and is answered. Iyov doesn't. What you're seeing in this Sumerian work reflects a simplistic approach: You should always praise your god, here it worked for this guy, the end. In Iyov there is no apparent connection between his actions and his suffering.
The complexity of this book and the challenge of seeing somebody suffering, and the rejection of the moralizers who try to preach to him, all lead to a different message than that of the Sumerian poem.
Actually, R'Torcz thinks it's entirely possible that Iyov is included in Tanach as a response to that Sumerian work - that Jews think suffering and the events of this world are complex and aren't supposed to give in to that view. (in the same way that we reject animal-worship by sacrificing specifically what they idolize, etc) It's also kind of a response-contrast to tehillim.
1:1-5 Let's meet Job
א אִישׁ הָיָה בְאֶרֶץ־עוּץ, אִיּוֹב שְׁמוֹ; וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא תָּם וְיָשָׁר וִירֵ֥א אֱלֹהִ֖ים וְסָר מֵרָע. There was a man in the Land of Utz; his name was Job. And that man was תם [we'll render this 'complete' or 'perfect'. תם also means simple, but in the context of these other praises (ישר, יראי אלקים, סר מרע) it sounds like a praise, so probably complete, not simple.] and ישר [with other people] as well as Gd-fearing [with heaven], and avoided evil. ב וַיִּוָּלְדוּ לוֹ שִׁבְעָה בָנִים, וְשָׁלוֹשׁ בָּנוֹת.


ג וַיְהִי מִקְנֵהוּ שִׁבְעַת אַלְפֵי צֹאן, וּשְׁלֹשֶׁת אַלְפֵי גְמַלִּים, וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת צֶמֶד־בָּקָר, וַחֲמֵשׁ מֵאוֹת אֲתוֹנוֹת, וַעֲבֻדָּה רַבָּה מְאֹד; וַיְהִי הָאִישׁ הַהוּא גָּדוֹל מִכָּל־בְּנֵי־קֶדֶם.
He has seven sons and three daughters [from only one wife, as we'll see later in the story.] And he has 7000 sheep, 3000 camels [more expensive, so it makes sense that there are fewer], 500 pairs of oxen [yoked together, hence the count like that], 500 female donkeys, and a lot of slaves/fields, and he was greater than all the people of the east. ד וְהָלְכוּ בָנָיו וְעָשׂוּ מִשְׁתֶּה בֵּית אִישׁ יוֹמוֹ, וְשָׁלְחוּ וְקָרְאוּ לִשְׁלֹשֶׁת אחיתיהם [אַחְיוֹתֵיהֶם] לֶאֱכֹל וְלִשְׁתּוֹת עִמָּהֶם. And his sons would go make parties. Each would have a day when he would make a celebration, and they would send for their three sisters to join them, every day of the week. ה וַיְהִי כִּי הִקִּיפוּ יְמֵי הַמִּשְׁתֶּה, וַיִּשְׁלַח אִיּוֹב וַיְקַדְּשֵׁם, וְהִשְׁכִּים בַּבֹּקֶר וְהֶעֱלָה עֹלוֹת מִסְפַּר כֻּלָּם, כִּי אָמַר אִיּוֹב אוּלַי חָטְאוּ בָנַי וּבֵרֲכוּ אֱלֹהִים בִּלְבָבָם; כָּכָה יַעֲשֶׂה אִיּוֹב כָּל־הַיָּמִים. And it would be when they completed the circuit (הקיפו) of these days, [not just like הקפות but like תקופה] Iyov sent for them and prepared (?) them and he brought עולה offerings according to the number of his children - lest they blasphemed in their hearts while feasting.
And this is what Iyov would always do.

Note interesting numbers - everything totals ten. Completeness, and persuasion, sort of - the ten spies swayed the nation, ten tzadikim would have been enough to save Sdom... They're a complete group, and sufficient to be an influence on others. He is head and shoulders above the people around him, and his children have daily feasts.
Daat Mikra seems to think that Iyov himself was not involved in these parties - it's a sibling thing. Where's his wife? Are they literally partying all the time? Where are the daughters coming from? 2. Utz? Bereishit 10:23, 22:21, 36:28; Jeremiah 25:20; Lamentations 4:21 Utz seems to be an actual place: Firstborn son of Aram (East of Euphrates). Then, first son of Nachor (Avraham's relative, who's also living thereish). Then he's the firstborn son of Dishan of the family of Seir in the south. So we have two geographic references. Daat Mikra points out that it's always a firstborn son, but we don't know if that means anything. (But firstborn sons don't do well in Tanach.) Rashi thinks it's in Aram, Ibn Ezra think it's in Edom in the south. But we also think maybe this is all meant to be a parable - so every name has significance. Rambam is of that school. 3. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:22 ותחלת מה שתשתכל בו אמרו "איש היה בארץ עוץ", הביא שם משתתף והוא עוץ, שהוא שם איש "את עוץ בכורו", והוא צווי בעצה ובהנהגה "עצו עצה", וכאלו יאמר "לך השתכל בזאת העצה והתבונן בו והעלה בידך עניניו והבינם, וראה הדעות האמתיות מה הן." The beginning of that which you should examine is its statement, "There was a man in the land of Utz". It brought a name with multiple meanings, Utz, which is the name of a person – "his first-born, Utz" – as well as an instruction regarding counsel and behaviour, as in Isaiah 8:10, "Utzu etzah [take counsel]". It is as though the text said, "Go examine this counsel and contemplate it, and raise its issues in your hand and understand them, and see what the true ideas are." Utz - advice. It's an instruction to the reader. There was a man in the land from which you should be taking counsel. 4. Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra to Job 1:1 והאומר שהוא יובב בן זרח מבצרה שמא בחלום ראה זה כי אין לו על מה ישען לא על דברי הנביאים ולא על מה שהעתיקו חכמינו ז"ל. One who says this was Yovav ben Zerach of Batzrah perhaps saw this in a dream, for he has no support – not among the words of the prophets and not among the ideas recorded by our sages. Someone apparently associates Iyov with Yovav. ראב"ע disagrees. Yashar, Yirei Hashem, but it doesn't call him a tzadik. We don't see giving, or loving Gd - we don't see expressions of positivity so much as lack of negativity. Iyov reveres Gd; he fears Gd. We don't see him love Gd. His offerings were olah - all burnt. He got nothing out of them.

If we're going to assume every name has significance, note that איוב resembles אויב, enemy.

5. "And he sanctified them" Shemot 19:14; Vayikra 8:10
So what emerges from here is: The theme of blasphemy will be seen throughout the book. The question of whether a person can challenge Gd, and whether it's heretical to respond by wanting to call up Gd on charges, to say that He is dealing unjustly... If what Iyov says isn't blasphemy, what is? He will say that Gd doesn't run the world, that He's outsourced it to the constellations, that He allows good people to suffer miserably. But now, while everything is perfect, he brings offerings on a regular basis just in case his kids might have thought something wrong. He is anti-blasphemy; he is afraid of it. In one more chapter, his wife is going to say, "Blaspheme against Gd and die!" That's her advice, and he still won't do it! But when his suffering reaches the limits of his ability to endure, he himself is going to do this. This is a significant arc in the book. 6. Midrash, Psikta Zutrita Esther 2:5 רובם של צדיקים שמם קודם להזכרתם, כענין שנאמר ושמו מנוח (שופטים יג, ב), ושמו אלקנה (ש"א א, א), ושמו ישי (שם יז, יב), ושמו בועז (רות ב, א), אבל רוב הרשעים שמם באחרונה, כענין שנאמר נבל שמו (ש"א כה, כה), גלית שמו (שם יז, ד), שבע בן בכרי שמו (ש"ב כ, א), אבל יש צדיקים שכתוב בהם כזה העניין איוב שמו (איוב א, א), והוא צדיק: Most righteous people have the word "name" before they are mentioned, like "And his name was Manoach", "And his name was Elkanah", "And his name was Yishai", "And his name was Boaz". But most wicked people have the word "name" last, like "Naval was his name", "Goliath was his name", "Sheva ben Bichri was his name". However, some righteous people have this written for them, like "Job was his name" even though he was righteous. The midrash could have used this phrasing to justify Iyov's suffering - saying this is a clue that he isn't really righteous. But it doesn't. Don't take this opportunity to pick on Iyov, says the midrash. He was good.

The text tells us about Iyov's goodness, and immediately follows it with a description of all the good in his life. So far it follows the pattern of the Sumerian parallel morality - a simple (simplistic, maybe) world in which being good is immediately and visibly followed by blessing. The text will soon deviate from that.
What we're doing here is setting up the story. They should be fine, they should be clean. The offering he brings sets up the problem. 7. Key items
  • Job's adjectives
  • 10s?
  • Who are the easterners?
  • "Job was his name"
  • "And were born to him"
  • What role do Job's offerings play in this story?

In sum: Utz is a message, not just a placename. Iyov's righteous between people and Gd, in a do-no-harm way. He has great wealth and many children (a "complete" number), possibly as a result of his righteousness. (and the all get along) Concerned about blasphemy in their hearts, he brings offerings on their behalf. Theme of blasphemy. We already have all the ingredients for where this is going in terms of the problem of righteous people suffering.
< /thirdclass >


Who or What is Satan?

1. Rabbi Abraham ibn Ezra to Job 1:6 הגאון רב סעדיה אמר כי השטן בן אדם היה מקנא באיוב... ואמר כי המלאכים אין להם קנאה והנה שכח "ויתיצב מלאך ד' בדרך לשטן לו"... ולבאר סוד אלה הדברים לא יכילם ספר, והמבין סוד מערכות הצבאות והשתנות המעשים כפי השתנות התנועות ידע עיקר השטן. והכלל שהוא מלאך. Rav Saadia Gaon said that Satan was a person who was outraged by Job… he said that malachim do not experience outrage. He forgot Bamidbar 22:22, "And the malach of Gd stood in the path, to obstruct [l'satan] him."… To explain the secret of such matters would be beyond the scope of a book; one who understands the arrangements of the heavenly host and the changes in events based on the changes in [celestial] movements will know the essence of the Satan. The principle is that this is a malach. Saadiah Gaon takes the extreme rationalist position: Satan as a person, because malachim can't be outraged by anything, nor have opinions on matters. Malachim are anything Gd uses to carry out a task; they don't have this kind of independence. Ibn Ezra himself, though, believes a malach can be a satan. 2. Satan Bamidbar 22:22; Zecharyah 3:1-2; Divrei haYamim I 21:1 Satan vs. Bilam. Satan with Zecharia - Gd denounces him. The role of this Satan is to play the role of accusing yehoshua-kohen-gadol and via him the Jewish nation of sin. He's accusing someone of impiety. Satan stands up against David - tempts (entices) him to count the people, which he's not supposed to do. What do you make of one who obstructs, accuses and tempts? The Zohar associates it with the nachash. But what do you make of a being with so many jobs? What's the common denominator in these roles?
He's an agent of Gd - charged with carrying out the will of Gd. The Christians have made a very big deal out of someone who gets a cameo a couple times in Tanach. He's their answer to the theodicy problem: they think he's acting against Gd. 3. Rev. William James Caldwell, The Doctrine of Satan, The Biblical World 41:1 (1913) The Satan appears among the angels who form the council of heaven about the king on the throne. It is the duty of the Adversary to challenge and test the good. He is the enemy of sham and false pretensions. He reports for duty to the king and executes his will, and yet he is not a mere instrument; he is an intelligent servant who knows how to offer suggestions for a test-experiment, and he is jealous for the honor of Gd. There is no suggestion of a fallen angel filled with rebellion and hatred to Gd. Satan is a person more than functionally separate from Gd, but always under the divine will and powerless without the divine permission. He is a servant who knows how to disappear when his work is done. When Job's "friends" arrive there is no need for Satan. From a Jewish perspective, the Satan is an agent of Gd like any other agent. Some heal, some work miracles, and some call people out on their hypocrisy. 4. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a
אמר ר"ל: הוא שטן הוא יצר הרע הוא מלאך המות
Reish Lakish said: He is Satan, he is the yetzer hara, he is the malach of death.
Satan is an angelic being created by Gd and charged by Gd with finding fault in human beings.
Why does Gd create a being whose task is to give human beings pop quizzes? Why put a tree in the Garden of Eden?
And this isn't a question with a simple answer; we're going to follow it through the rest of the book. 5. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:22 ולפי שתי הדעות, ר"ל אם היה או לא היה, הדברים ההם אשר בפתיחת הספר, ר"ל מאמר השטן ומאמר ד' אל השטן ומסור איוב בידו, כל זה משל בלא ספק לכל בעל דעת, אלא שהוא משל לא כשאר המשלים כולם, אבל משל שנתלו בו פליאות ודברים שהם כבשונו של עולם, והתבארו בו ספקות גדולות ונגלו ממנו תעלומות שאין למעלה מהן Within both views, meaning whether he existed or not, these words from the start of the book – the statements of the Satan and of Gd to the Satan, and placing Job into his hand – all of this is without doubt a parable, to anyone of intelligence. However, it is a parable unlike any other parable, a parable upon which marvelous matters depend, matters which are the secrets of the world, and in which great areas of doubt are explained, and the highest hidden matters are revealed. Rambam doesn't like this; thinks the first part is definitely a parable. (See also our later discussion of Rambam's view of angels in general, in context of Elihu's speech below.)

1:6-12 Let's meet Satan
ו וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה, וַיָּבוֹא גַם הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם. And it was the day, that the bnei haElokim [אל refers to power. אלהים is a plurality of that term; judges and kings are sometimes called that in tanach. אלהים לא תקלל doesn't mean "don't curse Gd," but "don't curse judges. Here it means powerful beings, "mighty ones"; Zohar, below] came to attend upon Gd, and the Satan was among them. ז וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא, וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר, מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ. And Hashem said to Satan: "Where are you coming from?" And the Satan answered Gd and he said, 'Wandering around.' ח וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב, כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ, אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע. And Gd said to the Satan: "Have you paid attention to my servant Iyov? There's no one like him in all the land: A man who is complete, righteous, and avoids evil." [We've seen all this description already.] ט וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר, הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים And the Satan answered Gd and said: "Is it for nothing that Iyov is Gd-fearing?" י הֲלֹא את [אַתָּה] שַׂכְתָּ בַעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ מִסָּבִיב; מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ וּמִקְנֵהוּ פָּרַץ בָּאָרֶץ. You protect him, you protect his house, you protect everything he has, all around. [like 'schach' - it's a shelter.] [echoes וְכִפֶּר בַּעֲדוֹ, וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ.] You've blessed the deeds of his hands, and his cattle have spread through the land. יא וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ; אִם לֹא עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ. But send forth your hand and touch all he has. See if he doesn't then 'bless' [blaspheme; common euphemism] against you." [See if he doesn't commit the same crime he suspected his children of committing.] יב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, הִנֵּה כָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ; וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה. And Gd says to the Satan - go ahead. Whatever he has, go ahead. But don't hit him personally. And the Satan headed out.
What was that?
Why was Gd satan-baiting? Why does Gd bait him to do this to Iyov?

Seeing those pesukim in more depth:
ו וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל יְהוָה,
Ibn Ezra takes "ויהי היום" to simply mean, "one day." See parallels later, and elsewhere in tanach. The idea of angels coming before Gd also - just something that happens, see 6th chapter in Zecharia.
However, the Aramaic commentaries, as well as Rashi and the Zohar think "the day" is more specific: (Because when you talk about "the day" and מלאכים getting together with Gd, there's only one day that fits: ? ) 6. Zohar Shemot pg. 32b "ויהי היום" דא ראש השנה דקודשא בריך הוא קאים למידן עלמא, כגוונא דא (מלכים ב ד) "ויהי היום ויבא שמה", ההוא יומא יום טוב דראש השנה הוה. "ויבאו בני האלקים" אלין רברבין ממנן שליחן בעלמא לאשגחא בעובדין דבני נשא. "And it was the day" – This is Rosh haShanah, when Gd stands in judgment of the world. It is like Melachim II 4, "And it was the day, and he came there," that day was the holiday of Rosh haShanah. "And the bnei ha'Elokim came" – These are the mighty ones, appointed as agents in this world to watch human affairs. This is Rosh haShana, and the malachim are there to report on the world.
Does Gd need them? The whole concept of a malach is the way Gd carries out a task - he sends whatever he needs. All this really means is that Gd is taking into consideration all the events of this world.
וַיָּבוֹא גַם הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם.
The satan is there with them. גם the satan. Why גם? 7. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:22 לא אמר "ויבאו בני האלקים והשטן להתיצב על ד'", שאז היה נראה שמציאות הכל על יחס אחד ועל ערך אחד, אבל אמר "ויבאו בני האלקים להתיצב על ד' ויבא גם השטן בתוכם." וכיוצא בזה המאמר לא נאמר אלא במי שבא בלתי מכוון ולא מבוקש לעצמו, אבל כאשר באו מי שכיון בואם בא זה בתוך הבאים. It did not say, "And the bnei ha'Elokim and the Satan came to stand upon Gd," which would have indicated that all were in one relationship, as equals. Rather, it said, "And the bnei ha'Elokim came to stand upon Gd, and the Satan was also among them." Language like this is stated only regarding someone who was not intended or invited personally. When the intended parties came, he mixed into the group as well. He's not part of the group - Satan is separate, seemingly uninvited. He joined the invited group. Further supporting this idea:
ז וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, מֵאַיִן תָּבֹא,
Gd asks the Satan - where did you come from? What does it mean when Gd asks this kind of thing? איכּה? (What do you mean, ayeka? You can see him: he's playing hide and seek. Come on. He's behind the tree!) Where are you in a cosmic sense? What has happened to you? Or, to give him an opportunity to explain himself. This is very much like that. It also suggests something of the outsider.
Anyways, he gives a better answer than Adam:
וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר, מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ.
I've been wandering around.
What's he playing at? Does he think Gd is looking for a travelogue?
In Bava Basra ט"ו: it connects this with קום התהלך בארץ. But Rambam says it's another mark of his outsider status: I've been wandering the earth, where you consigned me to be, looking at these human beings of yours. Alternatively: I've been travelling the world doing my job of detecting the spiritual weakness of human beings.
ח וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ עַל עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב, כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ, אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע.
Strange response.
Hashem really plays Iyov up: Have you noticed my servant - like Moshe, like Avraham. There are very few people who get the title of eved Hashem. He seems to be baiting Satan, who responds by challenging Iyov's righteousness:
ט וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר, הַחִנָּם יָרֵא אִיּוֹב אֱלֹהִים
י הֲלֹא את [אַתָּה] שַׂכְתָּ בַעֲדוֹ וּבְעַד בֵּיתוֹ וּבְעַד כָּל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ מִסָּבִיב; מַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו בֵּרַכְתָּ וּמִקְנֵהוּ פָּרַץ בָּאָרֶץ.
יא וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ; אִם לֹא עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ.
He devalues reverence for Gd. He claims that Iyov's actions are all for personal gain, that it's currency to get what he wants. He brought offerings in case his kids blasphemed? If he doesn't get what he wants, he himself will blaspheme! Forget the offerings, certainly.
(relevant source below)
And so Gd says:
יב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל הַשָּׂטָן, הִנֵּה כָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ בְּיָדֶךָ רַק אֵלָיו אַל תִּשְׁלַח יָדֶךָ; וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵעִם פְּנֵי יְהוָה.
Do what you want. But don't hurt him personally.

One might be tempted to stop the book at this point and say that this is the book's answer to why people suffer: Gd is testing them, just like he tested Iyov. This would be a mistake - not merely because we have a lot more book to see, but because it's not a satisfactory answer, and the book will never bring it up again. The test answer doesn't work. 8. Amos Chacham, Daat Mikra to Job pg.11
מסתבר, שהניסיון מובא בסיפור איוב לא כהצעת פתרון לשאלה, מפני מה יש צדיק ורע לו, אלא כהצעת דוגמה למציאות של צדיק ורע לו... ואמנם אין הניסיון נזכר עוד בספר... ובאמת, אין התשובה של 'ניסיון' מסלקת את כל הספקות, משום שאין אנו יכולים להבין, למה מנסה ד' את הצדיק, הלוא כל הנסתרות גלויות לפניו.
It would be logical to say that the test is brought in Job's story not as a suggested answer for the question of why righteous people suffer, but as a suggested example of the existence of righteous people who suffer… In truth, the test is not mentioned again in the book… In truth, the answer of "it's a test" does not remove all of the doubts, since we cannot understand why Gd tests the righteous – all secrets are revealed before Him!
The test is not the answer, though it certainly seems so. It's just meant to provide an example, an instance in which this happens. It's not meant to be a theological statement. It doesn't actually answer the question, because we still don't understand why Gd is testing him. This is setting up the circumstances, but isn't the answer.
So why does the Satan get power?

Amos Chacham suggests that when Hashem asks the satan, "Where have you been?" and he answers, "I've travelled back and forth across your earth," he is saying: "I've been everywhere. I allege that all human beings are ultimately disloyal to you. Not just in one place. There are no good people out there. I've been everywhere, and you know what, Gd?
No one is loyal to you."
The challenge here - no one is really good There is no one out there who is a sincere righteous person. And Gd responds - "Wait. Iyov."

The main question of this book, in R'Torcz's eyes, is not "Why do good people suffer?". It's:
Why do people do good things?
That is the challenge right here at the beginning.
Gd isn't pointing Iyov out for nothing; he's pointing him out as an answer. You say that you have travelled everywhere being Satan and you've found that nobody is good. I'm pointing out somebody who is without a doubt My servant.
To which Satan says, "Nope. You'll see what happens when you test him." And Gd says, Ok, let's see.

Interestingly, Satan's role here of saying people who are good aren't really good makes an impression elsewhere in Judaism. 9. Talmud, Sanhedrin 89b "ויהי אחר הדברים האלה והאלקים נסה את אברהם." מאי "אחר"? אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' יוסי בן זימרא, אחר דבריו של שטן, דכתיב, "ויגדל הילד ויגמל וגו'". אמר שטן לפני הקב"ה, רבש"ע! זקן זה חננתו למאה שנה פרי בטן, מכל סעודה שעשה לא היה לו תור אחד או גוזל אחד להקריב לפניך? אמר לו, כלום עשה אלא בשביל בנו, אם אני אומר לו 'זבח את בנך לפני' מיד זובחו. מיד "והאלקים נסה את אברהם." "And after these devarim, and Gd tested Avraham. (Bereishit 22:1)" What is "after"? Rabbi Yochanan cited Rabbi Yosi ben Zimra: After the words of the Satan. It is written (Bereishit 21:8), "And the boy grew and was weaned". The Satan said before Gd, "Master of the Universe! You gave this old man a child at the age of one hundred, and from the entire feast he made he did not have one dove or pigeon to bring before You?" Gd replied, "He did all this only for his son, and if I would tell him, 'Slaughter your son before Me,' he would do it immediately." And immediately, "And Gd tested Avraham." 10. Talmud, Rosh haShanah 16a-b למה תוקעין ומריעין כשהן יושבין, ותוקעין ומריעין כשהן עומדין? כדי לערבב השטן. Why do we blow shofar when seated, and blow shofar [again] when standing? To muddle the Satan. In summary: 11. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:22 מבני אדם מי שלא יבהל ולא יסוב לבבו לאבדת הממון ויהיה נקל בעיניו, אבל ירעידהו דבר מות הבנים וימיתהו מדאגה, ומבני אדם גם כן מי שיסבול ולא יבהל ולא ילאה אפילו לאבדת הבנים, ואולם סבול המכאובים אין יכולת להרגיש עליו... Some people will not be thrown and will not have their hearts swayed by loss of property, and this will be light in their eyes, but they will be shaken by the death of children, and it will kill them from anxiety. And some people will endure and not be thrown or weakened even at loss of children, but they will not have the ability to endure physical pain…
< / fourthclass >


1:13-19 Satan destroys Iyov's life
יג וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם; וּבָנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר. And it was the day [which may not be a specific day; just "and then the following happened"] and Iyov's sons and daughters are eating and drinking wine [which hadn't been specified before] in the house of the firstborn יד וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל אִיּוֹב, וַיֹּאמַר, הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת וְהָאֲתֹנוֹת רֹעוֹת עַל יְדֵיהֶם and a messenger comes to Iyov and declares: "The cattle were plowing, and the female donkeys were grazing next to them, טו וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם, וְאֶת הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי חָרֶב; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ. and along came Sh'va [Biblical term for captives, but here it is presumably people from Sh'va, in southern Yemen - rather far from Israel, and from where we've identified Utz to be] and took the animals, and struck the youths [or servants or kids - sounds like it's the servants], and only I escaped to inform you." טז עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר, וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר, אֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַתִּבְעַר בַּצֹּאן וּבַנְּעָרִים וַתֹּאכְלֵם; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ. While he was still speaking, another comes and says, "A fire of Gd [whatever that is] fell from the heavens and it consumed the sheep and the youths and it ate them up, and only I escaped to inform you." יז עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר, וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר, כַּשְׂדִּים שָׂמוּ שְׁלֹשָׁה רָאשִׁים וַיִּפְשְׁטוּ עַל הַגְּמַלִּים וַיִּקָּחוּם, וְאֶת הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי חָרֶב; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ. While he was still speaking, another comes and says, the Chaldeans came with three heads [three different branches of attackers, and I have no idea how you get that from these words] and they spread out against the camels and took them, and they killed the youths, and only I escaped to inform you. יח עַד זֶה מְדַבֵּר, וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר, בָּנֶיךָ וּבְנוֹתֶיךָ אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר. Until this one is still speaking, [These grammatical glitches are an attempt to keep the original text, which switches oddly between present and past ~D] another comes and says, "Your sons and daughters were eating and drinking wine in the house of their brother the firstborn, יט וְהִנֵּה רוּחַ גְּדוֹלָה בָּאָה מֵעֵבֶר הַמִּדְבָּר, וַיִּגַּע בְּאַרְבַּע פִּנּוֹת הַבַּיִת, וַיִּפֹּל עַל הַנְּעָרִים וַיָּמוּתוּ; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ.And behold, a great wind came from the other side of the desert and struck the four corners of the house, and it collapsed on the ne'arim, [here it's definitely Iyov's children; we'll discuss why it's using the same word it just used for servants] and they died, and only I escaped to inform you." It's so choreographed. Each of them is the only one to survive. The perfect parallel here supports Rambam's opinion that Iyov is a mashal. Anshei Kneset haGdola were trying to convey something by doing this.

You would kind of expect Iyov to recognize this as being from Gd - each time, only I escaped to tell you.

In most of Tanach, as you read it there isn't a sense of a reader being drawn along. Most of Tanach doesn't use its dramatic potential. Here, there is, very much so, though we undercut it when we go verse-by-verse like this.

יג וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם; וּבָנָיו וּבְנֹתָיו אֹכְלִים וְשֹׁתִים יַיִן בְּבֵית אֲחִיהֶם הַבְּכוֹר.
So it was the day of the feast of the bechor - mentioned again when they actually die. Metzudat David picks up on this: 1. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat Dovid to Job 1:13 וכוונת השטן היה להקניט את איוב ביותר בחושבו הלא זה היום בבוקר העליתי עולות מספר כולם כמ"ש למעלה... ואם כן מנוקים המה מעון ומדוע אם כן מתו ובעבור זה ירבה לגדף: The Satan's intent was to bait Job even further, as he would think, "Just this morning, I brought burnt offerings according to their number," as recorded above… and if so, they are innocent of sin! Why did they die? And so he would increase his blasphemy. Not only is he going to take everything from Iyov, but he's going to do it in the most unjust way possible, when they are surely clean from sin.
יד וּמַלְאָךְ בָּא אֶל אִיּוֹב, וַיֹּאמַר, הַבָּקָר הָיוּ חֹרְשׁוֹת וְהָאֲתֹנוֹת רֹעוֹת עַל יְדֵיהֶם
It calls the messenger who arrived with this news a מלאך. Presumably a human messenger. (The angels in this story really aren't on Iyov's side.) Why not a נער, like they were called elsewhere? Emphasis on this being the hand of Gd - a message to us, not Iyov. 2. Talmud, Bava Batra 15b-16a מאי הבקר היו חורשות והאתונות רועות על ידיהם? א"ר יוחנן: מלמד, שהטעימו הקב"ה לאיוב מעין העולם הבא.‏
What is the meaning of "the cattle were plowing, and the she-donkeys were grazing beside them"? Rabbi Yochanan said: This teaches that G-d gave Job a taste of the next world.
Chazal ask - what are the donkeys eating, if the cattle are plowing (=overturning the earth, recall)? These things don't usually go together. Echoes of Ideal Future.
טו וַתִּפֹּל שְׁבָא וַתִּקָּחֵם, וְאֶת הַנְּעָרִים הִכּוּ לְפִי חָרֶב; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ.
So they're coming from Yemen - not so nearby, even with our most southerly opinion of where Utz is (Edom). Why are they attacking that far? One thought - Iyov is so out-of-this-world wealthy then it's worth their while.
טז עוֹד זֶה מְדַבֵּר, וְזֶה בָּא וַיֹּאמַר, אֵשׁ אֱלֹהִים נָפְלָה מִן הַשָּׁמַיִם, וַתִּבְעַר בַּצֹּאן וּבַנְּעָרִים וַתֹּאכְלֵם; וָאִמָּלְטָה רַק אֲנִי לְבַדִּי לְהַגִּיד לָךְ.
There's a midrash in Sifri Zuta ["the small Sifri": version of ספרי attributed to Rabi Yishmael] that links this with other fires from Gd that appear in Tanach, but the general trend in the commentators is to assume this is lightning, being called אש אלקים to make a point about how unnatural, how supernatural this all is. 3. Commentary of Malbim to 1:16 בתחלת הספור... חשב בנים צאן גמלים ואח"כ בקר ואתונות, מבואר שהחשוב חשוב הקדימו, וכשנאבדו נאבד הבלתי חשוב תחלה עד שהבנים נאבדו לבסוף. וא"כ היה ראוי שיהיה הסדר בקר ואתונות, אח"כ גמלים, אח"כ צאן, ואח"ז אבדן הבנים. ולמה הקדים הצאן לפני הגמלים? At the start of the story… it listed children, [7000] sheep and [3000] camels, and then [500 pairs of] cattle and [500] she-donkeys. Clearly, it put the most important first. When they were destroyed, the least important was destroyed first, until the children were destroyed last. If so, the order should have been: cattle and she-donkeys, then camels, then sheep, and then destruction of the children. Why did it put sheep before camels? אך כבר בארתי שבאו הרעות מופסקות, א' ע"י בני אדם וא' ע"י היסודות, ושוב ע"י בני אדם ואח"כ ע"י יסוד הרוח ואם היו אבדן הגמלים על ידי הכשדים לפני הצאן היו שני הרעות שבאו ע"י בני אדם תכופות זל"ז, וכן שני הרעות שע"י היסודות, ולא היה החידוש גדול כ"כ אם באו בפעם אחד שבא וכשדים, וכן אש ורוח סערה... I have explained that the harm came in segments, one via people and one via the elements, and then via people and then via the element of wind. Had the camels been destroyed by the Chaldeans before the sheep, there would have been two harms by human beings in sequence, and then two harms via the elements. It would not have been as great a novelty if the Sabeans and Chaldeans had come simultaneously, and the fire and stormy wind likewise... Amos Chacham notes that this is coming from all four directions: The first attack, the Sabeans, are from the south, in Yemen. The second, the fire from heaven, does not seem to have a location yet, and the Chaldeans come from the north (technically they're from Babylon which is east, but they always attack from the north), and the great wind comes from the desert - east. The only direction unrepresented is west. So see Melachim I (Amos Chacham brings other sources to support this as well.) - this is immediately following Eliyahu on Har Carmel, where he gets fire from the heavens consuming his offerings, and then the rain comes. The storms come from the Mediterranean. (See other sources he mentions in which the storms come from the west.) A message is being sent to the reader and to Iyov that this is not natural. Look what your Gd whom you serve has done to you now. Do you still serve him? 4. Four directions Melachim I 18:43-45
1:20-22 Job responds to the test
כ וַיָּקָם אִיּוֹב, וַיִּקְרַע אֶת מְעִלוֹ, וַיָּגָז אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ; וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ. And Iyov stood and tore his garment, and pulled his hair out of his head, and fell to the ground and bowed. כא וַיֹּאמֶר, עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי, וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה, יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח; יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ. And he said, "I left the womb bare, and bare shall I return there. God has given, and God has taken away; may the name of Gd be blessed." כב בְּכָל-זֹאת, לֹא חָטָא, אִיּוֹב וְלֹא נָתַן תִּפְלָה לֵאלֹהִים. Despite it all, Iyov did not sin, and did not assign impropriety to Gd.

וַיָּקָם אִיּוֹב, וַיִּקְרַע אֶת מְעִלוֹ, וַיָּגָז אֶת רֹאשׁוֹ;
5. Shaving in grief Devarim 14:1 בָּנִים אַתֶּם, לה' אלהיכם: לֹא תִתְגֹּדְדוּ, וְלֹא-תָשִׂימוּ קָרְחָה בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם--לָמֵת. You are children of Hashem your Gd: you shall not cut yourselves, and you shall not make a bald spot between your eyes when someone passes away. Why do I have a book in tanach recording this apparently forbidden practice? (But he's not Jewish! And a parable! And the sages draw on him as a model of mourning practices, and therefore this matters.) 6. Talmud, Moed Katan 21a אמר רמי בר חמא: מנין לקריעה שהיא מעומד? שנאמר ויקם איוב ויקרע. דלמא מילתא יתירתא הוא דעבד? דאי לא תימא הכי, "ויגז את ראשו" הכי נמי? Rami bar Chama said: How do we know that tearing is performed while standing? "And Job stood and tore." But perhaps this was excessive? Otherwise, will we also mandate, "And he tore his head"? Why does it say he stood up? Why did he stand up? You would expect him to collapse. Apparently this is how the (forbidden) practice of head-shaving-in-mourning is done. 7. Commentary of Rashi to Job 1:20 ויגז - תלש כמו (ירמיה ז) גזי נזרך ומתרגמינן תלישה וכמו (תהלים עא) ממעי אמי אתה גוזי מושכי
Vayagaz – "Plucked", like Jeremiah 7:29 which we explain as plucking, and like Tehillim 71:6…
He didn't pull out all the hairs; he plucked a few. 8. Commentary of Malbim to Job 1:20 ויקרע מעילו על אבדן הבנים כדין, ויגז ראשו על אבדן הקנינים, כי "לא תשימו קרחה... למת" כתיב אבל על אבדה אין איסור:
"And he tore his cloak" for destruction of children, as is the law. "And he plucked his head" for destruction of property, for it is written, "You shall not place baldness… for the dead", but for [property] loss there is no prohibition.
For the loss of his children he tore his clothing, but he pulled out his hair because of his property - the pasuk prohibits it for the dead: You are children to Hashem your Gd, therefore don't tear out your hair; when someone passes from this world, that's not the end, but when he loses his sheep and camels, they're not coming back. That's a real permanent loss, for which he can tear his hair. Is this idea that not-tearing-your-hair is avoiding an implicit denial of the World to Come R'Torcz's own interpretation of the pasuk in Devarim or Malbim's reasoning, or a quote from someone else entirely?
וַיִּפֹּל אַרְצָה וַיִּשְׁתָּחוּ.
That's not an act of mourning, but of worship. He's acknowledging Gd. This, more than anything else, shows us that Iyov is still loyal to Gd.
And then he speaks his acceptance:
וַיֹּאמֶר, עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי, וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה, יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח; יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ.
"I accept what Gd has done."
Throughout tanach we have parallel practices of grieving - tearing their clothing, putting dust on their heads, and falling to the ground. Along with that comes a cry to Gd, a wailing. He does the acts of mourning, but instead of the scream, we see acceptance.

In summary:
< /fifthclass >


וַיֹּאמֶר, עָרֹם יצתי [יָצָאתִי] מִבֶּטֶן אִמִּי, וְעָרֹם אָשׁוּב שָׁמָה, יְהוָה נָתַן וַיהוָה לָקָח; יְהִי שֵׁם יְהוָה מְבֹרָךְ.
He means - the way of the world is that G-d takes things away. It's all one long thought.

Normally mourning practices end in a wailing of some kind (merge with above later.) In terms of what he's actually saying: 1. Commentary of Malbim to Job 1:21 ויאמר ערום יצאתי, ר"ל שהי"ל מקום להתלונן על ד' באחד משני פנים, "And he said: Bare I left the womb." Meaning, he could have had two grounds for complaining against Gd: א] אם הקנינים האלה שנאבדו ממנו עתה היו קנינים דבוקים בלתי נפרדים מגופו כמו אחד מאיברי הגוף, שהגם שד' בראם ונתנם לו מ"מ אחר שהתעצמו עמו מתחלת יצירתו היה חושב זה לעול אם לקחם ממנו שלא במשפט. לא כן הקנינים האלה... לא מצד תחלת יצירתו כי נולד בלעדי הקנינים האלה כי ערום יצאתי מבטן אמי בלא אלה הקנינים, ולא מצד אחריתו כי ערום אשוב שמה אל בטן האם הראשונה שהיא האדמה שהיא היתה אם כל חי. 1) If this property he had lost had been inseparably stuck to his body, like a bodily organ, then even though Gd had created it and given it to him, still, now that it was part of him from birth he would think it corrupt for Gd to take it from him unjustly. But this was not true for these acquisitions… Not from when he was first created, for he was born without these acquisitions, "I emerged bare from my mother's womb" without these acquisitions. And not in terms of his end, for "bare I will return there" to the womb of the first mother, the earth, source of all life. ב] שנית שגם על קנינים הבלתי מתעצמים עמו היה לו מקום להתלונן אם היה משיג אותם בכחו ועוצם ידו שאז היו מתיחסים אליו מצד שהוא המציאם, אבל אחר שד' נתן אותם, והוא לקח, א"כ אין מקום לשום תרעומת, ולכן יהי שם ד' מבורך...2) Second, even for property which was not part of his person, he would have had room to complain if he had acquired it with his own strength and the might of his hand. Then it would be associated with him, since he had created it. But since Gd had given it, and Gd had taken it, there could be no complaint. Therefore, "may Gd's Name be blessed." When he says, "I came from the womb bare," it's not just "everything I have Hashem gave me," but "nothing I had was an integral part of me." Iyov says - the things he lost are not limbs of his body, nor did he acquire them himself. They were given to him. 1b. An interesting opposition Ecclesiastes 5:14 That line is the negative version of what Iyov says in a positive way. Iyov says, "I really own nothing." Kohelet says, "For all our effort, everything we own is removed from us." 2. Talmud, Berachot 60b מאי "חייב לברך על הרעה כשם שמברך על הטובה"?... אמר רבא: לא נצרכה אלא לקבולינהו בשמחה. אמר רב אחא משום רבי לוי: מאי קרא?... ורבנן אמרי מהכא ד' נתן וד' לקח יהי שם ד' מברך. What is, "One must bless for the bad as one blesses for the good"?... Rava said: It means only that one should accept it with joy. Rav Acha cited Rabbi Levi: What is the verse supporting this?... And the Sages said, from Job 1:21. cites yotzer or u'borei choshech, oseh shalom u'vorei et hakol - and it would have said u'vorei ra.
בְּכָל-זֹאת, לֹא חָטָא, אִיּוֹב וְלֹא נָתַן תִּפְלָה לֵאלֹהִים.
3. Commentary of Malbim to Job 1:22 אם היה עולה בלבו תלונה... אז או שהיה מודה שאין עול יוצא מאת ד' הצדיק אבל לעומת זה היה כופר בהשגחה... או שהיה מודה בהשגחה ואז היה נותן תפלה לאלקים לאמר שאינו מנהיג בצדק ושדרכיו כתפל בלי מלח וטעם. אבל אחר שלא התלונן כלל, האמין גם אז בהשגחה ולא חטא, רק היה סר מרע כבתחלה, וגם לא נתן תפלה לאלקים, לגנות את הנהגתו, אחר שהחליט שאין זה עול כלל אם לוקח ממנו קנינים בלתי מתעצמים עמו אשר נתנם לו בתורת נדבה וחסד ולקחם בטובו...
Had there been a complaint in his heart… then either he would have been admitting that no corruption comes from the righteous Gd, but he would have been denying Gd's supervision… or he would have been admitting Gd's supervision, but assigning tiflah to Gd, saying that He does not run the world justly, and that His ways are like tefel, without salt or taste. But since he did not complain at all, he still believed in Gd's supervision and he did not sin. He continued to keep from evil. And he also did not assign tiflah to Gd, to insult His supervision, since he had concluded that there would be no corruption at all if Gd would remove his acquisitions that were not part of him, which Gd had given to him as a generous gift and had taken in His goodness…
4. Summary of the chapter
  • Job is righteous, wealthy and blessed with a great family, and extremely devoted to service of G-d
  • Satan, who is charged (at least in part) with testing humanity's sincerity, claims that people are selfish.
  • G-d responds to Satan by pointing out Job, and lets Satan test him
  • Satan destroys Job's children and property. Job accepts that G-d has the right to do this.
  • 2:1-7 Satan doubles down
    א וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתֹכָם לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה׃ And it was the day [still not a specific one] and [once again] these supernatural somethings are gathering with ["to attend upon"] Gd, and the Satan also came, among them, to attend upon Gd. [Hey, last time he wasn't doing that - this time he says, "I'm here to serve too!."] ב וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן אֵי מִזֶּה תָּבֹא וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר מִשֻּׁט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ׃ And Hashem said to the Satan, "Where's where you're coming from?" and the Satan answered Gd and he said, "Wandering around." [Last time: "מאין תבא." Now it's "אי מזה." Tried to reflect in translation] [Once again, he's been everywhere.] ג וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הֲשַׂמְתָּ לִבְּךָ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אִיּוֹב כִּי אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים וְסָר מֵרָע וְעֹדֶנּוּ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתוֹ וַתְּסִיתֵנִי בוֹ לְבַלְּעוֹ חִנָּם׃ And Gd said to the Satan: "Have you paid attention to my servant Iyov? There's no one like him in all the land: A man who is complete, righteous, and avoids evil." [This is the third time we've seen this full description.] And he [is still loyal - he] retains his status as a tam [uncorrupted]. And you persuaded me to swallow him up for nothing.
    Gd says: You persuaded me to take away his children and his wealth, and for what? You're wrong, Satan. What was this for?
    Iyov is still (we'll see below in פסוק ח) sitting in the ashes as in the previous perek; Daat Mikra concludes that he's still within Shiva. (That conclusion is debatable.)
    So why is this whole nearly-identical-to-perek-alef conversation here?
    It seems the Satan is still not satisfied. (compare to when Eliyahu runs away in frustration, ends up on Har Chorev, and Hashem says, "What are you doing here?" and Eliyahu answers complaining, and Hashem does the whole: "not in the fire and not in the wind, but in the still thin voice" thing, and then asks, "Why are you here?" And evidently Eliyahu didn't learn what he was supposed to, and Hashem gives him a last few jobs including appointing his successor. He's asking again to see if what should be learned was learned.) And whatever Satan wants exactly, it matters enough to Hashem that He is willing to destroy the person he describes as אִישׁ תָּם וְיָשָׁר יְרֵא אֱלֹהִים, וְסָר מֵרָע - as the greatest person in the world. אֵין כָּמֹהוּ בָּאָרֶץ.

    It's not a victory yet, because the Satan hasn't been permitted to do everything he wants to do to play this out. So there's no gloating going on.
    ד וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר עוֹר בְּעַד־עוֹר וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר לָאִישׁ יִתֵּן בְּעַד נַפְשׁוֹ׃ Satan answers and he says: Skin for skin, and a person will give anything to save himself. ה אוּלָם שְׁלַח־נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע אֶל־עַצְמוֹ וְאֶל־בְּשָׂרוֹ אִם־לֹא אֶל־פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ׃ But send forth Your hand [remember, it's Gd who gets to act, though Satan may make the argument. Satan is an agent of Gd, not an independent Adversary.] and strike Iyov himself, and then see if he blasphemes. [The blasphemy that Iyov has always been afraid of, and brought offerings in case any of his children did, that so horrified him - you watch and you'll see what he does.] ו וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־הַשָּׂטָן הִנּוֹ בְיָדֶךָ אַךְ אֶת־נַפְשׁוֹ שְׁמֹר׃ And Gd says to the Satan, "He is in your hands; but keep him alive." ז וַיֵּצֵא הַשָּׂטָן מֵאֵת פְּנֵי יְהוָה וַיַּךְ אֶת־אִיּוֹב בִּשְׁחִין רָע מִכַּף רַגְלוֹ עד [וְעַד] קָדְקֳדוֹ׃ And the Satan leaves from before Gd, and he strikes Iyov with horrible boils, from the sole of his feet to his skull.


    He is as miserable as miserable could be.
    וַיַּעַן הַשָּׂטָן אֶת יְהוָה,‏
    The word ויען as used in Navi usually means not answer but declare. It's a very formal declaration.
    עוֹר בְּעַד עוֹר,‏
    Hide for hide - usually assumed to be a popular phrase of some kind, back when this was first written down, and would have resonated with people. It has this kind of dramatic sound to it. Rashi: People will give up their own skin to save other parts of their own skin. All you've done so far is strike his property and children. See what happens when you hit him. To save their own lives, to save their own skin, people will sacrifice other parts of their skin. See what happens now.
    וַיַּךְ אֶת אִיּוֹב
    6. Daat Mikra to 2:7 לא נתפרש בכתוב מי הכה... ונראה שבכוונה סתם הכתוב ולא פרש: לפי שבכל מעשה איוב אין השטן יכול לעשות מאומה מדעת עצמו... The verse does not clarify who struck… Apparently, the text intentionally sealed it and did not explain: Throughout Job's story, the Satan cannot do anything independently. It says, "He struck." Presumably intentional; highlights the fact that Satan cannot act independently.
    בִּשְׁחִין רָע, מִכַּף רַגְלוֹ עד (וְעַד) קָדְקֳדוֹ.‏
    5. Commentary of Malbim to 2:5 בזה תבחנהו בחינה ברורה, אם תשלח ידך ותגע אל עצמו ואל בשרו לא בעורו לבד רק מכה הנוגע בעצמו ובשרו שיש בה סכנת נפש עד שיתיאש מרפואה, ואז לא יהיה לו במה להתנחם ומה לירא ולקוות. אז על פניך יברכך ויגנה הנהגתך: Through this You will test him clearly, if You will send Your hand and strike him, his flesh. Not only his skin, but a blow that will strike his self [bone?] and flesh, such that it will endanger his life to the point that he will abandon hope of a cure. He will have nothing to console himself, and no reason to fear You or to hope. Then he will 'bless' You in Your face, and he will insult Your supervision of the world. If you take everything away from him, to the point where he has nothing left to care about, even his own life, he will curse you then, when he has nothing left to lose.
    These boils are actually a danger to his life, according to Malbim.
    < /sixthclass >


    Iyov is sitting on the ground, with disfiguring boils, and we finally meet his wife, who will exit the picture shortly. Her entire place in this book is in these three sentences.

    2:8-10 Job and his wife
    ח וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ וְהוּא יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ־הָאֵפֶר׃ He took a piece of pottery to scratch his boils with, and he's sitting in the ashes. ט וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים וָמֻת׃ And his wife says, "Do you stilll hold on to being a tam? [complete with Gd - she uses the same word to describe him that we saw before.] 'Bless' Gd and die." י וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי גַּם אֶת־הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֶת־הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל בְּכָל־זֹאת לֹא־חָטָא אִיּוֹב בִּשְׂפָתָיו׃ And he said to her, "You speak like one of the disgusting people. We should accept the good from Gd, and not accept the bad?" And with all of this, Iyov did not sin with his words.
    It sounds like he's suffering and she's not. Why does she say this?

    So we seem to have reached the point Satan wanted to get to, in which Iyov has nothing left to lose, and now, according to the Satan, he will denounce Gd. Can we say the Satan has lost? Is the game over? 1. Amos Chacham, Daat Mikra to Job, pg. 14 מכל הנפשות המדברות בספר זה, היא מדברת המעט מכל: רק שש מלים ולא יותר. ואינה נזכרת בספר לא לפני זה ולא אחרי זה... נמצא שהשטן השתמש באשת איוב, שלא מדעתה, כמכשיר להסית בו את איוב לחטוא. ודברי אשת איוב הם המשך הניסיונות של איוב. Of all of the speakers in this book, she speaks least of all: six words, no more. She is mentioned neither before nor after this… It appears that the Satan used Job's wife, without her knowledge, as a tool with which to seduce Job to sin. The words of Job's wife are a continuation of Job's tests. The words of Job's wife are a continuation of Job's tests. She's a caricature, a plot device to move us along - somebody to goad Iyov. 6. Devarim 13:7 כִּי יְסִיתְךָ אָחִיךָ בֶן-אִמֶּךָ אוֹ-בִנְךָ אוֹ-בִתְּךָ אוֹ אֵשֶׁת חֵיקֶךָ, אוֹ רֵעֲךָ אֲשֶׁר כְּנַפְשְׁךָ--בַּסֵּתֶר לֵאמֹר: נֵלְכָה, וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים, אֲשֶׁר לֹא יָדַעְתָּ, אַתָּה וַאֲבֹתֶיךָ.‏ Incitement to idolatry. Until now the motivation for him to turn on Gd hasn't had an agent. Satan never spoke to him. It was just assumed that when there's nothing for him to get from Gd, he will turn on Gd. It hasn't happened, so now we ramp it up by having his wife tell him it's time to give up. Her phrasing echoes the conversations we saw in the Heavens. 2. Amos Chacham, Daat Mikra To Job, pg. טז כביכול מדבר השטן מתוך גרונה של אשת איוב, כאלו אמר לאיוב: לאחר שנכשלתי בפעמים הקודמות כשבאתי אליך בעקיפין, אנוס אני עתה לומר לך בפרוש את רצוני: עזב תומתך וברך את אלקים. נמצא שדברי אשת איוב הם נסיון שלישי לאיוב... It is as though the Satan spoke through the throat of Job's wife, as though he said to Job: I failed two earlier times when I came to you in a roundabout way; I am forced to tell you my will explicitly. Abandon your complete state and "bless" Gd. We see that the words of Job's wife were a third test for Job… This being goaded is his third test. But she doesn't really succeed. Maybe a bit ("didn't sin with his mouth") but not over the edge. 3. The expanded version of Job's Wife http://jwa.org/encyclopedia/article/wife-of-job-apocrypha - a Greek work which exists in Hebrew and English versions. This is an article that talks about it. There's a work (that's not ours) called the ethical will of Iyov [Ancient Fanfiction] found also in the Septuagint which majorly increases Iyov's wife's role.
    וַיִּקַּח לוֹ חֶרֶשׂ, לְהִתְגָּרֵד בּוֹ; וְהוּא, יֹשֵׁב בְּתוֹךְ הָאֵפֶר.‏
    This is to build up the image of Iyov suffering. Rather than the ashes being about mourning - 4. Commentary of Malbim to Job 2:8 פי' במדרש שהיה מחציו ולמעלה שחין יבש והיה צריך חרש להתגרד בו, ומחציו ולמטה היה שחין לח והיה צריך לישב בתוך האפר שמושך הליחות, ורפואת האחד קשה להשני... The midrash explained that he had dry boils on his upper half, and he needed pottery to scratch it, and on his lower half he had moist boils, and he needed to sit in the ashes to draw out the moisture. Healing one harms the other… That's the type of misery he's in.
    ט וַתֹּאמֶר לוֹ אִשְׁתּוֹ, עֹדְךָ מַחֲזִיק בְּתֻמָּתֶךָ; בָּרֵךְ אֱלֹהִים, וָמֻת.
    ברך is translated as blaspheme, to curse. But Malbim takes the word as non-euphemistic! 5. Commentary of Malbim to Job 2:9 ואמרה לו אשתו להקניטו: הנה בפעם הראשון שברכת את ד' על הרעה, שבזה הראית שאתה תמים עמו, הוסיף להכותך גם בגופך. ואם עתה תברך שנית, הלא בהכרח יוסיף להכותך בנפש עד שתמות... His wife baited him: The first time, you blessed Gd for the harm, showing that you are complete with Him – and He hit you further, even on your body. Should you bless again, He will have to strike your life, until you die… This is your reward for blessing Gd for His goodness. Blessing Gd only brings suffering.
    Aside from restoring the original meaning of ברך, he's also introduced a cause-and-effect. This is why she would say this: every time you bless Him you get hurt worse; do it again and you'll be dead.
    וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ, כְּדַבֵּר אַחַת הַנְּבָלוֹת תְּדַבֵּרִי--גַּם אֶת הַטּוֹב נְקַבֵּל מֵאֵת הָאֱלֹהִים, וְאֶת הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל; בְּכָל זֹאת לֹא חָטָא אִיּוֹב, בִּשְׂפָתָיו.
    Two ways to take this: Emphasis on still or emphasis on lips. Ibn Ezra says - watch what's coming, because he is going to sin with his lips. 7. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a "בכל זאת לא חטא איוב בשפתיו" - אמר רבא: בשפתיו לא חטא, בלבו חטא. "Job still did not sin with his lips" – Rava said: He did not sin verbally, but he sinned in his heart. He was already giving up. Note the distinction between what he said at the end of the first perek about Gd's actions and what he says now. Previously, he said it was all fair. Here, he says רע - evil. וְאֶת הָרָע לֹא נְקַבֵּל. Once you describe something Gd does as bad, you've made an important theological step. He's switched to "I will accept whatever Gd does, whether he does something Good or something Bad." 8. Commentary of Malbim to Job 2:10 שהוא חשב שהטוב הנמצא במציאות הוא מעורב עם רעות הרבה... וע"כ חשב שא"א כלל שד' יתן טוב לבד, כי מי שירצה לקבל את הטוב בהכרח יקבל גם את הרע, כמו שמי שירצה לשתות יין הרבה או לאכל דבש הרבה כי ערב לחיכו, בהכרח לא יתלונן ג"כ אם ישתכר מן היין ואם הדבש יזיק לאיצטומכא... He thought that the good found in this world is mixed with great harm… and so he thought that Gd cannot give good alone, so that one who wishes to receive the good must also receive the harm. It is like one wishes to drink much wine or eat much honey, for it is sweet on his palate – he cannot complain if he becomes intoxicated by the wine, or the honey harms his stomach… 9. Daat Mikra to Iyov 2:10 שבדבריו הראשונים דבר איוב על הנהגת ד', שכך ראוי לו להיות נותן ולוקח כרצונו, ואדם חייב לברכו תמיד... ואלו בדבריו אלה דבר איוב על הנהגת האדם, שכך ראוי לו, שיהיה נכנע לאלקים ויקבל ממנו את הכל. אבל לא אמר שאמנם כך ראוי לאלקים לנהג... In his first words Job spoke of Divine conduct, that this is appropriate for Him – giving and taking per His will. One must bless Him always… But in these words of his, Job spoke of human conduct, that this is appropriate for him – to be humble before Gd and to accept all that He does. But he did not say that this is appropriate for Divine conduct…

    2:11-13 The "friends" arrive
    יא וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת רֵעֵי אִיּוֹב אֵת כָּל־הָרָעָה הַזֹּאת הַבָּאָה עָלָיו וַיָּבֹאוּ אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי וּבִלְדַּד הַשּׁוּחִי וְצוֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיִּוָּעֲדוּ יַחְדָּו לָבוֹא לָנוּד־לוֹ וּלְנַחֲמוֹ׃ The three friends of Iyov [calling them friends for lack of a better word. Interlocutors? Anyways, they come to talk to Iyov and they believe that they're doing him a favor, so let's call them friends.] hear about all the terrible things that have happened to Iyov, and each one comes from his place [ - each arrived independently - ] Elifaz of Teiman, Bildad of Shuach, and Tzofar of Naamah, and they met together to come shake their heads for him and comfort him. יב וַיִּשְׂאוּ אֶת־עֵינֵיהֶם מֵרָחוֹק וְלֹא הִכִּירֻהוּ וַיִּשְׂאוּ קוֹלָם וַיִּבְכּוּ וַיִּקְרְעוּ אִישׁ מְעִלוֹ וַיִּזְרְקוּ עָפָר עַל־רָאשֵׁיהֶם הַשָּׁמָיְמָה׃ And they raised their eyes from afar, and they saw him but they don't recognize him, and they raised their voices and they cried, and each man tore his clothing, and they threw dirt over their heads heavenwards. יג וַיֵּשְׁבוּ אִתּוֹ לָאָרֶץ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת לֵילוֹת וְאֵין־דֹּבֵר אֵלָיו דָּבָר כִּי רָאוּ כִּי־גָדַל הַכְּאֵב מְאֹד׃ And they sat with him on the ground seven days and seven nights, no one speaking, because they saw that the pain was so great.
    What is this? Is this shiva? Are the friends together or not? Is the throwing-dirt-up an act of grief? A prayer? An expression of anger? Is their silence a good thing? A bad thing? A simple human reaction?

    Da'at Mikra makes a point about the order in which they're listed: When they speak, they will stay in that order throughout the book. They also will have a consistent pattern: Elifaz will speak of visions, and Bildad will speak of having a tradition from elders, and Tzofar will speak of having chochma, wisdom. These are themes in the speeches of each friend. The commentators (especially Ralbag) tend to see statements of philosophy. Rambam sees that these three people are meant to play roles in a dialogue with Iyov. Each represents certain ideas that he, and we, will have to deal with. The idea of them "coming from afar" and "joining together" suggests, almost, a greek-style debate (in which people come from afar with their ideas and meet together; apparently this is a trope, though I'm unfamiliar with it. ~D) in a public forum and the crowd votes on their ideas. Like Iyov's wife, they are roles, not fleshed-out people, and they represent people from everywhere. "From Teiman, from Shuach, from Naama." They are representatives of communities.

    Names: Elifaz is the only name that appears elsewhere in Tanach. (Eisav's son.) But if this is that Elifaz, what's he doing here? Who are these other people? Da'at Mikra breaks name down into "Eli" and "paz" which means not only "gold" but also "strong." (ויפוזו in the bracha that יעקב gives his children.) "My Gd is strong." - fits his attempts to defend Gd here in the book. Bildad may be Babylonian meaning beloved or son-of-Adad. Back in Daniel we saw Belshazzar - the initial "bel" may be reference to a Babylonian god; R'Torcz wonders if we can make such an association, and concludes that if Olam haTanach didn't do so, "then I think not, because they would have for sure done that." Don't really know what to do with these names, nor the places. Teiman - really, the place all the way past Saudi Arabia? Don't know.
    Iyov will later talk about how 'all his friends abandoned him.' Whether he means these three abandon him because he disagrees with them, or means that all his other friends besides these three didn't show up is not clear. These ones clearly become another test from the Satan to see what Iyov will do.
    לָבוֹא לָנוּד לוֹ
    10. Shaking their heads Isaiah 51:19; Psalms 44:15 and 69:21 This phrase, לנוד ראש, is used elsewhere in Tanach to indicate an act of grieving. (Literally "to shake") 11. Commentary of Rabbi Avraham ibn Ezra to 2:11 ממשפחת תימן בן אליפז בן עשו... והקרוב אלי כי הוא ספר מתורגם על כן הוא קשה בפירוש כדרך כל ספר מתורגם Of the family of Teiman son of Eliphaz son of Esav… To me, the most likely explanation is that it is a translated book, and therefore it is hard to interpret, like all translated books. (This should have been in the intro, but he hadn't seen it yet. R'Torcz doesn't find this religiously problematic, but it's not at all clear where he gets this from. Spinoza quotes this twice, and says he wishes Ibn Ezra had substantiated it somewhat.)
    יִּשְׂאוּ אֶת עֵינֵיהֶם מֵרָחוֹק וְלֹא הִכִּירֻהוּ,‏
    They didn't recognize him. Daat Mikra says it's because the boils were disfiguring, but R'Torcz thinks it might be like the people's failure to recognize Naomi when she returns impoverished, alone and starving: the wealthy and well-known Iyov with the enormous family is now penniless, filthy and alone in the ashes, scratching his boils with a piece of pottery.
    וַיֵּשְׁבוּ אִתּוֹ לָאָרֶץ, שִׁבְעַת יָמִים וְשִׁבְעַת לֵילוֹת;‏
    This sounds like shiva. 12. Seven days Bereishit 50:10 When Yaakov passes away, they sit אבל שבעת ימים. They're late; nonetheless, it's not so much that they have an obligation to mourn as עמו אנכי בצרה - being with him in his suffering, performing the acts of grieving because they're grieving for their friend who has been completely devastated. Seven days and seven nights - emphasizing the completeness of it.
    וְאֵין דֹּבֵר אֵלָיו, דָּבָר--כִּי רָאוּ, כִּי גָדַל הַכְּאֵב מְאֹד.‏
    And they are silent; they don't actually have words that they can offer. Silence - apparently shock. 13. Talmud, Moed Katan 28b אמר רבי יוחנן: אין מנחמין רשאין לומר דבר עד שיפתח אבל, שנאמר אחרי כן פתח איוב את פיהו והדר ויען אליפז התימני. Rabbi Yochanan said: The consolers are not permitted to speak until the mourner opens, as it is written, "Job opened his mouth" and then "Eliphaz of Teiman responded…" We trace the (modern-day shiva) practice of not speaking until spoken to by the people in mourning to this.
    The problem is that in the book it seems to be a negative, angering Iyov.
    They perform the deeds of mourning, but they have nothing to offer beyond that. Their inability to offer comfort seems to be another step drawing him towards blasphemy - even his [presumably] closest friends having nothing whatsoever to say to make him feel better.
    In summary:
    < /seventhclass >


    Iyov curses.

    This perek is obviously a very critical one in establishing what's going to happen for the rest of the sefer. He says he wishes he had never been born, talks about how death is better than life
    Chapter 3

    Iyov's Curse

    Outline
    • 3:1 Introduction
    • 3:2-9 Cursing the day of his birth, and the night of his conception
    • 3:10-19 Death would be preferable to suffering
    • 3:20-26 Why does Gd force people who suffer to remain alive?
    1. Not the only one Jeremiah 20:14-18 יד אָרוּר הַיּוֹם, אֲשֶׁר יֻלַּדְתִּי בּוֹ: יוֹם אֲשֶׁר-יְלָדַתְנִי אִמִּי, אַל-יְהִי בָרוּךְ.


    טו אָרוּר הָאִישׁ, אֲשֶׁר בִּשַּׂר אֶת-אָבִי לֵאמֹר, יֻלַּד-לְךָ, בֵּן זָכָר--שַׂמֵּחַ, שִׂמְּחָהוּ.
    14 Cursed be the day wherein I was born; the day wherein my mother bore me, let it not be blessed.

    15 Cursed be the man who brought tidings to my father, saying: 'A man-child is born unto thee'; making him very glad.
    טז וְהָיָה הָאִישׁ הַהוּא, כֶּעָרִים אֲשֶׁר-הָפַךְ יְהוָה וְלֹא נִחָם; וְשָׁמַע זְעָקָה בַּבֹּקֶר, וּתְרוּעָה בְּעֵת צָהֳרָיִם.


    יז אֲשֶׁר לֹא-מוֹתְתַנִי, מֵרָחֶם; וַתְּהִי-לִי אִמִּי קִבְרִי, וְרַחְמָה הֲרַת עוֹלָם.


    יח לָמָּה זֶּה מֵרֶחֶם יָצָאתִי, לִרְאוֹת עָמָל וְיָגוֹן; וַיִּכְלוּ בְּבֹשֶׁת, יָמָי. {פ}
    16 And let that man be as the cities which the LORD overthrew, and repented not; and let him hear a cry in the morning, and an alarm at noontide;17 Because He slew me not from the womb; and so my mother would have been my grave, and her womb always great.

    18 Wherefore came I forth out of the womb to see labour and sorrow, that my days should be consumed in shame? {P}
    This idea of cursing the day he was born is not unique to Iyov - here we see Yirmiyahu cursing the day he was born, the man who told his father of his birth, etc. Characteristic of a lament in tanach is 1) calling to Gd for help, which we will not see in this chapter. 2) complaining about a specific enemy causing him misery. We see neither of these things here: It's a little useless to cry out to Gd when it's Gd causing all of this.

    In general, Ralbag on Iyov goes through the chapter explaining words, and minimally explaining sentences, and then at the end of the chapter, gives כלל העולה מן הדברים, what comes out of everything, and then traces back through the chapter showing how the philosophical idea embedded there plays out. (So, words then ideas.) 2. Ralbag, Summary of the chapter דעת איוב היה שכל מקרי האדם הם מסודרים ומוגבלים לפי מערכת הככבים בעת הלידה ולזה קלל היום שנולד בו לחשבו כי הוא היה סבת הרעות שקרהו וקלל ליל ההריון להיותו מורה על איכות מה שיקרה לעובר ברחם ועת צאתו מרחם... וקלל יום הלידה תחלה להיותו מורה בעצמות ראשונה על מקרי האדם בחייו וקלל ליל ההריון אחר זה להיותו מורה בשנית עליהם Job's view was that all of a person's experiences are ordered and bounded in accordance with the arrangement of the stars at his birth. Therefore he cursed the day on which he had been born, thinking that this was the cause of the evils which had befallen him. And he cursed the night of his conception as well, because it affects the experience of the fetus in the womb, and the time of its departure from the womb… He cursed the day of birth first because it exerts the primary influence upon the events of a person's life, and then he cursed the night of conception because it exerts secondary influence upon them. Iyov, whose suffering doesn't fit his actions at all, has come to believe that everything is caused by the constellations. Not that there is no Gd - he's talking to someone that he thinks exists - but that Gd is not influencing events; that things are being orchestrated by someone or something else; that Gd has outsourced the universe to the stars.
    So when he curses the day he was born - determinism: everything he was going to experience was set the day he was born. The way the stars were determined his entire path, and this was always going to happen to him. (Brief digression here.)
    It's almost as if this is a lament with the 'enemy' role filled by the day he was born, which predisposed him to all these things . 3. Michael Fishbane, Jeremiah IV 23-26 and Job III 3-13, A Recovered Use of the Creation Pattern, Vetus Testamentum (April 1971) Bereishit 1; Jeremiah 4:23-26; Job 3:3-13 Hints of parallels between his cursed day and night and the day and night of creation
    3:1 Introduction to a Curse 4. Leo Perdue, Wisdom in Revolt: Metaphorical Theology in the Book of Job, pg. 97 With seven incantations Job attempts to destroy his arch-enemies, Day and Night, not merely the times associated with his own birth, though they are certainly included, but the very temporal structure which separates and maintains the created order… By the language of curse encapsulating the powers of primordial chaos opposing the cosmos since the beginning, Job engages in a frontal assault on creation. Wonder who this is... look this up later. Perdue and Fishbane tend to rely heavily on other ancient texts contemporary to Iyov which seems hard considering how unclear Iyov's dating is that they believe fit the same pattern and are doing the same thing.
    What they are suggesting is not merely an expression of being miserable, nor a statement of cursing the day and night that are causing me to suffer now, but a curse attempting to destroy everything that exists.
    There are people who take the poetry of this as an indication that Iyov is a mashal (people don't talk like this) but it doesn't have to indicate that; it could just as well be that when his story was written down the recorders gave it style.
    אַחֲרֵי־כֵן,‏
    After that: after the silence of his deep mourning. Caused by the silence.
    פָּתַח אִיּוֹב אֶת־פִּיהוּ,‏
    Iyov opened his mouth (dramatic buildup)
    וַיְקַלֵּל אֶת־יוֹמוֹ.‏
    And he cursed his day. In contrast to his friends who cannot speak, he will speak, and what emerges is a curse.
    But what word would we expect, based on what is used in the book until now? ברך! It should say ברך את יומו. Why קלל? One possibility is that this isn't about Gd (and that until now we've used ברך because we didn't want to talk about cursing Gd). Another possibility from Malbim about קלל in general: 5. Commentary of Malbim to Shemot 22:27 יש הבדל בין "מקלל" ובין "מארר", שהקללה הוא מציין הדבור, והוא משתתף עם קלה... שהוא הפך הכבוד, רק ש"קלל" בכפל הוא מורה בזיון יותר, ו"ארר" מציין הפעולה ששולח בו גרעון ומזיק לו בדבורו והוא הפך הברכה... There is a distinction between קלל and ארר.z קלל indicates speech, using קלה ("light")… which is the opposite of honour. It is only that קלל doubles it, indicating greater disgrace. ארר indicates action, sending reduction to the target and harming it with his speech. This is the opposite of blessing. Speech as opposed to action. Lightness - the opposite of כבוד, of honor. The doubled ל intensifies the word: greater disgrace. It suggests despising his day. 6. Valerie Pettys, Let there be Darkness, Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (2002) When creation is made senseless, the original design can no longer be taken seriously. There's disdain for Creation being expressed in his curses here.
    וַיַּעַן אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר
    Not "answer" but "declare". Strange. You think of someone grieving - you wouldn't expect a declaration. 7. Commentary of Rashi to Job 3:2 "ויצעק", שכל ענייה האמורה בתורה אינה אלא לשון הרמת קול. ואב לכולם "וענו הלוים קול רם" (דברים כז:יד) "And he cried", for every ענה in the Torah is only a raising of one's voice. The source for all is Devarim 27:14. He cried out.
    ג יוֹם אִוָּלֶד בּוֹ וְהַלַּיְלָה אָמַר הֹרָה גָבֶר.
    This is an introductory statement to the curse -
    "The day on which I was born should be destroyed, and the night on which it was declared 'a male is conceived.'"
    Classic read, as per Rashi, supported by Metzudas Dovid: Had that night not happened, I would never have been born. 8. Commentary of Rashi to Job 3:3 הלואי ויאבד היום שהייתי עתיד להולד בו ואז לא הייתי נולד I wish that the day I would be born would be destroyed, so that I would then not be born. 9. Commentary of Metzudat David to Job 3:3 היום אשר נולדתי בו יהיה אבוד ר"ל בכל שנה כשיבוא היום ההוא יהיה בו חושך עד שיהיה אבוד ממנו שם יום: The day I was born should be destroyed, meaning that every year, when that day comes, it should be dark, to the point that it would lose the title of "day". My birthday shouldn't even be a day on the calendar.
    Remember, we're reading this on three levels at the same time: (Someone asked: How can he wish for the nonexistence of all of Creation just because of his own suffering?)
    When someone is embedded in grief, the rest of the world doesn't exist. When someone is really suffering, they can't understand how things are normal for everybody else. How is it that cars are going by on the road, and no one understands what I am going through?
    On the philosophical level, if we take the philosophical read, what he's upset about is not about his own suffering per se; he's angry that there exists a universe in which someone can very carefully do everything right and yet horrible things can happen, and he's saying, "This universe shouldn't exist." That level can't be ignored; he's going to express that more explicitly later in the book.
    ד הַיּוֹם הַהוּא יְהִי חֹשֶׁךְ אַל־יִדְרְשֵׁהוּ אֱלוֹהַּ מִמָּעַל וְאַל־תּוֹפַע עָלָיו נְהָרָה׃ That day should be darkness; Gd above should not seek it out. Light should not be manifest on it. [נהרה - Aramaic: Light]. ה יִגְאָלֻהוּ חֹשֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָוֶת תִּשְׁכָּן־עָלָיו עֲנָנָה יְבַעֲתֻהוּ כִּמְרִירֵי יוֹם׃ It should be claimed by darkness and צלמות [among other possible translations, "The shadow of death."]. Clouds should settle upon it. It should be made frightened - there should be terror upon the day. He's personifying the day: "The day has harmed me, the day should be made to suffer." מרירי יום - an odd phrase. Rashi says it refers to demons. Daat Mikra renders it as a black cloud. Either way, the point is that he's saying the day itself should suffer.
    Also - echoes of the language of creation again.
    See the poetry: He begins ד with יום and ends ה with the word יום again. Between ה and ו he uses five different hebrew words to refer to darkness.
    And now ו-ט are about the night:
    ו הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יִקָּחֵהוּ אֹפֶל אַל־יִחַדְּ בִּימֵי שָׁנָה בְּמִסְפַּר יְרָחִים אַל־יָבֹא׃ That night should be taken by darkness; it should not rejoice [or be unified] with the other days of the year. It should not enter into the count of the months. [It should drop out of the calendar.] ז הִנֵּה הַלַּיְלָה הַהוּא יְהִי גַלְמוּד; אַל־תָּבֹא רְנָנָה בוֹ׃ That night should be גלמוד. [Can mean mournful, but also used to refer to someone who has no family, as it is used in Eicha. He is now גלמוד, and curses the night to be thus.] It should not have any joy. ח יִקְּבֻהוּ אֹרְרֵי־יוֹם, הָעֲתִידִים עֹרֵר לִוְיָתָן׃ The ones who cursed the day should curse this; those who will awake the Leviatan. [The Leviathan is going to figure into this book in multiple ways. But these people are ... professional cursers. Like Bilam. He's calling on them to help him]
    ט יֶחְשְׁכוּ כּוֹכְבֵי נִשְׁפּוֹ יְקַו־לְאוֹר וָאַיִן וְאַל־יִרְאֶה בְּעַפְעַפֵּי־שָׁחַר׃
    [The previous sentences each had two clauses; now he brings three.] The stars of its dusk should darken; it should long for light, but there will be none, and it should not see the first light of the dawn. [He's moving through the night - see the beginning of the night, the stars that emerge then, the middle of the night, and the dawn. He's talking about the night as an entity, a being.]
    So now he's done with the day and the night.
    Now we move to the part of the פרק in which he says that he would prefer death.
    י כִּי לֹא סָגַר דַּלְתֵי בִטְנִי וַיַּסְתֵּר עָמָל מֵעֵינָי׃
    [Why am I cursing the night?]
    Because it didn't close the door of my womb. [The belly from which I emerged. Had he done that,] he would have hidden struggle from my eyes. [עמל, like in Kohelet, is used to refer to painful, exhausting, worthless struggle. He says, if I had just remained inside, I wouldn't have been exposed to this.]
    יא לָמָּה לֹּא מֵרֶחֶם אָמוּת מִבֶּטֶן יָצָאתִי וְאֶגְוָע׃ Why didn't I just die there from the womb; or at least I would have come out of the womb and died יב מַדּוּעַ קִדְּמוּנִי בִרְכָּיִם וּמַה־שָּׁדַיִם כִּי אִינָק׃ Why was it that I was produced from the womb? Why is it that I was able to nurse? [Why was I moved forward in life? He's progressing through life-stages.] יג כִּי־עַתָּה שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאֶשְׁקוֹט יָשַׁנְתִּי אָז יָנוּחַ לִי׃ Because I would have be more at peace: I would have laid down, I would have been silent, I would have slept. [Again a progression.] And then I would have been able to rest.

    יד עִם־מְלָכִים וְיֹעֲצֵי אָרֶץ הַבֹּנִים חֳרָבוֹת לָמוֹ׃
    [And then he talks about the wonders of being in the womb: I had pretty good company there!]
    Along with kings, along with the counselors of the land, the people who build up ruins [Either they build up ruins to be monuments, or they build up things that will become ruins. Shades of Ozymandias]
    טו אוֹ עִם־שָׂרִים זָהָב לָהֶם הַמְמַלְאִים בָּתֵּיהֶם כָּסֶף׃ [This will throw off Hebrew readers: We usually take או to mean "or." Here it means "also".] Also with the officers who have all their gold, who fill their houses with silver. טז אוֹ כְנֵפֶל טָמוּן לֹא אֶהְיֶה כְּעֹלְלִים לֹא־רָאוּ אוֹר׃ There I would be like a נפל [a non-viable child], buried away. Not even [because I wouldn't have emerged]. Like infants that have not yet seen light. יז שָׁם רְשָׁעִים חָדְלוּ רֹגֶז, וְשָׁם יָנוּחוּ יְגִיעֵי כֹחַ׃There [in this place with the kings and the counselors], the wicked can't do anything. [רוגז - anger, the violence. Now we also see an instance of Iyov that shows up in liturgy. You'll never sing יום שבתון the same way again.] There, those who are tired will rest. [It is a place of peace.] יח יַחַד אֲסִירִים שַׁאֲנָנוּ; לֹא שָׁמְעוּ קוֹל נֹגֵשׂ׃. There, those who are imprisoned will rest; they will not hear the oppressor יט קָטֹן וְגָדוֹל שָׁם הוּא וְעֶבֶד חָפְשִׁי מֵאֲדֹנָיו׃ Small and great are both there, and the slave is free of his master
    So in this section he said death would be better. The womb is a peaceful place. Why was I dragged out to have to experience this? And then in his next section, he says, "Why isn't Gd going to let me go? Fine, I had to be born. He made sure I survived this long."
    כ לָמָּה יִתֵּן לְעָמֵל אוֹר וְחַיִּים לְמָרֵי נָפֶשׁ׃ Why does Gd give life and light to people of bitter spirit? כא הַמְחַכִּים לַמָּוֶת וְאֵינֶנּוּ, וַיַּחְפְּרֻהוּ מִמַּטְמוֹנִים׃They wait for death and it's not there; they search for it more than they search for buried treasure. כב הַשְּׂמֵחִים אֱלֵי־גִיל יָשִׂישׂוּ כִּי יִמְצְאוּ־קָבֶר׃ People of great joy will be happy when they find a grave כג לְגֶבֶר אֲשֶׁר־דַּרְכּוֹ נִסְתָּרָה וַיָּסֶךְ אֱלוֹהַּ בַּעֲדוֹ׃ [Great irony here:] To the man whose path was נסתרה [could mean hidden - doesn't know where to go - or destroyed.] And Gd covered up for him. [That word ויסך was seen back פרק א פסוק י . Satan used that word, saying "Of course Iyov reveres you; you've protected him!" Apparently the ש and the ס interchange, and it is the exact same word. Don't get caught up in that. Just as Satan said He shielded you (for the good), Iyov says, "I don't want to be shielded!" He wants to leave this world.]
    And now we get to his complaint:
    כד כִּי־לִפְנֵי לַחְמִי אַנְחָתִי תָבֹא וַיִּתְּכוּ כַמַּיִם שַׁאֲגֹתָי׃Before my bread I sigh. [When I come to eat I moan.] My cries flow like water, כה כִּי פַחַד פָּחַדְתִּי וַיֶּאֱתָיֵנִי וַאֲשֶׁר יָגֹרְתִּי יָבֹא לִי׃Because all my life I was afraid [that something terrible was going to happen - that my children were going to sin and as a result were going to be punished] and that which I feared has come to pass. כו לֹא שָׁלַוְתִּי, וְלֹא שָׁקַטְתִּי, וְלֹא־נָחְתִּי - וַיָּבֹא רֹגֶז׃I never had rest, and now this anger, [this violence,] has come upon me.
    10. Commentary of Rashi to Job 3:25 פחד פחדתי - כל ימי עמדתי בפחד על זה כמו שאמרנו (לעיל א) ויהי כי הקיפו וגו': "I was very afraid" – All my life, I was occupied by this fear, as seen in Chapter 1. 11. Karen Langton, Job's Attempt to Regain Control: Traces of a Babylonian Birth Incantation in Job III
    Journal for the Study of the Old Testament (2012) I suggest the author is using Job's incantation to ridicule the idea that humanity, in this case Job, could think he was in control. Job utters the birth incantation to gain control, not to destroy, but his incantation is an impossible spell.
    People who suffer - one of the worst parts of suffering is the lack of control, the inability to change things. He cursed his day, described his womb. It's obvious that wishing to reverse one's birth is impossible, but he's desperate to control something. Unless you're an archaeologist you wouldn't have any clue what he's doing. What she sees here is a rebuke to the reader. When you look at Iyov, it looks ridiculous that someone would think that he could exercise control to the point where he could reverse his birth.
    We do things like this all the time when we try to assert control over something beyond our control. When we're angry, when we're upset about something and we say, "I'm going to make things different," look in the mirror and see Iyov and what he's trying to do here; that's what it's meant to show you.
    Summary
    • Three parts
      • The curse
        • A lament
        • A philosophical statement
        • A curse of destruction against Creation
      • Preference for death, and its peace
      • At least, let there be death now
    • A search for control?

    < /eighthclass >


    It's somewhat difficult to distinguish between the three "friends". They use a poetic, dense language, making it difficult to understand them at all. More, there's overlap - shared language and imagery, and also overlap in their arguments.
    But we do think there's something going on with the three distinct speakers. 1. Commentary of Malbim, Introduction to Job וידוע שספר המחובר בדרך וכוח (דיאלאג) בו ידברו אנשים שונים ויתוכחו איש את אחיו, יהיה מספר הדעות כפי מספר המתוכחים, שכל אחד מן המתוכחים יש לו דעה ושעה מיוחדת שעל פיה יערוך את וכוחו. כי אם לא היה שם רק שני דעות לא היה בעל הספר מעמיד רק שני מתוכחים א' שואל וא' משיב... וכן השתדל הרמב"ם במורה ואחריו כל ישרי לב ליחס לכל אחד מן הריעים דעה מיוחדת. It is known that a book composed of dialogues, in which various people speak and debate with each other, the number of views matches the number of debaters, each of the debaters holding a unique view and a unique time in which he presents his position. If there were only two views, the author of the book would have presented only two debaters, one asking and one responding… And so Rambam, in his Guide, and after him all of straight heart, tried to associate a unique view with each of the friends. אולם בבואם עם הספר, לבאר ולפרש את דבריו בדרך זה, לא מצאו בו כל אנשי חיל ידיהם, כי במעט השקפה תראה ערוב כבד משחית את כל סדור הספר מראש עד סוף. שמלבד שאינו שומר שום סדר, אין שואל כענין ואין משיב כהלכה כראוי להיות בוכוח עיוני שישתלשלו הדברים זה מזה בדברים מסודרים ונערכים ומתיחסים זה לזה בסדר הגיוני והילוך שכלי, ושתהיה התשובה תשובת השאלה והשאלה שאחריה סתירת התשובה, כי באו הדברים מעורבבים ומופסקים זה מזה. חוץ מזה ישנה וישלש כל מתוכח דברים שכבר אמרם, וכל אחד יכנס בגבול חברו, מגנבי דברים איש מאת רעהו ומדברי שטתו, ויסתור את דברי עצמו... However, when they came to the book, to explain and clarify its words in this manner, the mighty people could not find the means. With a little examination you will see "a heavy arov" destroying the entire arrangement of the book, beginning to end. Aside from the fact that it does not observe any order, no one asks on point and answers on point, as should happen in an analytic debate in which positions flow from each other in an orderly, structured manner, arranged and relating to each other in a logical order and following an intelligible path, with the response answering the question and then the next question countering the response. The words come mixed in and disjointed from each other. Aside from this, each debater repeats twice and three times that which he has already said, and each enters the area of his peer, stealing words from each other and from their positions, and contradicting their own… If all three of them were expressing the same idea then there wouldn't be three different speakers.
    Malbim is going to spend the rest of the book trying to identify the different views of the three "friends".
    There are other possible reasons - to show them coming from different places, or something - but we're going to try to follow Malbim's position, assuming that there are views that we can identify as uniquely Eliphaz, uniquely Bildad or uniquely Tzofar.

    Eliphaz seems to be the most important.
    He speaks first, and Elihu later mentions waiting until the others have spoken, because he is junior to the others; implies that Eliphaz, who speaks first, is most senior. He also speaks the longest of all of them, and in great poetic style: A lot of imagery, interesting style, etc. Eliphaz speaks in perakim 4,5, (first round) 15 (in 2nd round), and 22 (round 3). (It might be an interesting exercise to read through just Eliphaz's arguments to see if you can follow a thread through it all. [Still Rabbi Torcz talking, not my own suggestion.])
    Rambam's understanding of Eliphaz's view: (Remember, according to Rambam [and Ralbag] Sefer Iyov is about Divine supervision of the different events that happen in this world, as well as different philosophies about Gd's attention to the affairs of this world.) 2. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:23 דעת אליפז בזה המאורע הוא גם כן אחת מן הדעות הנאמרות בהשגחה, וזה שהוא אמר שכל מה שחל באיוב היה חולו על צד הדין, כי היו לו חטאים היה ראוי בגללם למה שחל בו, והוא אמרו לאיוב "הלא רעתך רבה ואין קץ לעונותיך. (כב:ה)" אחר כן התחיל לומר לאיוב שזה שאתה חושב אותו ונשען עליו מיושר הפעולות ללכת בדרכים המעולים, אינו ענין מחייב שתהיה שלם אצל ד' עד שלא תענש, "הן בעבדיו לא יאמין...(ד:יח-יט)." ולא סר אליפז מלכת בזה הדרך, ר"ל האמינו כל מה שישיג האדם שהוא במשפט, וחסרונותינו כלם אשר נתחייב בעבורם העונש תעלם ממנו השגתם ואפני התחייבנו העונש בעבורם. Eliphaz's view on these events was like one of the views voiced regarding Divine supervision. [It is] as he said, that all that happened to Job was a function of justice, for Job had sins for which he deserved that which happened to him. Thus he said to Job (22:5), "Is your wickedness no great, and is there no end to your sins?" Then he began to tell Job, "That which you think, and upon which you depend, from the righteousness of your actions, walking in elevated paths, does not necessarily mandate that you should be considered complete with Gd to the point that you would not be punished. "For in His servants He does not trust… (4:18-19)" And Eliphaz never left this path, meaning his belief that whatever happens to a person is just, and that we fail to grasp all of our failings for which we deserve this punishment, and how we came to deserve punishment for them. Everything that happens to Iyov is fundamentally just. It must be a punishment for sins that Iyov must have done.
    Notice - Rambam is bouncing back and forth between rounds of discussion here. What he has done is inverted a very important sequence in what Eliphaz does: Eliphaz is going to evolve regarding what he says about Iyov. He goes from "Iyov, you're a good man. Your suffering has made you angry, which is foolish; turn to Gd and He'll take care of you again," (a fairly gentle statement, by and large) in round one, to a (second-round) indignation about how he speaks about Gd, to (3rd-round) "I know you've sinned!" He's going to accuse Iyov of terrible things. Either he believes this from the start but is too polite to say it, or something happens in the way Iyov expresses himself in round two that triggers Eliphaz to change his view.
    You find several pesukim in this section that make it into the liturgy. See וְעֹלָתָה, קָפְצָה פִּיהָ. Compare ועלתה תקפץ פיה, from the Rosh HaShana davening - a wish that in the future evil will close its mouth. Another one: וּפָקַדְתָּ נָוְךָ, וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא. is apparently in the blessing of children on yom kippur, 4:18 (?), 5:9 " ט עֹשֶׂה גְדֹלוֹת, וְאֵין חֵקֶר; נִפְלָאוֹת, עַד-אֵין מִסְפָּר. "
    The themes we're going to see in Eliphaz's remarks are basically indirect rebuke; not turning on Iyov directly (depends how you take 4:6); content: Gd is wonderful and powerful, human beings are frail and sinful. Turn to Gd and you'll be better off.

    You are not meant to side with Eliphaz. Keep this in mind. See it here in the Gemara, on onaat devarim: 3. Talmud, Bava Metzia 58b "[ו]לא תונו איש את עמיתו" (ויקרא כה:יז) באונאת דברים. הא כיצד? אם היה בעל תשובה אל יאמר לו "זכור מעשיך הראשונים," אם היה בן גרים אל יאמר לו "זכור מעשה אבותיך," אם היה גר ובא ללמוד תורה אל יאמר לו "פה שאכל נבילות וטריפות, שקצים ורמשים בא ללמוד תורה שנאמרה מפי הגבורה." אם היו יסורין באין עליו, אם היו חלאים באין עליו, או שהיה מקבר את בניו, אל יאמר לו כדרך שאמרו לו חביריו לאיוב, "הלא יראתך כסלתך, תקותך ותם דרכיך זכר נא מי הוא נקי אבד."

    "And you shall not abuse each other (Vayikra 25:17)" – This is verbal abuse. How? If he had repented, he should not say to him, "Remember your first deeds." If he was descended from people who had converted, he should not say to him, "Remember your parents' deeds." If he had converted, and he had now come to learn Torah, he should not say to him, "The mouth that ate non-kosher will now learn the Torah spoken by the mouth of Gd!" If he is suffering, if he is ill, or he buries his children, one should not say to him as his friends said to Job, "Your reverence is your confidence [or: foolishness], your hope and the end of your path. Remember: Who is innocent and is destroyed?"
    What Eliphaz is doing is verbal abuse.

    Eliphaz first.

    4. Outline
  • 4:1-11 Suffering happens for a reason
  • 4:12-21 Man is no competition for Gd
  • 5:1-26 Eliphaz's suggestion: Stay with Gd
  • Conclusion (5:27)
  • Keep in mind these question: What is Eliphaz trying to accomplish?
    As you hear him speak to Iyov, how do you hear him responding, knowing what we know about him?
    4:1-6 Requesting permission to speak
    א וַיַּעַן אֱלִיפַז הַתֵּימָנִי, וַיֹּאמַר. Eliphaz declared [remember, it's not to respond but to declare (maybe that's the problem with this book: there's a lot of declaring and not so much responding. That may be part of the problem that Malbim was pointing out.)] and he said:

    ב הֲנִסָּה דָבָר אֵלֶיךָ, תִּלְאֶה? וַעְצֹר בְּמִלִּין מִי יוּכָל?.
    [This is his request for permission to speak]
    [Several possible translations here.]
    Rashi:‎
    הבעבור שניסה דבר אליך, תלאה בנסיון אחד שניסך בוראך? Because a test came to you, will you be exhausted with the one test with which your Creator tested you?‎
    If I were [or if someone were] to attempt to speak to you, would you be worn out by it? But who can refrain from speaking? [What choice do I have? I feel compelled to speak, because -]
    ג הִנֵּה יִסַּרְתָּ רַבִּים, וְיָדַיִם רָפוֹת תְּחַזֵּק. Because you rebuked many people. [I know you, Iyov, and I remember that when people suffered you rebuked them.] And you strengthened weak hands. [When people were weak, you gave them chizuk.] ד כּוֹשֵׁל יְקִימוּן מִלֶּיךָ, וּבִרְכַּיִם כֹּרְעוֹת תְּאַמֵּץ. When people stumbled, your words picked them up, and when knees buckled you strengthened them. ה כִּי עַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֵלֶיךָ וַתֵּלֶא, תִּגַּע עָדֶיךָ וַתִּבָּהֵל. Now this is going to happen to you, and you're going to be worn out by it? It's going to touch you, and you are going to be confused? [So I am going to strengthen you.][Or, another translation-possibility - if something were to happen to you - I can't believe that you are going to be exhausted by this. We chose the other interpretation because this whole subsection is his apologetic request to speak, so that way seems to fit better. There are reasonable arguments for both translations.]

    ו הֲלֹא יִרְאָתְךָ כִּסְלָתֶךָ, תִּקְוָתְךָ וְתֹם דְּרָכֶיךָ
    [And this pasuk is important but hard to render, and there are various other ways to understand it.]
    Your reverence for Gd is your strength, that in which you trust, your hope, the תמימות (completeness) of your path. [Iyov, you've been a wonderful person all these years, strengthening others, so now let me speak to you, and let your faith carry you.]
    What we just translated as "your source of confidence/strength", "כסל", is the same word as "fool", so another literal translation, taken by Rashi, is that this is actually an attack on Iyov: "When bad things happened to other people you told everyone that they should just trust in Gd, that everything's going to be ok. And now you turn around and curse the day you were born? (or try to tear down heaven and earth or assorted other interpretations we saw last week.) How dare you? It turns out that all your fear of Gd was just foolishness."
    כסל is an interesting word. It can mean bitachon, and the reason to go with that translation is that we will find this word appear twice more in Iyov, and the other two are clearly a function of faith. We'll see it again in 8:14 and 31:24. (and maybe 9:9 - the same root seems to be the name of a constellation.
    The Olam haTanach notes that the word כסל in ancient near eastern languages can refer to a muscle, and that it becomes a term for something that you trust, a source of strength.
    One other approach to that pasuk: 5. Commentary of Metzudat Dovid to 4:6 הלא עתה נראה למפרע שכל יראתך היתה למען בטחונך בה להשיג מבוקשך ע"י ולא מדעת שלימה מיראת הרוממות: It now appears, in retrospect, that all of your reverence was because of your faith that this would provide that which you sought. It was not from a complete mind, from reverence for Gd's greatness. You had reverence for Gd because you trusted that it would lead to good for you. You trusted in your reverence. (Eliphaz is in this read supporting the view of the Satan about why people do good things.)
    4:7-11 The wicked suffer
    ז זְכָר נָא מִי הוּא נָקִי אָבָד, וְאֵיפֹה יְשָׁרִים נִכְחָדוּ. Remember now - who is innocent and destroyed, and where do we see that righteous people are wiped out? [Doesn't happen, he says.] ח כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי חֹרְשֵׁי אָוֶן. וְזֹרְעֵי עָמָל יִקְצְרֻהוּ. As I saw people who plot wickedness, and those who plant struggle [Not struggling to accomplish something but vain and empty struggle] harvest it [that struggle - variations on this image are found in various neviim.] ט מִנִּשְׁמַת אֱלוֹהַ יֹאבֵדוּ, וּמֵרוּחַ אַפּוֹ יִכְלוּ. [Not neshama but neshima] From the breath of Gd the wicked ones are destroyed, and from the breath of Gd's [nostrils/rage] they will be destroyed י שַׁאֲגַת אַרְיֵה וְקוֹל שָׁחַל, וְשִׁנֵּי כְפִירִים נִתָּעוּ. The roar of the lion, the voice of the young lion, the teeth of the young lions are broken/disappear יא לַיִשׁ אֹבֵד מִבְּלִי טָרֶף, וּבְנֵי לָבִיא יִתְפָּרָדוּ. [Another word for] lion [of some kind or other] is destroyed without any prey, and the sons of the lioness are destroyed. [like יתפרדו כל פועלי און]
    You deserved it.
    Eliphaz speaks a very poetic style. So many images: חֹרְשֵׁי אָוֶן וְזֹרְעֵי עָמָל יִקְצְרֻהוּ. People who plow, people who plant and people who harvest, in progression. Like Iyov's progression about night in the previous perek, and also with being in the womb -> labor -> birth -> nursing.
    And of course the five different terms for lions.
    ז זְכָר נָא מִי הוּא נָקִי אָבָד וְאֵיפֹה יְשָׁרִים נִכְחָדוּ.
    He begins remember. Get a grip on yourself, and what you yourself believe. I know you believe that if bad things happen, it's a function of having been bad. The word אבד appears three times in this section - to be lost or to be destroyed. He's saying: If people are good, they will not be destroyed, though they may suffer. The wicked will be destroyed. 6. Commentary of Ralbag to 4:7 הנקיים והישרים ואם היה שיגיעום קצת רעות אינם מכלות ומאבדות אותם לגמרי כמו העניין ברעות הרשעים וזה לאות שאלו הרעות אינם נופלות במקרה כמו שאתה מניח ר"ל שאם היה הענין כן לא היה בזה הבדל בין הישרים והרשעים Those who are innocent and righteous, if some bad reaches them, it does not finish and destroy them entirely, as happens with the bad that befalls the wicked. This demonstrates that these bad events do not happen by chance, as you assume. Meaning – were it so, there would be no difference between the righteous and the wicked. Iyov, you must still be good because you haven't been destroyed.
    4:12-16 Humble introduction of a vision
    יב וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב, וַתִּקַּח אָזְנִי שֵׁמֶץ מֶנְהוּ. To me, a word stole. [I heard something I wasn't worthy of; I was somehow privy to it, overheard, eavesdropped] and my ear heard something, [some small element,] from it. [Note his humility - it'll be gone later but is here now.] יג בִּשְׂעִפִּים מֵחֶזְיֹנוֹת לָיְלָה, בִּנְפֹל תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל אֲנָשִׁים. in שעיפים ["thoughts"] from the visions of the night, when people fall into a deep sleep יד פַּחַד קְרָאַנִי, וּרְעָדָה, וְרֹב עַצְמוֹתַי הִפְחִיד. fear befell me, and trembling, and it intimidated most [or many] of my bones [note the different words - פחד, רעדה] טו וְרוּחַ עַל פָּנַי יַחֲלֹף תְּסַמֵּר שַׂעֲרַת בְּשָׂרִי. a wind blew over my face, and made my hair stand up on end. [yep, that expression's from tanach] טז יַעֲמֹד, וְלֹא אַכִּיר מַרְאֵהוּ - תְּמוּנָה לְנֶגֶד עֵינָי; דְּמָמָה, וָקוֹל אֶשְׁמָע It [what?] stood, and I couldn't make it out - an image before my eyes. I heard silence and a voice.
    וְאֵלַי דָּבָר יְגֻנָּב
    7. Commentary of Rashi to 4:12 ועל אודותיך אלי דבר נבואה יגונב מן הסגנון כדבר גנוב לפי שאין רוח הקודש נגלה על נביאי עובדי כוכבים בפרהסיא Regarding you, a prophetic message stole to me. Stylistically, it was like a stolen item. Because Divine inspiration is not revealed publicly to the prophets of the idolaters. He refers to source8, below. Notice that he's implicitly accepting the assumption that the people here are not Jewish. 8. Talmud, Berachot 7a אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי: שלשה דברים בקש משה מלפני הקב"ה ונתן לו: בקש שתשרה שכינה על ישראל ונתן לו, שנאמר: "הלא בלכתך עמנו", בקש שלא תשרה שכינה על אומות העולם ונתן לו, שנאמר: "ונפלינו אני ועמך", בקש להודיעו דרכיו של הקב"ה ונתן לו, שנאמר: "הודיעני נא את דרכיך."
    Rabbi Yochanan cited Rabbi Yosi: Moshe requested three things of Gd, and He granted them: 1) He requested that the Shechinah be manifest in Israel and Gd granted it, "when You travel with us"; 2) He requested that the Shechinah not be manifest among the nations of the world and Gd granted it, "And we will be set apart." 3) He requested that Gd inform him of His ways and Gd granted it, "please inform me of Your ways."
    9. A time of night and darkness Bereishit 2:21 (Adam), 15:12 (Avraham at brit bein habetarim); Isaiah 29:10 (means "making things obscure.)
    < /ninthclass >


    4:17-21 The Vision: Man is feeble and frail



    יז הַאֱנוֹשׁ מֵאֱלוֹהַ יִצְדָּק אִם מֵעֹשֵׂהוּ יִטְהַר גָּבֶר.
    [lots of possible translations. Artscroll takes "מאלוה" to mean more than Gd, so]
    Can a mortal man be more righteous than Gd?
    Shall a mortal man be just before [in front of] Gd?
    Can a mortal man be acquitted by Gd?

    People usually use Artscroll's, but it doesn't seem to fit the theme: Iyov didn't claim to be more righteous. Perhaps that he's claiming Gd is unjust, and by implication that he has a better sense of justice than Gd. The problem is, Iyov hasn't said anything about Gd yet, so what would Eliphaz be responding to?
    יח הֵן בַּעֲבָדָיו לֹא יַאֲמִין וּבְמַלְאָכָיו יָשִׂים תָּהֳלָה. Gd doesn't even trust his servants, in his angels they have תהלה [some kind of disgrace, inadequacy; somehow related to הוללות, mockery - Even the angels can't live up to Gd's expectations]. יט אַף שֹׁכְנֵי בָתֵּי חֹמֶר אֲשֶׁר בֶּעָפָר יְסוֹדָם יְדַכְּאוּם לִפְנֵי עָשׁ. People, who dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the earth, he will wear them out / lay them low before the worm [עש often is a moth, but here we're talking about something to do with the body decaying.] כ מִבֹּקֶר לָעֶרֶב יֻכַּתּוּ מִבְּלִי מֵשִׂים לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵדוּ. From morning to evening they are struck down; without anybody even paying attention, they perish forever. [What exactly forever means to Eliphaz we will see eventually] כא הֲלֹא נִסַּע יִתְרָם בָּם יָמוּתוּ וְלֹא בְחָכְמָה. [יתרם is understood to be either the string of a bow or the rope that holds a tent taut. A drawn rope.] Their drawn rope is shifted askew, and they die without wisdom.
    Human beings are frail and foolish, in summary, and this is the vision which has come to him. Where did these words come from?
    1. Richard Whitekettle, When More Leads to Less, Journal of Biblical Literature 129:3 (2010) Scholars have found that one rhetorical function of a hyperbole or overstatement is to elicit a “corrective response” from an audience. That is, a person who recognizes something as an overstatement will mentally correct the overstated idea down to the proper level. Neither Job nor Eliphaz believed that a human being could be more righteous than Gd. Thus, when Job was asked whether this was possible in 4:17a, he would have recognized that it was a hyperbolic impossibility. He would, therefore, have responded by making the following downward correction in his mind: “No, a human being cannot be more righteous than Gd; a human being’s level of righteousness is not that high.” Having been compelled by the greater-than rhetorical question to move a human being in a downward direction on a scale of righteousness, Job would have been primed to continue this downward trend via the graded series of items in vv. 18–19. In the course of that series, Job was led to see that, in Eliphaz’s thinking at least, a human being belonged down past Gd, down past the angels, at a level of righteousness that was dramatically described as being amid the dust and moths (v. 19). He's saying, "You think you're greater than Gd," so that Iyov will mentally respond with no of course not that's ridiculous.
    5:1-7 Outrage is self-defeating; Suffering is natural
    א קְרָא נָא הֲיֵשׁ עוֹנֶךָּ וְאֶל מִי מִקְּדֹשִׁים תִּפְנֶה. Call out; is anyone going to answer you? And to which of the מלאכים, the holy ones, will you turn? ב כִּי לֶאֱוִיל יַהֲרָג כָּעַשׂ וּפֹתֶה תָּמִית קִנְאָה. Because a fool is killed by anger, [one of those ס and ש interchanges, as in לתפוס, סוטה, etc] and a fool is killed by outrage [he doesn't translate that word as "jealousy"; thinks it's an incorrect translation. It's sometimes jealousy, but generally speaking it's outrage - indignation about an injustice. He's talking to Iyov, who hasn't expressed any jealousy but is filled with outrage] ג אֲ‍נִי רָאִיתִי אֱוִיל מַשְׁרִישׁ וָאֶקּוֹב נָוֵהוּ פִתְאֹם. I saw a fool [back to אֱוִיל for fool] strike roots [become successful] and I cursed his dwelling suddenly/I predicted that bad things would happen to his dwelling subtly. [The cursing one is somewhat inconsistent with Eliphaz we see.] ד יִרְחֲקוּ בָנָיו מִיֶּשַׁע וְיִדַּכְּאוּ בַשַּׁעַר וְאֵין מַצִּיל. His children are distanced from rescue/salvation. They are crushed / laid low at the gate, and no one saves them. ה אֲשֶׁר קְצִירוֹ רָעֵב יֹאכֵל וְאֶל מִצִּנִּים יִקָּחֵהוּ וְשָׁאַף צַמִּים חֵילָם. His harvest is eaten by somebody who's hungry; they put it into baskets, and their strength/wealth is swallowed up by צמים [seen association with צמאים, those who are thirsty.]
    So the fool was successful, and then everything collapsed.
    ו כִּי לֹא יֵצֵא מֵעָפָר אָוֶן וּמֵאֲדָמָה לֹא יִצְמַח עָמָל. Corruption does not arise from the earth. [The suffering one has does not come out of the ground; it's not the fault of the earth.] ז כִּי אָדָם לְעָמָל יוּלָּד וּבְנֵי רֶשֶׁף יַגְבִּיהוּ עוּף. It's part of being a human being. [Going to render בני רשף as "sparks of flame", but there are other interpretations.] The sons of the flame [the sparks] take wing. [People have to struggle just like the flames have to float up in the air; it's inherent in your nature. Don't blame the universe for the fact that you're struggling; that's life.] Outrage is self-defeating. Accept that suffering is natural! This is the way it goes.
    That's the comfort we're getting here. Boy, is he...
    [In response to "It sounds so much like Koheles.": "Kohelet is less cruel, I feel... but that's because there's no target in Kohelet. Here there's a human target who's suffering.]
    He began by asking, "What's the point of all this noise?" Now, he believes that Gd answers when people call Him; he absolutely believes that. But not when you're calling out this way, cursing your birth. That's not the way to go about it. 2. Commentary of Malbim to 5:1, 5:3 אחר שהודיע התשובה שהשיג ע"ז בנבואה, אמר אליו בל יתפלא מדוע באתהו התשובה ע"י אליפז ולא בא הקדוש שהוא המלאך המגיע את הנבואה... שאחר שהיית אויל ומסופק בהשגחת ד' אינך ראוי שיופיע אליך דבר ד' וקדושיו. After relating the answer he had grasped prophetically, [Eliphaz] said, lest Job be surprised that the answer came via Eliphaz, and the holy one – the malach who brings the prophecy – did not come to him… Since you have been foolish, and you have doubted Divine supervision, you are not fit for Gd's word and for His holy ones to be manifest upon you. Malbim here takes the view that when Iyov is cursing the stars, he's blaming the constellations - so Eliphaz is saying that if he takes that view, why would he expect Gd to listen to him?
    [Interesting split - Eliphaz could be saying, "See, why would Gd listen to you then?" or "See, why would you expect anything else? This should make perfect sense to you, fitting exactly into your worldview!" It's clear from the Malbim that it means the former, and from the pesukim as well, but still an odd blink of what-did-R'T-just-say.]
    Eliphaz: This message came to me to give you because of all the noise you're making, and frankly,
    your outrage is bad for you!
    How? Several possible meanings: 3. Commentary of Ralbag to 5:2 הוא האיש אשר יכוין פעולותיו תכלית מה ולא יבא אל הגעת התכלית ההוא בסבות הראויות... ולזה יהיה כועס תמיד... ויהיה זה סבה שלא יתנהג בזה בסבות הראויות: This is the person who guides his actions toward goals, but he does not reach the goal via proper steps… And therefore he is perpetually angry… And this is why he will not take proper steps. A fool with bad planning and permanent frustration over his failure, and continued failure to take proper steps, because he's frustrated. Ralbag, being practical, says the anger of the fool causes him to suffer, because it blinds him to the lessons he needs to learn. Iyov, Eliphaz says, you're getting all angry about this and you're not thinking it through! Something needs to be changed in your life in order to get different results!
    The approach we've been taking is not a shot at Iyov's morality, but a warning that he's going off in the wrong direction, blaming the wrong parties - that his anger is self defeating practically - but Rashi's take is that this is moral rebuke, and the fool who gets angry is killing himself, and that this in itself is unrighteous, and therefore it makes it less likely that Gd is going to help him, and his anger is morally wrong.
    We could look at Eliphaz on different levels: One is that he's a little obtuse; he doesn't quite get what's going on. Another is that he feels this is a good thing for Iyov to hear right now, and that's why he articulates it in this way. We don't have enough background to say, just like we don't know if this was a real vision he had or something he made up.
    יִרְחֲקוּ בָנָיו מִיֶּשַׁע
    Even the person's children will suffer.
    Metzudat David (Rav David Altschuler) comments that the children will suffer because no one's going to have mercy on them, because no one likes someone who is angry. People don't like being around anger. (As a general rule, leaving nuances aside.) He's going to alienate all of his friends, and therefore the fool loses, not only for himself but for his kids. (That part is obviously not relevant to Iyov, whose kids are gone, but he's make the point that anger alienates.
    כִּי אָדָם לְעָמָל
    4. Commentary of Malbim to 5:7 האדם נולד לעמול ביגיע כפיו, ובעמלו יביא לחמו, והעושה עושר שלא בעמל וביגיע כפים הוא עמל ואון ולא יצמיח ולא יתקיים ביד בניו
    Man is born to strain with his hands, and through his work to bring his bread. One who produces wealth without work is just producing struggle and corruption, and it will not grow and endure in the hands of his children.
    וּבְנֵי רֶשֶׁף יַגְבִּיהוּ עוּף
    So we translated this as, "As sparks of flame fly up, so man is born to struggle," but there are also those who take בני רשף to be demonic force, or birds, with the same idea that as they fly, so man struggles. 5. Jon Burnight, Job 5:7 as a Response to Job's Malediction (3:3-10), Journal of Biblical Literature 133:1 (2014) In effect, Eliphaz is saying that Job, in seeking to eradicate the day of his birth with “gloom,” is speaking as one who venerates Resheph. Given this deity’s association with pestilence, his wording may also serve as an oblique reference to Job’s diseased condition. Job 5:7 might then be translated, “Man is born for trouble, and sons of Resheph exalt gloom.” Eliphaz goes on in 5:8 to contrast himself with Job, asserting that if he were in Job’s place, he would turn to Gd rather than invoke the forces of “darkness.” an idea (from who-is-this?) that Iyov is acting like בני רשף - worshippers of Resheph, apparently a deity of some kind, and עוף not as "fly" but as "gloom." Sons of Resheph exalt gloom, he says, and your response has been like these worshippers of Resheph. Instead of responding in a healthy way, you're saying you wish gloom would take everything.
    5:8-16 Gd does wonderful things
    ח אוּלָם אֲנִי אֶדְרֹשׁ אֶל אֵל וְאֶל אֱלֹהִים אָשִׂים דִּבְרָתִי. But I am going to seek out Gd. [If I were you, Iyov, I would be praying.] I would turn my words towards Gd! [See his poetry, again - the אדרש and אשים דברתי] ט עֹשֶׂה גְדֹלוֹת וְאֵין חֵקֶר נִפְלָאוֹת עַד אֵין מִסְפָּר. [This line is familiar, from liturgy and Tanach.] Gd does great things, beyond what anyone can imagine! Wonders infinite in number. י הַנֹּתֵן מָטָר עַל פְּנֵי אָרֶץ וְשֹׁלֵחַ מַיִם עַל פְּנֵי חוּצוֹת. [and now he talks about the gifts Gd gives.] He gives rain upon the land, and sends water over the outlying areas. יא לָשׂוּם שְׁפָלִים לְמָרוֹם וְקֹדְרִים שָׂגְבוּ יֶשַׁע. He takes those who have been low and elevates them to the heavens [which either refers to people or the plants that grow from the rain], and for קודרים [kodrim is usually a term for someone in mourning, or someone who is lowly to the heavens [again, people or plants]. קדרה is a pot - like, dark - of dark countenance, because he's depressed and upset. I have to find out how much of a stretch that is.] he brings salvation and rescue
    So now he's talked about Gd's gifts. פס' י"ב - ט"ז he talks about how Gd is just. יב מֵפֵר מַחְשְׁבוֹת עֲרוּמִים וְלֹא תַעֲשֶׂינָה יְדֵיהֶם תּוּשִׁיָּה. He (?) the council of those who are clever, and their hands cannot execute a plan. יג לֹכֵד חֲכָמִים בְּעָרְמָם וַעֲצַת נִפְתָּלִים נִמְהָרָה. He traps those who are clever in their cunning, and the council of those who would cheat others [נפתל could, apparently, form its own class, had we the time] is hasty, and it [their plan] collapses. יד יוֹמָם יְפַגְּשׁוּ חֹשֶׁךְ וְכַלַּיְלָה יְמַשְׁשׁוּ בַצָּהֳרָיִם. In the day they will encounter darkness, and like night they will feel their way in the middle of the day. טו וַיֹּשַׁע מֵחֶרֶב מִפִּיהֶם וּמִיַּד חָזָק אֶבְיוֹן. He [Gd] rescues from their sword, from their mouths. [Those they wanted to chop up and eat, so to speak] and from the strong he rescues the indigent טז וַתְּהִי לַדַּל תִּקְוָה וְעֹלָתָה קָפְצָה פִּיהָ. And there is hope for the needy, and [another line we have in R"H davening] iniquity will have its mouth closed up.
    He's saying Gd is wonderful; Gd does great things. Daat Mikra is willing to give Eliphaz a lot of credit. He points out that Eliphaz doesn't say 'you should pray'. He says, I would pray if I were in your position. Indirect.
    י הַנֹּתֵן מָטָר עַל פְּנֵי אָרֶץ וְשֹׁלֵחַ מַיִם עַל פְּנֵי חוּצוֹת.
    The bit about sending the rain on the land and outlying areas caught חז"לs attention - 6. Talmud, Taanit 10a ארץ ישראל משקה אותה הקב"ה בעצמו, וכל העולם כולו על ידי שליח, שנאמר "הנתן מטר על פני ארץ ושלח מים על פני חוצות". Gd waters Israel Himself, and the rest of the world via agent, as in Job 5:10. Gd gives rain on "the land" and only sends rain to "outlying areas."
    Malbim does something else, with rain for the former and water carried by rivers to outlying areas. (Doesn't change anything; this is just for the sake of understanding his vision.) Gd gives, Gd is just, and He is clever in his justice.
    לֹכֵד חֲכָמִים בְּעָרְמָם
    Catching them in their own cleverness, in their own traps.
    It's one thing to block a plot, and another to turn it around so that they succeed in what they're trying to accomplish, and their success will be their worst nightmare. You get the opposite of what you had anticipated.
    For example, selling Yosef: 7. Commentary of Malbim to 5:13 שעת יבחרו החכמים ערמה ותחבולה להרע לחבריהם, לא יפר את עצתם, רק יסבב בהשגחתו שהאמצעיים שהכינו בעצתם להרע הם עצמם יהיו סבה לשיגיע ההפך. כמו שהיה באחי יוסף... When wise people choose cleverness and strategies to harm others, He will not ruin their counsel. Rather, through His supervision He will cause the very means they prepared, in their plan to harm, to be the cause for the opposite to happen. As with the brothers of Joseph… 5:17-26 Gd protects people from harm.
    יז הִנֵּה אַשְׁרֵי אֱנוֹשׁ יוֹכִחֶנּוּ אֱלוֹהַּ וּמוּסַר שַׁדַּי אַל תִּמְאָס. Fortunate is the man whom Gd rebukes! Don't reject what you're getting from Gd, don't reject the suffering. It's good for you, Iyov! [reminder yet again that we don't go with Eliphaz's attitude.] יח כִּי הוּא יַכְאִיב וְיֶחְבָּשׁ; יִמְחַץ וידו [וְיָדָיו] תִּרְפֶּינָה. He causes pain, but He also heals; he strikes, but his hands will also heal. [this phrasing of מחץ ידו ותרפה is seen at the end of Dvarim.] And now we move out of the abstract and into second-person.
    יט בְּשֵׁשׁ צָרוֹת יַצִּילֶךָּ וּבְשֶׁבַע לֹא יִגַּע בְּךָ רָע. In six troubles he will save you [Six troubles?], and in the seventh, bad will not hit you. And now he enumerates the seven:
    כ בְּרָעָב פָּדְךָ מִמָּוֶת; וּבְמִלְחָמָה מִידֵי חָרֶב. In famine, he saves you from death, and in war he saves you from the sword, כא בְּשׁוֹט לָשׁוֹן תֵּחָבֵא וְלֹא תִירָא מִשֹּׁד כִּי יָבוֹא. when the tongue goes forth [several meanings: slander, or being cursed, or the attack of a nation that has another language, or - Rashi: The Satan, who used his tongue against Iyov. Remember, back in פרק א when we meet the Satan and ה asks where he's been, he says מִשּׁוּט בָּאָרֶץ וּמֵהִתְהַלֵּךְ בָּהּ] you will be able to hide; and you will not fear from שוד [destruction, brought by bandits that come to attack you, as opposed to לְשֹׁד וּלְכָפָן תִּשְׂחָק,below], when it comes. כב לְשֹׁד וּלְכָפָן תִּשְׂחָק וּמֵחַיַּת הָאָרֶץ אַל תִּירָא. You will laugh at שוד [this שוד is a reference to plague, according to Amos Chacham, based on a פס in תהלים צ"א] and כפן [famine - evidently different than רעב that we saw before. There's a famine in which nothing grows, and there's a famine in which you don't have access to the food.] and you will not need to fear the wild animals. [So that's the 7 troubles you will be saved from.] כג כִּי עִם אַבְנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה בְרִיתֶךָ וְחַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה הָשְׁלְמָה לָךְ. Your covenant will be with the rocks of the field [they'll be your allies; the world around you will be your ally], and the beasts of the field will be at peace with you. כד וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי שָׁלוֹם אָהֳלֶךָ וּפָקַדְתָּ נָוְךָ וְלֹא תֶחֱטָא. You will know [you will be confident] that your tent will be at peace; you will be able to visit your home and not sin [that is, there will be no sin in your household.] כה וְיָדַעְתָּ כִּי רַב זַרְעֶךָ וְצֶאֱצָאֶיךָ כְּעֵשֶׂב הָאָרֶץ. You will know that your seed are many, and your offspring will be like the grass of the field. כו תָּבוֹא בְכֶלַח אֱלֵי קָבֶר כַּעֲלוֹת גָּדִישׁ בְּעִתּוֹ. He will come in כלח [this word appears only 2x in תנך, both in Iyov [see 30:2], and Ralbag takes it as "the end of your days." Some Bible translator (I wish I knew who these guys he's quoting were. This one is named [alon?] Pinker ) wrote a book called the Bible Translator and makes this כלה לח: when the moisture is done, once the moisture of the body is done, meaning at the end of your life] to the grave, like the haystack is built up and collected and harvested at the proper time. כז הִנֵּה זֹאת חֲקַרְנוּהָ כֶּן הִיא שְׁמָעֶנָּה וְאַתָּה דַע לָךְ. I've examined this. This is the way it is. Listen to it and know it.
    So the 6 and 7. See these: 8. Seven and punishment
    Bereishit 4:15 (לָכֵן כָּל-הֹרֵג קַיִן, שִׁבְעָתַיִם, יֻקָּם);
    Vayikra 26:18 (וְיָסַפְתִּי לְיַסְּרָה אֶתְכֶם, שֶׁבַע עַל-חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם - in bechukotai, enumerating the 7 penalties after warning of sevenfold punishment);
    Daniel 9:24 (שָׁבֻעִים שִׁבְעִים נֶחְתַּךְ עַל-עַמְּךָ וְעַל-עִיר קָדְשֶׁךָ, לְכַלֵּא הַפֶּשַׁע ולחתם (וּלְהָתֵם) חטאות (חַטָּאת) וּלְכַפֵּר עָו‍ֹן, וּלְהָבִיא, צֶדֶק עֹלָמִים; וְלַחְתֹּם חָזוֹן וְנָבִיא, וְלִמְשֹׁחַ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים.)
    כז הִנֵּה זֹאת חֲקַרְנוּהָ כֶּן הִיא שְׁמָעֶנָּה וְאַתָּה דַע לָךְ.
    I've examined this. This is the way it is. Listen to it and know it.
    Strange, because before this was a vision; now it's your own idea? This is one reason it might just be his device.
    So to sum up: Eliphaz I, in review 9. Three points
  • Suffering occurs for a reason, such as Divine rebuke
  • Expressing outrage is foolish
  • There is hope, if you turn to Gd

  • < /tenthclass >
    Quick review: Introduced Eliphaz, his visions and his poetry, his downsloping view of Iyov over the course of his speeches.
    Asks permission to speak, suffering of the wicked, his vision (or device to convey idea): Something I just caught a glimpse of, from the heavens: Humans are feeble and frail and not righteous. outrage is self-defeating, suffering and struggle are natural, fools strike roots and everything collapses around them and their children will not inherit it, and Gd is wonderful and does wonderful things, and you should turn to Gd for help and he will save you from harm, and I know this is the truth.


    Iyov's response will actually answer the points raised by Eliphaz (namely, that suffering happens for a reason, you're foolish if you express outrage over what has happened and there's hope if you turn to Gd.)
    (It's hard to find structure in this book, but it is there.) Why does Eliphaz believe, having seen Iyov's suffering and how he's cursing the day he was born, that this approach is going to comfort Iyov?
    One answer: He's just saying, as if he didn't hear Iyov at all. He was ignoring the signals Iyov was sending; just getting off his party lines, which the person on the other side should accept.
    Another thought: 2. David Clines, Job 5.1-8: A New Exegesis, Biblica 62, pp. 185-194 (1981) [I]t is hard to believe that Eliphaz first proposes to Job a course of action [calling to "holy ones"] Job would not have thought of and then disappoints him by telling him either that it is futile or that it is wicked. It is much more likely that Eliphaz addresses himself to a course of action that he supposes Job to have in mind already… [T]his is the point at which Eliphaz profoundly misunderstands Job. Eliphaz cannot seriously believe that anyone would wish to die, and consequently he interprets Job’s words as a plea for deliverance from his trouble into a calm and peaceful existence (cf. the picture painted by Eliphaz in 5.19-26). In short, Job himself has no wish to appeal to the ‘holy ones’ and in fact never does… whereas Eliphaz can only believe that someone in Job’s position must harbour such an appeal. Eliphaz believes he and Iyov are on the same page. That which Iyov has rejected, appealing to the holy ones, Eliphaz cannot believe someone would reject. Of course, he says, you want to cry out to Gd. Of course you want Gd to take you back. Of course you have hope for a future life that's going to be good (as Eliphaz describes). Everybody wants that! But Iyov has no wish to appeal, and never does. Still, Eliphaz can only believe that someone in Iyov's position must want that.
    People interpret others' actions in light of their own sensibilities. You can say what you want, but they're going to see themselves in your words. That's what drives Eliphaz here.
    And Iyov is not going to like having someone else misread him and say, Oh, turn to Gd and Gd will help you. His response is going to be negative.
    We mentioned the poetry of Eliphaz - his imagery and his synonym-pairs and stuff. We read Eliphaz as being sort of gentle, even if he's kind of insensitive. You're a good person, you just need to call out to Gd, etc. Rashi does not read him this way. Rashi and Ralbag read him as much more harsh and rebuking: "You've had it perfect all your life; will you fail your one test?" 3. Commentary of Rashi to 4:2 ("ב הֲנִסָּה דָבָר אֵלֶיךָ, תִּלְאֶה וַעְצֹר בְּמִלִּין מִי יוּכָל.") הבעבור שניסה דבר אליך, תלאה בנסיון אחד שניסך בוראך?
    Because a test came to you, will you be exhausted with the one test with which your Creator tested you?
    Eliphaz by this read is saying that Iyov's faith was not real; it was foolishness. (They'll be consistent with this view throughout.) 4. Carol Newsom [a professor at the Emory University Atlanta School of Theology. [At class 52, someone challenged Rabbi Torczyner's use of sources that are foreign to Judaism; see his defense below.], Job and His Friends: A Conflict of Moral Imaginations, Interpretations 53:3 (1999) 4:3-4 You helped others transcend rogez, and you can do it yourself
    4:6 You have integrity, you will have a future
    4:6-9 Two types of narrative: Disaster at the beginning, Disaster at the end
    5:8 I would seek Gd, in your position
    5:9-16 There are narratives in which Gd does great things
    5:17-26 Incorporating the discordant into the narrative
    Eliphaz is trying to restore for Iyov a sense of a logical narrative in life.
    Really, Iyov is probably just responding to pain right now.

    Chapters 6-7 Iyov's Response to Eliphaz

    5. Outline
  • 6:1-10 I am angry because of Gd's arrows
  • 6:11-30 You, my friends, have betrayed me
  • 7:1-6 My pain and hopelessness
  • 7:7-21 Gd, why are You doing this to me?
  • Iyov expresses anger at Gd for the first time. He's already wished he was never born, cursed the time-stream, tries to roll back creation according to at least one read, but never talks about Gd.
    Also anger at Eliphaz - your help is not helpful.
    Statements about Gd's supervision, Gd's judgement.
    And then he's going to address Gd directly.

    Iyov's response generally consists of 2-clause verses, with the second half reinforcing the first. Occasionally a 3-clause verse, often indicating the end of a section. 6. Questions worth contemplating:
  • How is this a response to Eliphaz?
  • What is the view of Gd presented here?

  • /* Sefaria text */
    6:1-10 I am angry because of Gd's arrows
    א וַיַּעַן אִיּוֹב וַיֹּאמַר׃ [Same ויען declaration.] And Iyov declared and said,
    ב לוּ שָׁקוֹל יִשָּׁקֵל כַּעְשִׂי והיתי [וְהַוָּתִי] בְּמֹאזְנַיִם יִשְׂאוּ־יָחַד.
    [There are many different possible translations here]
    If my anger could be weighed, and my having-been-broken could be weighed on a scale together,
    ג כִּי־עַתָּה מֵחוֹל יַמִּים יִכְבָּד עַל־כֵּן דְּבָרַי לָעוּ. It would be heavier than the sand of the seas, and that's why my words burst forth from my throat. [Or: therefore my words are scrambled.] ד כִּי חִצֵּי שַׁדַּי עִמָּדִי אֲשֶׁר חֲמָתָם שֹׁתָה רוּחִי בִּעוּתֵי אֱלוֹהַּ יַעַרְכוּנִי. Because the arrows of Gd have been with me [shot into me]; their anger [or poison] my spirit drank. The fright that Gd inflicts is a raid against me. [Note triple-clause ending] I am suffering, and that's why I am miserable. 7. Double language – שקול ישקל
    שָׁקוֹל יִשָּׁקֵל כַּעְשִׂי
    look back at 5:2 - כִּי-לֶאֱוִיל, יַהֲרָג-כָּעַשׂ
    When Eliphaz rebuked Iyov, he said the fool is killed by his anger - why are you so angry, Iyov? And Iyov is responding, If you could only weigh my anger, you'd understand why it isn't so simple to dispel it by saying, well, anger's bad for you. It's heavier than the sand in the sea.
    It's an outright rejection of what Eliphaz said.
    The doubled שקול ישקל - It could be that you, Eliphaz, thought through my experience, and thought, "He's probably angry," - but you didn't take it seriously. Doubling of emphasis: weigh it seriously. Your comprehension is superficial. If you thought about it, you wouldn't take my rage so lightly.
    מֵחוֹל יַמִּים יִכְבָּד;
    It would be heavier than sand. Why sand? 8. Heavier than sand Proverbs 27:3
    ג כֹּבֶד-אֶבֶן, וְנֵטֶל הַחוֹל; וְכַעַס אֱוִיל, כָּבֵד מִשְּׁנֵיהֶם. ד אַכְזְרִיּוּת חֵמָה, וְשֶׁטֶף אָף; וּמִי יַעֲמֹד, לִפְנֵי קִנְאָה.
    ("and the anger of a fool is heavier than both.")
    Associations with Mishlei and Kohelet are particularly important because these three go together as what's called the wisdom literature. By whom? They're supposed to have certain common denominators between them. What does that mean, exactly?
    כִּי-עַתָּה--מֵחוֹל יַמִּים יִכְבָּד;
    Now my anger is heavier... After what? After Eliphaz. Supporting idea that the speech of the visitors is another test being sent to him.
    עַל-כֵּן, דְּבָרַי לָעוּ.
    לעו is an odd word. Sometimes used to refer to a jaw, or chewing. 9. Commentary of Metzudat David to 6:3 בעבור גודל המכאוב לזה דברי המה מגומגמים להרבות בתרעומות ולהסתפק בהשגחה ולומר פעם כך ופעם בהפוך:
    Because of the magnitude of this pain, my words are confused, increasing complaints and doubting Divine supervision, and saying once this and once that.
    This is why he says,
    כִּי חִצֵּי שַׁדַּי, עִמָּדִי--אֲשֶׁר חֲמָתָם, שֹׁתָה רוּחִי
    The arrows of Gd are against me; I drank their poison.
    Remember, Ralbag's take is that Iyov thinks everything is determined by constellations. According to that view, Iyov doesn't believe Gd attacked him and cannot mean that - so instead he points out that Gd is often used in Tanach as a reference for something really great. (עיר גדולה לאלקים, a city great unto Gd [where is this? Is that Ninvei? Score. I wonder where else.] means a really large city.) So these would be mighty, Gd-esque arrows, in Ralbag's read.
    /* Sef */
    Now he asks questions:
    ה הֲיִנְהַק־פֶּרֶא עֲלֵי־דֶשֶׁא אִם יִגְעֶה־שּׁוֹר עַל־בְּלִילוֹ. Will a wild donkey ינהק [some sort of braying. [compare midrash/targumim on Leah going out to Yaakov after the dudaim, when pages available.]] if it has grass? Is an ox going to low if it has its feed? [mixed-up feed, בלול] When animals have food they don't complain. Eliphaz asked why he was complaining, and Iyov's response is, If Gd hadn't taken my life away, (if I [metaphorically] had food) I wouldn't be complaining; I would be just as happy and complacent as you are.
    ו הֲיֵאָכֵל תָּפֵל מִבְּלִי־מֶלַח אִם־יֶשׁ־טַעַם בְּרִיר חַלָּמוּת. Can that which is bland be eaten without salt? Is there any taste in ריר [like saliva, or a thicker, phlegmlike type of thing] of חלמות [this could mean the liquid generated by חלמות, a plant which is chewed and produces something. Someone adds: חלמון in modern Hebrew is the egg white. Translations have all been greens-related.] ז מֵאֲנָה לִנְגּוֹעַ נַפְשִׁי הֵמָּה כִּדְוֵי לַחְמִי. My spirit does not wish to even touch it; this is my impure bread. [Reading דוי like דוה - impure not a word I know; wonder where it's found.] So far he's said he has no food, and is revolted by what he does have.
    ח מִי־יִתֵּן תָּבוֹא שֶׁאֱלָתִי וְתִקְוָתִי יִתֵּן אֱלוֹהַּ. I wish that my request would be granted, that Gd would grant my hope. [The word תקוה is all over this book.] ט וְיֹאֵל אֱלוֹהַּ וִידַכְּאֵנִי יַתֵּר יָדוֹ וִיבַצְּעֵנִי. If Gd would only crush me - release his hand and he would end me. י וּתְהִי עוֹד נֶחָמָתִי וַאֲסַלְּדָה בְחִילָה לֹא יַחְמוֹל כִּי־לֹא כִחַדְתִּי אִמְרֵי קָדוֹשׁ. That would be my consolation. I would tremble in fear. He will not have mercy upon me [we'll explain that more later [hopefully]]. I did not not fail to fulfill any of the statements of the Holy One. [I did everything Gd asked of me.] So there are at least two ways to read this: A very literal level, reducing himself to the level of the animal: He would be happy if he just had food. Daat Mikra notes it's a wild donkey. Other translations as well (Artscroll: cloth. ?)
    Another level: He's complaining about what Eliphaz said to him. Instead of I am complaining because my food is terrible, Iyov is insulting Eliphaz. The best you can do is these bland words talking about how Gd is wonderful, and all I have to do is turn to Gd, and if I'm suffering it's because I'm guilty... what you're saying to me is bland and unattractive. 10. Commentary of Ibn Ezra to 6:5 היושב בהשקט לא ישאג ולא ידאג וכמו כן אתם יאמר איוב לחבריו. ועוד שתדברו דברים שאין בהם ממש וזה טעם היאכל תפל מבלי מלח.
    One who sits at rest will neither roar nor worry, and so are you, says Job to his visitors. Further, you speak words of no substance. This is the meaning of, "Will the bland be eaten without salt".
    I can't swallow what you're telling me. 11. Commentary of Rashi to 6:6 וכי סבורים אתם שיהו מתקבלות תשובות שאין בהם ממש Do you believe that your answers, which lack substance, will be accepted? I have no interest in what you're trying to tell me. In fact, it's like an arrow. (That is, another test.)
    ח מִי־יִתֵּן תָּבוֹא שֶׁאֱלָתִי וְתִקְוָתִי יִתֵּן אֱלוֹהַּ. ט וְיֹאֵל אֱלוֹהַּ וִידַכְּאֵנִי יַתֵּר יָדוֹ וִיבַצְּעֵנִי׃
    >Another arrow (פס ח-י) is being forced to live. Eliphaz: (5:8) If I were you, I would turn to Gd.
    Iyov: You know, funny you should say that. I have a request for Gd. I wish my wish would be granted. I wish that Gd (he uses אלוה now) would give my hope. I wish that Gd (he's still using אלוה) would crush me. That's what he's looking for. 12. Carol Newsom, Job and His Friends: A Conflict of Moral Imaginations, Interpretations 53:3 (1999) In Job's mouth, however, these motifs of psalmic prayer become disarticulated. No longer are they governed by the form of prayer that establishes their meaning. Consquently, Job inflects them with new and disturbing meanings… At one level, Job simply commits an act of linguistic sabotage, rendering the lament literally and figuratively unspeakable. He uses terms we associate with tefilla and tehillim - praise of Gd, appealing to Gd - but in his mouth they become something very different. Familiar indeed. They become an attack on Gd. Once she says it, you see it throughout his speech. He's using the same words for a kind of twisting inversion of the usual attitudes toward Gd, and that tastes like... He's an evil funhouse mirror of the holy concept of prayer.
    וּתְהִי עוֹד נֶחָמָתִי וַאֲסַלְּדָה בְחִילָה לֹא יַחְמוֹל
    Eliphaz is acting like Iyov has already accepted what's happened to him and is ready to move on. Iyov has not accepted what is happening to him - he's still stung.
    The latter half of this pasuk has echoes in ימים נוראים תפילה. They will tremble before you, Gd. יסלדו בחילה לפניך - pulled right out of Iyov.
    וַאֲסַלְּדָה בְחִילָה, לֹא יַחְמוֹל
    I would tremble before Gd, and he doesn't have mercy on me. I know I did everything that He asked. I trembled with awe of him.
    כִּי-לֹא כִחַדְתִּי, אִמְרֵי קָדוֹשׁ.
    There was not a thing that Gd wanted that I didn't do. And so he says, I'm done. [Noting again the triple-clause.]
    < /eleventhclass >


    6:11-30 You, Eliphaz, have betrayed me
    יא מַה־כֹּחִי כִי־אֲיַחֵל וּמַה־קִּצִּי כִּי־אַאֲרִיךְ נַפְשִׁי׃ [Remember, Eliphaz was trying to offer hope. Iyov's rebuttal:] What is my strength even if I do hope for something? And what would be my end if I would be patient? [ What would patience give me? אאריך like ארך אפיים] יב אִם־כֹּחַ אֲבָנִים כֹּחִי אִם־בְּשָׂרִי נָחוּשׁ׃ Is my strength like stones, is my flesh like נחושת? [bronze is still tin-alloy, and brass, zinc.] [My flesh is not metal that I could endure everything. Irony here, because back in 5:23, Eliphaz says, Your covenant will be with the stones - they would be your allies. Iyov says, but I'm not a stone. I can't endure this suffering.] יג הַאִם אֵין עֶזְרָתִי בִי וְתֻשִׁיָּה נִדְּחָה מִמֶּנִּי׃ [One approach, not Rashi's.] [Do I need your advice?] Don't I have my own עזרה? [Can't I help myself? Eliphaz, you walked into my house, you sat there for seven days, and watched me suffer in silence, and then you offered me advice. Frankly, I wasn't looking for advice. You think I don't know what I should be doing?] [תושיה is also a form of counsel, so] You think I don't have counsel for myself? יד לַמָּס מֵרֵעֵהוּ חָסֶד וְיִרְאַת שַׁדַּי יַעֲזוֹב׃ [Going to translate למס as one who is מואס, who doesn't provide חסד for his friends and one who abandons reverence for Gd. You're not giving me חסד, you're not acting in a kind way, and you have abandoned יראת ה.] You're the one who lacks kindness, and you're the one who lacks reverence for Gd. [Don't come tell me what to do. Why does he say Eliphaz lacks reverence for Gd? The Gemara says one who doesn't do chesed lacks יראת ה.]
    So Iyov was previously accused of not having proper reverence for Gd. Particularly striking considering the beginning of the book when we saw him described. Iyov is saying, who are you to talk to me about reverence for Gd?
    1. Lindsay Wilson, The Book of Job and the Fear of Gd, Tyndale Bulletin 46:1 (1995) pp. 68-69 Of the three friends, Eliphaz is the only one to use the word ‘fear (of Gd)’ to Job. He employs the word three times (4:6; 15:4; 22:4), once in each cycle. In each case the object is implied and ‘fear’ is perhaps best translated ‘piety’… The three friends conclude from Job’s adversity that he no longer ‘fears Gd’. Even when they do not use ‘fear of Gd’ terminology, they nonetheless urge Job to ‘fear Gd’ more as the solution to his problems (5:8-9; 8:20; 11:7-20). This advice must be viewed ironically by the reader, since the prologue has demonstrated that this is not the reason for Job’s sufferings. The friends’ analysis of Job’s problem is seen as mistaken by the reader and is later corrected by Gd Himself (42:7, 8). You can't read this book as making fun of Eliphaz, Bildad and Tzofar, while you just sympathize with Iyov. Even though we respond to them with some hostility, there has to be a logic to their position; it has to be tenable, even if at the end Gd will disagree with them. They can't be caricatures.

    But Iyov isn't ready for Eliphaz to come try to solve his problem.

    So Iyov's points are:
  • My attitude is a result of the suffering Gd has inflicted upon me.
  • You, Eliphaz, have betrayed me. I don't need your advice, certainly not in the area of reverence for Gd.
  • and now he moves to a metaphor involving a stream of water:
  • טו אַחַי בָּגְדוּ כְמוֹ־נָחַל כַּאֲפִיק נְחָלִים יַעֲבֹרוּ׃ My brothers [we assume this means his three visitors] have been treasonous like a river; like where the streams emerge, they pass. [The afikim - the channels where the flash floods appear in the negev. The water appears and then is gone.] טז הַקֹּדְרִים מִנִּי־קָרַח עָלֵימוֹ יִתְעַלֶּם־שָׁלֶג׃ Water that is concealed by ice, on them they will be hidden by snow [or snow will pile up] יז בְּעֵת יְזֹרְבוּ נִצְמָתוּ בְּחֻמּוֹ נִדְעֲכוּ מִמְּקוֹמָם׃ But at the time when the sun shines on them and the snow melts, they are cut off. In its warmth, [when things warm up] they are gone from their place. יח יִלָּפְתוּ אָרְחוֹת דַּרְכָּם יַעֲלוּ בַתֹּהוּ וְיֹאבֵדוּ׃ The paths will be twisted, and they will ascend into emptiness and be lost. [the water evaporates; the water we had hoped for is is gone.] יט הִבִּיטוּ אָרְחוֹת תֵּמָא הֲלִיכֹת שְׁבָא קִוּוּ־לָמוֹ׃ The caravans of תמא [Rashi says תמא are the lowlands of Yishmael. Ralbag elaborates. Caravans that travel on this route] hope for the water; those who travel from שבא [where the bandits came from - southern Yemen] hope for it. 2. Commentary of Ralbag to 6:19 זכר אלו השיירות לפי מה שאחשוב לפי שמהלכים היו למקומות הרחוקים כאשר יסעו מן הארץ אשר היה שם איוב, והיה שם באמצע דרכם מדברות לא ישב אדם שם He mentioned these caravans, in my opinion, because they travelled to distant places when they left Job's land, and in the middle of their routes lay uninhabited wilderness. כ בֹּשׁוּ כִּי־בָטָח בָּאוּ עָדֶיהָ וַיֶּחְפָּרוּ׃ But they are crestfallen; they came to it but they were disappointed, כא כִּי־עַתָּה הֱיִיתֶם לא [לוֹ] תִּרְאוּ חֲתַת וַתִּירָאוּ׃ Because now you were to them - not. You saw something frightening, and you were afraid. [You could have been a help to me, but you were not, because you were afraid.] This isn't kri-u-ktiv. This is a variant text. Interesting.

    So what were they afraid of? That what happened to Iyov would happen to them. (So we need to be super-righteous.)
    Until now, it seems like he wanted some kind of validation, support or consolation, to help him deal with the trauma he's just experienced. The stream I thought was going to bring me water, but was in fact dry.
    כב הֲ‍כִי־אָמַרְתִּי הָבוּ לִי וּמִכֹּחֲכֶם שִׁחֲדוּ בַעֲדִי׃ Did I say, give me something? Did I ask you to bribe someone on my behalf? כג וּמַלְּטוּנִי מִיַּד־צָר וּמִיַּד עָרִיצִים תִּפְדּוּנִי׃ To save me from an enemy, or to redeem me from people who are going to be cruel to me? I didn't want anything from you in the first place. Why did you come here?
    He's inconsistent about whether he wants them - which is natural. Coherence is not the way suffering works. This is very real.
    I didn't ask you for anything; I couldn't have asked you for anything. There's nothing you could do.
    Then he does another sort of about-face:
    כד הוֹרוּנִי וַאֲנִי אַחֲרִישׁ וּמַה־שָּׁגִיתִי הָבִינוּ לִי׃ [Tell me where I am wrong.] Guide me, and I will be silent. Where have I made a mistake? Make me understand. כה מַה־נִּמְרְצוּ אִמְרֵי־יֹשֶׁר וּמַה־יּוֹכִיחַ הוֹכֵחַ מִכֶּם׃ [מה נמרצו is difficult - Daat Mikra suggests: מה רע יש בהם - what would be bad in saying things that were righteous? Rashi renders it מה נמלצו - how wondrous/clear/helpful are words of righteousness/straightness.] What rebuke could one of you provide me? [Try to educate me. Words of wisdom are great.] כו הַלְהוֹכַח מִלִּים תַּחְשֹׁבוּ וּלְרוּחַ אִמְרֵי נֹאָשׁ׃ [Note the sound-details.] You think to teach me? What you're bringing me is wind. [empty words.] כז אַף־עַל־יָתוֹם תַּפִּילוּ וְתִכְרוּ עַל־רֵיעֲכֶם׃ Even upon an orphan you would make to fall [תפילו is a term usually used with a lottery. You would cast lots to gain the assets of an orphan,] and you would purchase the rights to your friend. [You would sell your friend.] כח וְעַתָּה הוֹאִילוּ פְנוּ־בִי וְעַל־פְּנֵיכֶם אִם־אֲכַזֵּב׃ And now, turn to me. [Look me in the face.] See if I lie. כט שֻׁבוּ־נָא אַל־תְּהִי עַוְלָה ושבי [וְשׁוּבוּ] עוֹד צִדְקִי־בָהּ׃ [שבו we'll take as תשובה.] Repent, don't let there be corruption, and repent, be righteous. [or, hear the righteousness of my claim.] ל הֲיֵשׁ־בִּלְשׁוֹנִי עַוְלָה אִם־חִכִּי לֹא־יָבִין הַוּוֹת׃ Is there any corruption in my tongue? Does my palate not understand wickedness? [meaning it's not going to produce something wicked.] Tell me my error instead of selling me out the way you've done. Look me in the eye and tell me what you think, based on what I'm actually experiencing.

    Back in pasuk bet he said ב לוּ שָׁקוֹל יִשָּׁקֵל כַּעְשִׂי והיתי [וְהַוָּתִי] בְּמֹאזְנַיִם יִשְׂאוּ־יָחַד - if only my anger could be weighed, and הותי, my suffering, could be together on a scale - and he ended here with הוות as well. Poetic circle.

    Daat Mikra takes return - שֻׁבוּ־נָא אַל־תְּהִי עַוְלָה - to mean that they're actually leaving. (R' Torcz didn't see this possibility anywhere else.)
    Clearly he's upset. It's unclear whether he wants or doesn't want support. ("And I suspect he doesn't know.") But it's clear that what he's saying now to Eliphaz is "I don't want your encouragement. What you're saying doesn't make any sense; my suffering is real; I didn't ask you for help; I wish you would help me in a positive way."

    Ch.7 - his statement here is: you said thing would improve with time. Things are *not* going to get any better over the course of time. He's not *ready* for advice.

    7:1-6 My pain and hopelessness are worse than death
    א הֲלֹא־צָבָ֣א לֶאֱנ֣וֹשׁ על־[עֲלֵי־] אָ֑רֶץ וְכִימֵ֖י שָׂכִ֣יר יָמָֽיו׃ A person has צבא [we use this word colloquially to refer to army, but it means a required set of actions for a specific period of time - like army service. A term of service. A person has work they have to do] on earth, and his days are like that of a contractor ב כְּעֶ֥בֶד יִשְׁאַף־צֵ֑ל וּ֝כְשָׂכִ֗יר יְקַוֶּ֥ה פָעֳלֽוֹ׃ Like a slave, he longs for shade, and like a worker-being-paid, he will hope for the wages for his work. [He's hoping just for a break. This is what people are. They have a set time on earth during which they have a specific set of tasks before them, and what they want is to catch a break and get a little reward for what they've done. This is the third time in this segment that he's used a form of the word תקווה, by the way. the earlier - 6:19 they hope for water, and 6:8 - hoped Gd would grant his desire to die. There will be a fourth. Short discussion.] ג כֵּ֤ן הָנְחַ֣לְתִּי לִ֭י יַרְחֵי־שָׁ֑וְא וְלֵיל֥וֹת עָ֝מָ֗ל מִנּוּ־לִֽי׃ And what do I get? I get empty months, and nights of labor/struggle.. ד אִם־שָׁכַ֗בְתִּי וְאָמַ֗רְתִּי מָתַ֣י אָ֭קוּם וּמִדַּד־עָ֑רֶב וְשָׂבַ֖עְתִּי נְדֻדִ֣ים עֲדֵי־נָֽשֶׁף׃ When I lie down, and I say, when am I going to get up? And the night extends its measure. [the night just keeps on going.] And I am filled with נדדים [as in, בלילה ההוא נדדה שנת המלך or לנדד, wandering like קין] sleeplessness. [נשף is a word for the twilight periods, dusk and dawn, per the gemara in ברכות] ה לָ֘בַ֤שׁ בְּשָׂרִ֣י רִ֭מָּה וגיש [וְג֣וּשׁ] עָפָ֑ר עוֹרִ֥י רָ֝גַ֗ע וַיִּמָּאֵֽס׃ My flesh is clothed with decay and clods of earth. My skin רגע [wrinkled and creased - remember the boils] and repellent ו יָמַ֣י קַ֭לּוּ מִנִּי־אָ֑רֶג וַ֝יִּכְל֗וּ בְּאֶ֣פֶס תִּקְוָֽה׃ My days fly by from [meaning faster than] the weave [that is, a speeding loom] and they end with a loss of תקוה. [Standard meaning of hope, but also - we referred to a loom. תקוה, like קו, is the thread. Life ends when the thread runs out.]
    He has no hope. He's like the slave, the worker who has no hope of any payoff. His nights are empty, with struggle, covered in dirt and decay, and his days fly away. There's nothing here for him.

    He seems to have forgotten chapter one. He was fabulously wealthy, with children, etc. There isn't an acknowledgement of how good he had it until now.
    3. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations pp. 132-133 Eliphaz and Bildad configure time as open and ample. The future, which is always beckoning, is the space within which new things may happen, events that then confer meaning on what has come before. There is always enough time in their narratives… Job, however, represents time differently, both qualitatively and quantitatively. One sees this more clearly in the series of metaphors and images that opens Chapter 7, which provides a kind of phenomenology of time. Back in the opening of the perek, he talks about time - the days of the paid labourer. He's a slave, with no control over his time. A sachir, paid by the day rather than the job, just longing for his wages. Man has no control over his time. This is unlike what Eliphaz is saying: Wait, be patient. Things will get better.
    And his days and nights are both unpleasant. Iyov is a victim of time. 4. Commentary of Metzudat David to 7:4 כאשר אשכב בלילה אמרתי מתי אקום ותנוד הערב ותלך לה כי אולי יקל חליי ביום וכאשר לא הוקל אצפה בכל שעה מהיום מתי תנוד השעה ותלך לה כי אולי יקל בשעה האחרת... וכאומר הלא כדרכי כן דרך כל סובלי יסורים. וימי האדם הלא קצובים המה וא"כ החושב כן חפץ הוא לקרב עת המיתה כי ייטב לו מחיי צער. ויסתור בזה דעת אליפז שאמר שהכל באה בהשגחה והרשעים יאבדו בעוונם וימותו אבל הצדיקים ימורק מעט עוונם ע"י היסורים. כי בהיות כן שבאה הכל בהשגחה יחשב עוד יותר לעול כי המיתה טובה היא מחיי צער... When I lie down at night I say, "When will I rise, and the evening will move away and leave, for perhaps my illness will be lightened by day." And when it is not lightened, I anticipate with every hour of the day, "When will this hour move and depart, for then it will be lightened in another hour."… It is as though he is saying, "Like my path, so is the path of all who suffer. " The days of man are fixed, and so one who thinks thus would wish to bring the moment of death closer, as that would be better for him than a life of pain. This contradicts the view of Eliphaz, who said that everything comes from Divine supervision, and the wicked are destroyed due to their sins and die, but the righteous have their few sins cleansed via their suffering. Since everything comes from Divine supervision, these events are considered a greater iniquity, for death would be better than a life of pain. Better to be dead than a life of pain orchestrated by a supposedly Good Being. 5. Commentary of Malbim to 7:1-2 עתה מתחיל לסתור דעת אליפז בכלל, אשר אמר כי יביא ד' יסורין על הצדיק למען ימרק חטא קל אשר חטא ולמען ימלט עי"ז מעונש יותר גדול ויותר מתמיד אשר ראוי לבא עליו בשביל עונותיו. משיב שזה דעה בלתי נכונה, כי הן האדם נברא להשיג איזה שלימות, והשלימות הזה הוא תכלית בריאתו. והנה השלימות היה תלוי או במשך מועד חייו שנברא שיעבוד את ד' כל ימי חייו מבלי הפסק... ובזה נדמה כעבד שהוא מחויב לעבוד את אדונו כל ימי חייו... או שהשלימות הזה תלוי במלאכה קצובה ומוגבלת... ובצד זה הוא דומה כשכיר הנשכר להשלים מלאכה ידועה... אם הוכח במכאוב על משכב עד שעי"כ יתבטל מעבודתו, הלא עי"ז לא יוכל להשיג את שלימותו... Now he begins to counter the general view of Eliphaz, who said that Gd brings suffering upon the righteous to cleanse their light sins, and to avert a greater and more lasting punishment due for their sins. He responds that this view is incorrect, for a person was created to achieve some completeness, and this completeness is the goal of his creation. Either this completeness depends on the length of his life, for he was created to serve Gd all of his life, uninterrupted… like a slave who is obligated to serve his master all of his life… or this completeness depends on a particular, defined task… like a labourer who is hired to complete a known task… If he is rebuked with an ailment upon his bed, to the point where he cannot work, then this prevents him from achieving his completeness.
    So: In the beginning, his response to Eliphaz was to justify his anger by claiming his suffering was sufficient to warrant such a response. Then he tells Eliphaz he's not helping - like the stream of water I'd hoped for that then disappears. Then he states that he never wanted Eliphaz's help anyways.
    And then - Stop telling me stories about things getting better in time. Things are not going to get better. Time is not on my side. Time is my enemy, at night and during the day. There is no relief for me in sight. Outline
  • 6:11-12 What hope do I have?
  • 6:13-14 Do I need your help, Eliphaz?
  • 6:15-21 You are like a stream of water that disappears
  • 6:22-23 Did I ever ask you for help?
  • 6:24-30 Show me my error!

  • < /twelfthclass >


    Now he turns away from Eliphaz and talks to Gd directly - a first in the book. It's also a response to Eliphaz in that he told Iyov to talk to Gd, so that things would improve for him. (Not that Eliphaz meant he should say this.)
    7:7-21 Gd, why are You doing this to me?
    ז זְ֭כֹר כִּי־ר֣וּחַ חַיָּ֑י לֹא־תָשׁ֥וּב עֵ֝ינִ֗י לִרְא֥וֹת טֽוֹב׃ Remember that my life is wind [temporary, fleeting] - my eyes will never again see anything good. [I have no hope.] ח לֹֽא־תְ֭שׁוּרֵנִי עֵ֣ין רֹ֑אִי עֵינֶ֖יךָ בִּ֣י וְאֵינֶֽנִּי׃ The eye that sees me will not see me; you will turn your eyes to me, and won't be here anymore. [reminds me of יוֹסֵף אֵינֶנּוּ, וְשִׁמְעוֹן אֵינֶנּוּ - this phrasing of just not being.] ט כָּלָ֣ה עָ֭נָן וַיֵּלַ֑ךְ כֵּ֥ן יוֹרֵ֥ד שְׁ֝א֗וֹל לֹ֣א יַעֲלֶֽה׃ The cloud dissipates and goes; so too one who descends to the grave will not come up. י לֹא־יָשׁ֣וּב ע֣וֹד לְבֵית֑וֹ וְלֹא־יַכִּירֶ֖נּוּ ע֣וֹד מְקֹמֽוֹ׃ He will never return to his home, and his place will not recognize him any longer [he won't be there anymore]
    יא גַּם־אֲנִי לֹא אֶחֱשָׂךְ פִּי-- אֲ‍דַבְּרָה בְּצַר רוּחִי-- אָשִׂיחָה בְּמַר נַפְשִׁי.
    [here's that triple-clause again.]
    I will not hold back my mouth. I will speak the pain of my ruach. I will speak the bitterness of my soul.

    You expected me to pray to Gd. I will turn to Gd, but not in the way you mean. I have no hope of things getting better. I have no long-term dreams. There is no long term for me: I'm like the cloud, or the wind.
    So when I talk to Gd, I'm going to speak of my pain.

    On Iyov's approach to Gd (actually about something he said at the beginning of this speech): 1. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a " לו שקול ישקל כעשי והותי במאזנים ישאו יחד" - אמר רב: עפרא לפומיה דאיוב! חברותא כלפי שמיא?! "If only my rage would be weighed, and my pain in the scale borne together." Rav said: Dust upon the mouth of Job! Is there collegiality toward Gd [to contest justice with Gd]? He's addressed Gd like he's on His level. Who are you to talk to Gd like that? The gemara is going to continue to be horrified by his directness, but Iyov is not going to cross a certain line in this section. He's going to keep a certain boundary. 2. Commentary of Daat Mikra, page סא אין איוב כופר בכך שהאלקים מעניש את עוברי רצונו, אלא טענתו היא שאין דבר זה לטובת האדם, ואף לא לכבוד לאלקים. לדעת איוב, לו לא היה אלקים שם לבו למעשי האדם, לא היה האדם סובל כל כך, ואף אלקים היה מכובד יותר. With this, Job did not deny that Gd punishes those who violate His will. His claim was that this [punishment] does not benefit people, and it does not honour Gd. In Job's view, if Gd would not pay attention to human deeds, human beings would not suffer so much, and Gd would receive greater honour. The point to hold in your mind as we continue is this: What does he say and what does he hold back from? 3. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a "כלה ענן וילך כן יורד שאול לא יעלה" - אמר רבא: מכאן שכפר איוב בתחיית המתים. "The cloud dissipates and goes, so one who descends to she'ol will not ascend." Rava said: Here Job denied the resurrection of the dead. This is one approach to the Iyov problem: Iyov was on some level unworthy, and we can see it from his response. 4. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, Emunot v'Deiot 7 והתבוננתי כל זה היטב ולא מצאתי אחד מהם שהחפץ בו שהבורא אמר שלא יחיה את המתים אבל כל זה ספור שאין אדם יכול לקום מן הקבר אחר רדתו אליו, ושאינו יכול להנער מן העפר ולשוב אל ביתו. I examined all of this well, and I did not see [a statement] in any of them that the Creator said He would not resurrect the dead. All of this says [only] that one cannot rise from the grave after he has descended there, and that one cannot shake off the dust and return to his home. "this" = arguments against the resurrection of the dead. It doesn't mean there's never and resurrection; just that what we see in everyday life is that when you bury someone, they stay there.
    Why is he insistent about not accepting that Iyov is denying this? Has to do with his general attitude towards Iyov. Ok, what's Saadiah Gaon't general attitude towards Iyov?
    יב הֲ‍יָם־אָנִי אִם־תַּנִּין כִּי־תָשִׂים עָלַי מִשְׁמָר׃ Am I the sea? Am I a crocodile ["Sea giant" per Artscroll - some monstrous creature] that needs to be guarded? [Gd, why are you paying such close attention to my actions? Let's say (like daat mikra) you're punishing me to something I did wrong. Do you have pay such close attention?] יג כִּי־אָמַרְתִּי תְּנַחֲמֵנִי עַרְשִׂי יִשָּׂא בְשִׂיחִי מִשְׁכָּבִי׃ When I think I'm going to get a respite, that my bed will comfort me, that is what will carry the talk of my suffering. יד וְחִתַּתַּנִי בַחֲלֹמוֹת וּמֵחֶזְיֹנוֹת תְּבַעֲתַנִּי׃ [When I think I'm just going to sleep,] You frighten me with dreams, and from visions You will terrorize me. טו וַתִּבְחַר מַחֲנָק נַפְשִׁי מָוֶת מֵעַצְמוֹתָי׃ I would just choose death. [He doesn't consider suicide at all in this book. How does that make sense? Why not?] I would be happier being strangled. טז מָאַסְתִּי! לֹא־לְעֹלָם אֶחְיֶה חֲדַל מִמֶּנִּי כִּי־הֶבֶל יָמָי׃ I'm revolted by my life. I'm not going to live forever, so just leave me alone already; my life is hevel, empty, futile. [Why are you keeping me alive?] יז מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי תְגַדְּלֶנּוּ וְכִי־תָשִׁית אֵלָיו לִבֶּךָ׃ What is man that you shall elevate him, and what is man that thou art mindful of him? [It's on the facade of the law library - somewhere. This statement that's made in tehillim is completely turned on its head. When tehillim asks, "Why are you paying attention to me?" it means to say, "Gd, you are so wonderful." When Iyov asks the same thing, he means, "What in the world are you doing, Gd? Why are you bothering with me?"] יח וַתִּפְקְדֶנּוּ לִבְקָרִים לִרְגָעִים תִּבְחָנֶנּוּ׃ Every morning you look at me, Gd; at every moment you examine humanity. [What for?] יט כַּמָּה לֹא־תִשְׁעֶה מִמֶּנִּי לֹא־תַרְפֵּנִי עַד־בִּלְעִי רֻקִּי׃ You aren't going to turn away from me [תשעה is an interesting word here - compare וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה, אֶל-הֶבֶל וְאֶל-מִנְחָתוֹ. וְאֶל-קַיִן וְאֶל-מִנְחָתוֹ, לֹא שָׁעָה;. So he says, Gd, I'd rather be Kayin - I'd rather you not, he says, turn to me.] You don't even let me go to the point where I could swallow my saliva. [The only other person R'Torcz can think of who speaks this way, asking Gd to look at other people instead of him, is Yona.] כ חָטָאתִי מָה אֶפְעַל לָךְ נֹצֵר הָאָדָם לָמָה שַׂמְתַּנִי לְמִפְגָּע לָךְ וָאֶהְיֶה עָלַי לְמַשָּׂא׃ If I have sinned, what have I done to You, You who guard man? Why are you watching me, setting me up in opposition to You, as a burden to you? כא וּמֶה לֹא־תִשָּׂא פִשְׁעִי וְתַעֲבִיר אֶת־עֲוֺנִי כִּי־עַתָּה לֶעָפָר אֶשְׁכָּב וְשִׁחֲרְתַּנִי וְאֵינֶנִּי׃ Why will you not bear my sin, and forgive my iniquity? Because all I want is to lie down in the dust, but you will seek me? [that word was used for tefilla before.] And I am not.
    He's not challenging Gd's justice. He's asking, "Am I worth Your attention, Gd? Can't you give me a break? It's degrading for you to be spending your time on little me. What am I worth?" 5. Talmud, Rosh haShanah 16a רבי יוסי אומר: אדם נידון בכל יום, שנאמר "ותפקדנו לבקרים." רבי נתן אומר: אדם נידון בכל שעה, שנאמר "לרגעים תבחננו." Rabbi Yosi says: A person is judged daily, as in, "And You remember him each morning." Rabbi Natan said: A person is judged hourly, as in, "You examine him at each moment." See them using this pas'. 6. Rabbi Yosef Albo, Sefer haIkarim 3:18 ויש כת אחרת טועין אחר עבודה זרה מצד אחר יותר עמוק, וזה כי הם סוברים כדברי קצת הפילוסופים האומרים עזב ד' את הארץ... ויחשבו זה רוממות בחק ד' שלא ישגיח במין האדם להיות האדם פחות נבזה ומאוס בעיניו... ואיוב היה נוטה אל זה הדעת... There is another group which strays after another, deeper idolatry. They think as do some philosophers who say, "Gd has left the land"… And they think that this is part of Divine exaltation, that He will not examine the human species, since the human is lesser, degraded and repellent in his eyes… And Job was inclined toward this view… R'Yoseph Albo wrote this book as a response to the idea that there are ikarim. He challenged the idea of having many ikarim, saying that the number could be reduced to three, and a person who doesn't believe in them may not even be a heretic but merely mistaken. 14th or 15th C Italy.
    There is a mistaken idea that Gd is too high to notice what's happening on earth.
    Stepping back for a moment:
    There are two ways to read Iyov's statements against Divine judgement:
    1. He's serious. He believes Gd is punishing him for some minor failing, and he's angry at Gd for doing this. Considering how he stressed over serving Gd before, it seems like something we'd expect him to think. This is the simple read.
    But many philosophers - Rambam, Ralbag, Malbim in other words, the pshat-ist philosophers - maybe R'Yosef Albo is reading it that:
    2. He's not serious. He doesn't think Gd is actually watching at all. He thinks Gd is outsourcing the universe, whether to astrology or to whatever else.
    But he's saying to Eliphaz, "Within your vision of Gd... No, your vision of Gd is ridiculous - He's punishing Iyov moment-to-moment for his deeds."

    He's still using and inverting and parodying the language of tefilla (lines from tehillim as well as words normally associated with tefilla) - not necessarily out of hostility as much as because he is broken. His whole way of making sense of the world is broken. 7. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations pp. 131 One of the frequent consequences of traumatic experience is an initial loss of language and a more persistent estrangement from language. Both phenomena are represented in the book of Job, the loss of language in the seven days and seven nights of silence… and the estrangement from language in Job's speech in the dialogues… [T]he brilliance of his speech is the brilliance of light refracted through shattered glass of many colors. Job picks his way through a shattered language that he can wield only in fragments…
    Concepts and words that are familiar to us mean something else to someone suffering as Iyov is.

    He turns the narrative of hope on his head. Eliphaz invoked hope twice: 4:6 ("הֲלֹא יִרְאָתְךָ כִּסְלָתֶךָ תִּקְוָתְךָ וְתֹם דְּרָכֶיךָ׃" - Your strength used to give you hope.) and 5:16 ("וַתְּהִי לַדַּל תִּקְוָה וְעֹלָתָה קָפְצָה פִּיהָ׃" - Gd provides hope for the lowly.)
    See what Iyov does with the word תקוה:
    In 6:8 - מִי־יִתֵּן תָּבוֹא שֶׁאֱלָתִי וְתִקְוָתִי יִתֵּן אֱלוֹהַּ׃ "I wish that Gd would give my hope." What is his hope? "וְיֹאֵל אֱלוֹהַּ וִידַכְּאֵנִי יַתֵּר יָדוֹ וִיבַצְּעֵנִי" To be crushed.
    In 6:19 - הֲלִיכֹת שְׁבָא קִוּוּ־לָמוֹ׃ The travellers of Sh'va hope for the stream, but it isn't there. Hope is something to be disappointed, not something to be fulfilled.
    In 7:2 - כְּעֶבֶד יִשְׁאַף־צֵל וּכְשָׂכִיר יְקַוֶּה פָעֳלוֹ׃ Like the labourer who hopes for the payment for his work, and again it's not there, until in פסוק ו we see יָמַי קַלּוּ מִנִּי־אָרֶג וַיִּכְלוּ בְּאֶפֶס תִּקְוָה׃ - his days end with no hope.
    For Eliphaz, hope is something to reach for, where things will get better; for Iyov, hope is a dead end.
    Ralbag's approach, like Rambam, like the much-later Malbim, is that Iyov doesn't really believe Gd's at the wheel. He doesn't really believe what he's saying. 8. Ralbag's summary ועוד ביאר לשתי סבות שאי אפשר שישגיח ד' באישי האדם: האחת להיות האדם נמאס בעיניו מצד חסרונו ביחס אל שלימות הש"י, והשנית להיות אלו הידיעות הוות מתחדשות תמיד ואי אפשר שתהיינ' בש"י ידיעות מתחדשות... He also explained two reasons why it is not possible that Gd supervises human affairs: 1) Man is lowly in Gd's eyes, due to his flaws relative to Divine perfection; 2) Knowledge [of Man's deeds] is perpetually new, and Gd cannot have new knowledge… He reads a whole philosophical discussion into Iyov's words.
    In summary: Iyov turns to Eliphaz and says, Nonetheless, he's still holding back. As Daat Mikra noted, he's not yet blamed Gd for injustice, nor mentioned Gd by name as the villain, however much he's implied it.

    Introduction to Bildad

    Order: Bildad speaks second, implying lesser status than Eliphaz. (As mentioned previously, Elihu will later explain that he waited to speak because he is junior - so there is some order-of-seniority.)
    Like Eliphaz, he will refer to received authority. Eliphaz talked about having a prophetic vision. Bildad, being lower, will credit "received wisdom" from his ancestors. Is that really him being lower?
    Expression: Eliphaz was very flowery and spoke at length; Bildad is very terse and direct. All but one sentence in his speech will be made up of two clauses. No flowery language, though he does use metaphors and some nice use of words for their sounds. Also unlike Eliphaz, Bildad gets one (usually short) chapter at a shot.
    Content: Eliphaz is telling Iyov - Here is a way to Divine favor and a good life. Bildad (in all his speeches) is justifying Divine action. All he cares about is that Iyov think positively about Gd. 9. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed 3:23 דעת בלדד השוחי בזאת השאלה היא אמונת התמורה והגמול. וזה שהוא אמר לאיוב שאלו הקורות העצומות אם אתה נקי ואין לך חטא, סבתם הגדיל הגמול ויומר לך הטובה שבתמורות, וזה כולו טוב לך לרבות הטובה אשר תשיג אליה בעולם הבא.
    Bildad's view regarding this question was a belief in exchange and reward. This is why he told Job of these great events, "If you are innocent and have no sin, then their cause is to increase reward, and you will be given the greatest of good in exchange. This is entirely good for you, to increase the good you will achieve in the next world."
    Bildad insists it will all be fair eventually.
    Remember that in each speaker's words there has to be some kernel that matters to us. Even though it may be difficult to accept Bildad's philosophy, his idea has appeal: There is justice, and reward will come eventually. We find this idea of yissurin building up eventual reward in the gemara, actually, though not everbody accepts it.
    Tone: Bildad is harsher to Iyov than Eliphaz was. 10. Rabbeinu Bachya [II/Author of commentary], Kad haKemach "Hashgachah" בלדד השוחי חולק על איוב ומסייע דברי אליפז חברו. והיו דבריו חזקים מדברי אליפז כי אמר בפירוש כי הרעות הבאות על איוב ועל בניו כולם במשפט...
    Bildad disagreed with Job and supported the words of his friend, Eliphaz, but his words were stronger than those of Eliphaz, saying explicitly that the bad that had befallen Job and his sons was entirely just.
    His three speeches are: What looks bad turns out to be good. Wicked people suffer (the whole second round of speeches focuses on the suffering of the wicked). And a very short last one: A man cannot condemn Divine Justice.
    11. Outline of the chapter
  • 8:1-7 Defending Divine justice, and offering a positive narrative
  • 8:8-10 Introduction to the parables of the plants
  • 8:11-15 Parable 1: Gd is the source of life
  • 8:16-22 Parable 2: What seems catastrophic may turn out to be wonderful
  • 8:1-7 Defending Divine justice, and offering a positive narrative
    א וַ֭יַּעַן בִּלְדַּ֥ד הַשּׁוּחִ֗י וַיֹאמַֽר׃ Bildad the Shuchi [we don't really know where he's from. No, I don't think this is noted earlier.] declared and said: ב עַד־אָ֥ן תְּמַלֶּל־אֵ֑לֶּה וְר֥וּחַ כַּ֝בִּיר אִמְרֵי־פִֽיךָ׃ How long are you going to say these words? How long are you going to have ruach kabir [mighty wind - thinks it's a direct response to Iyov's description of their words as ruach, earlier] as the words of your mouth? ג הַ֭אֵל יְעַוֵּ֣ת מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וְאִם־שַׁ֝דַּ֗י יְעַוֵּֽת־צֶֽדֶק׃ Do you think that Gd is going to corrupt justice? Do you believe that Gd [other name] will be corrupt?
    This sentence either means: "When you say Gd should leave you alone, what is happening to you shouldn't be happening, you are accusing Gd of injustice, and that's impossible!" Or, as per Malbim, within the view that the stars, not Gd, are in charge, "You're saying that Gd is unjust for leaving it to the stars." Also, shades of Eliphaz's comment - can a person be more righteous than Gd?
    < /thirteenthclass >

    Note:Class14 overlapped enough with the end of 13 that the previous few paragraphs of notes are from both of them, merged. Subtopic: Astrology
    Astrology only became superstition in a relatively modern era. We accept and recognize that there are forces in the universe which we cannot see, by which things operate on other things from afar. We call some of them gravity, or quantum entanglement if you want to be technical. There is stuff going on that we can't see, and people in those times - not necessarily people in Tanach, but human beings at various times in history - understood this, and came to the conclusion that these powerful entities that are up there in the heavens are assigned the ability to act on what's going on on Earth in these remarkable ways that are identified as astrology. Now, historically, going back to Talmudic times, many Jewish authorities absolutely believed in the power of astrology; Maimonides stands out as somebody who did not, 800-something years ago, but the idea of it as a whole wasn't a crazy idea, and therefore for somebody who is presented to us in Tanach to believe in it - isn't bizarre. It's funny, but it isn't bizarre. Keep in mind especially, to add to that: The people who believe in the second approach to this book - the people who believe that Iyov is arguing that it's all astrology, and that Gd has outsourced the running of the universe and all that - believe that Iyov is wrong. In other words, from their perspective, this book is about defeating the idea of astrology. To put it more succinctly and more correctly:
    Those who bring astrology into this book do so in order to defeat it, not in order to uphold it.
    The argument, the way they read it, is that Iyov is saying: The only way such terrible things could happen is if Gd isn't watching, and He's left it to the stars and planets to run the show. His three friends, then are trying to convince him that Gd has not outsourced running the world, and that Iyov is in the wrong.
    Note that the theory of astrology that's being put forth in Iyov's name is not that Mars is conscious, deciding to reward or punish, but rather that Gd simply gave each of these entities a certain influence, and as the planets move and whatever constellations are 'in control' shift, that's what determines what happens to a person. They are not godlets; it is entirely automatic.

    Through the whole book there are two different views of what Iyov is claiming: The literal read, which is "Gd has done this to me and it is unjust," and "It can't be that Gd would be this unjust; therefore he must not be in charge, and what the stars are doing to me is unjust."
    Which tack I take determines my interpretation of Bildad's response: either, according to the first approach, you're saying that Gd is doing terrible things to you, and it can't be that Gd is doing terrible things without justice, and so there is justice to whatever is happening, or, according to the second approach, you are saying that the stars run the world, and saying that Gd left it to the stars, and that itself is an accusation of injustice, because leaving it to the stars would be unjust. 1. Malbim, Introduction to Chapter 8 [איוב] החליט כי הנהגה זאת יוצאת ממושל עור וסתום עינים שהיא המערכה, אשר היא לא תבחין בין עובד אלקים לאשר לא עבדו. אמנם בלדד הכריע ההפך מצד המשפט הראשיי הכללי, וכה יאמר: העול ראוי שיסולק מאת ד', יען היותו חסרון... והנה שנאמר שד' מסר הנהגת העולם אל מושל עור הבלתי מבחין בין טוב לרע, גם אם נצדיק בזה את הדברים הפרטיים הנמשכים מרוע הסדר בשנאמר כי לא מאת ד' יצאו... בכל זה לא נוכל להצדיק אותו מצד המשפט הראשיי, כי נשאל הלא זה בעצמו עול מאתו, מה שמסר את ההנהגה ביד המערכה! [Job] decided that this governance came from a blind, sightless ruler, meaning the constellations, which cannot distinguish between one who serves Gd and one who does not. But Bildad argued the opposite regarding overall justice, saying: Corruption must not be ascribed to Gd, for it is a flaw… Saying that Gd gave governance of the world to a blind ruler who cannot distinguish between good and bad may explain individual events, saying they come from poor order, and they don't come from Gd… but we cannot justify this as overall justice, for we would then need to ask that this would be corrupt, for Him to assign governance to the constellations! Malbim, like Rambam and Ralbag, thinks that Iyov is a proponent of astrology who believes Gd has outsourced the running of the universe, and that constellations cannot distinguish between people who serve Gd and those who don't, and so Bildad's response is that doing this, assigning rulership to blind fate, would be a flaw in Gd, and Gd is not flawed.
    Bildad per Malbim: You've just pushed the problem of injustice one step away, not solved it.
    ד אִם־בָּנֶ֥יךָ חָֽטְאוּ־ל֑וֹ וַֽ֝יְשַׁלְּחֵ֗ם בְּיַד־פִּשְׁעָֽם׃ If your children sinned, and he sent them in the hands of their sins
    [measure for measure] In the hands of their sin - interesting phrase. They did it to themselves. 2. Rashi to 8:4 שלחם ביד פשעם - על ידי פשעם, (הפשע) הוא נעשה שליח להובילם: "And he sent them in the hand of their sins" – Via their sins; (the sin) is what became the agent to bring them there. Don't blame Gd, says Bildad. It was the sin that did it. Had they not sinned, this wouldn't have happened. 3. Metzudat David to 8:4 ראה שאין הדברים באים במקרה, כי אם בהשגחה לפי הגמול, כי כאשר בניך חטאו בעשותם משתה תמיד המביא לידי קלות ראש, הנה אז גרשם מן העולם במקום פשעם, כי בבית המשתה מתו. במקום הרשע שם המשפט: See that events do not happen by chance, but by supervision, as reward. When your children sinned, making perpetual feasts, causing frivolity, then He chased them from the world in that place where they had sinned – for they died in the place of the feast. "In the place of the wickedness, there is the justice." In the hands of their sins - while they were at their sin.
    Harsh thing to say to a man in mourning. "They died while they were partying; clearly they shouldn't have been partying." (Playing off a פס' in קהלת ג that says במקום המשפט שמה הרשע (where he's complaining about injustice.)) But this אם at the beginning of the פס could also be translated "If." In Chumash it usually means "if," but in three places it means "When." אם כסף תלווה is when you lend money, for instance. Malbim doesn't take this אם as when, but if. 4. Malbim to 8:3 "אם בניך חטאו לו", שעל בניך לא אוכל לומר שנתיסרו על דרך התמורה כדי להרבות שכרם אחר שהם מתו ונאבדו, אבל עליהם לא תוכל להחליט שלא חטאו... אבל הנוגע לך שאתה טוען כי צדיק אתה, אני משיב לך. "If your children have sinned against Him," for regarding your sons I cannot say that they were hurt as an exchange, since they have died and are lost, but you cannot determine that they did not sin… But regarding you, when you claim you are righteous, I will respond to you. Bildad is about to say that sometimes when people suffer, once they've passed their test - or even if it's not a test - it will turn out to be good for them later in life. He's saying he can't make that claim for Iyov's sons. But, he says, just as he can't say that, Iyov can't say they didn't sin. The fact that they died at the party means the party contained the problem. There's a sin here, and it was either theirs or yours. (Sins of parents on sons?) I can't talk about them, but I can talk about you, Iyov.
    ה אִם־אַ֭תָּה תְּשַׁחֵ֣ר אֶל־אֵ֑ל וְאֶל־שַׁ֝דַּ֗י תִּתְחַנָּֽן׃ If you would turn to Gd to pray [like ושחרתני וענני - earlier [link?], Iyov turned the word into Gd coming to seek him - inverse of usual use], if you would plead with Gd, ו אִם־זַ֥ךְ וְיָשָׁ֗ר אָ֥תָּה כִּי־עַ֭תָּה יָעִ֣יר עָלֶ֑יךָ וְ֝שִׁלַּ֗ם נְוַ֣ת צִדְקֶֽךָ׃ If you were truly pure and righteous, then He would arouse [His Mercy] upon you, and He would make whole [or bring peace to] the home of your righteousness. [Things would be wonderful if only you would turn to Gd.] ז וְהָיָ֣ה רֵאשִׁיתְךָ֣ מִצְעָ֑ר וְ֝אַחֲרִיתְךָ֗ יִשְׂגֶּ֥ה מְאֹֽד׃ Your beginning would be viewed as tiny; [all the wealth you had, the thousands of animals, would be considered tiny] your end would be flourishing [even compared to what you once had, if only you would turn to Gd.]
    So we have לשחר and לנתחנן: words of very strong beseeching. They connote humbling oneself (see these sources:). 5. Humble yourself Isaiah 26:9; Psalms 63:2 You need to be humble. You are approaching Gd from a position of pride. Move towards Gd. תשחר אל אל.
    8:8-10 Introduction to the Parables of the Plants
    ח כִּֽי־שְׁאַל־נָ֭א לְדֹ֣ר רִישׁ֑וֹן וְ֝כוֹנֵ֗ן לְחֵ֣קֶר אֲבוֹתָֽם׃ When you inquire of the first generation [our ancestors] and when you prepare yourself for the analysis of their ancestors, ט כִּֽי־תְמ֣וֹל אֲ֭נַחְנוּ וְלֹ֣א נֵדָ֑ע כִּ֤י צֵ֖ל יָמֵ֣ינוּ עֲלֵי־אָֽרֶץ׃ for we are born yesterday, and don't know anything, because our days are like the shadow passing over the land. י הֲלֹא־הֵ֣ם י֭וֹרוּךָ יֹ֣אמְרוּ לָ֑ךְ וּ֝מִלִּבָּ֗ם יוֹצִ֥אוּ מִלִּֽים׃ they will guide you, they will tell you, and from their hearts they will produce words [of explanation; of how the universe works.].
    6. Daat Mikra, Summary of Chapter 8 גם אליפז מסתייע בדבריו במסורת, אלא שאליפז, כזקן, מזכיר גם את נסיונו שלו, ואומר כמה פעמים "ראיתי". ואלו בלדד אינו מזכיר את עצמו אפילו פעם אחת. Eliphaz also boosts his remarks by citing tradition, but Eliphaz, as an elder, also mentions his own experience, saying multiple times, "I have seen." Bildad does not mention himself, not even once. Contrast Bildad's wisdom-of-ancestors and Eliphaz's wisdom-of-prophecy - Bildad is presented as a step down. 7. Ralbag, Summary of Chapter 8 אנחנו נצטרך בזה לקבל עדות מהם לפי שתמול אנחנו ולא נדע העניינים אשר יצטרכו לזמן ארוך לעמוד עליהם מן החוש לקוצר זמננו We must accept their testimony. We are from yesterday, and we do not know of matters which evolve over long periods of time, to know them from our experience, due to our brief span. 8:11-15 Parable 1: The thirsty reed
    יא הֲיִגְאֶה־גֹּמֶא בְּלֹא בִצָּה יִשְׂגֶּה־אָחוּ בְלִי־מָיִם׃ Would a reed [גמא like the תיבת גמא that Moshe is put in] become גאה - mighty if it doesn't have swamp [a place to be irrigated]? Will a meadow flourish without water?
    יב עֹדֶנּוּ בְאִבּוֹ לֹא יִקָּטֵף וְלִפְנֵי כָל־חָצִיר יִיבָשׁ׃
    [Two possibilities for this.]
    [Daat Mikra] When it is still nascent, before it has reached the stage of being picked, before even the time that the short grass dies and dries out, it is going to dry out.
    [Rashi] When it is still fresh and has not been plucked - it will be neither broken nor severed. [Details below; this is a substantive difference.]
    יג כֵּן אָרְחוֹת כָּל־שֹׁכְחֵי אֵל וְתִקְוַת חָנֵף תֹּאבֵד׃ So are the paths of all those who forget Gd, and the hope [or thread] of the חנף [usually flatterer, but tanach often uses it as just a wicked person, and that seems to be the case here] will be lost. [You have no source of metaphorical water, and therefore you'll be cut off.] יד אֲשֶׁר־יָקוֹט כִּסְלוֹ וּבֵית עַכָּבִישׁ מִבְטַחוֹ׃ [יקוט also has multiple possible meanings; we're rendering it as a noun] The threads of the spiderweb are כסלו, his hope. [This wicked person makes the spiderweb his support - earlier we saw a righteous person making Gd his support.] He makes the house of the spider [really? Spider?] his security. טו יִשָּׁעֵן עַל־בֵּיתוֹ וְלֹא יַעֲמֹד יַחֲזִיק בּוֹ וְלֹא יָקוּם׃ He's going to lean on his house, and it's not going to stand; he'll lean on it, and it won't endure.
    That's his first parable: The person who has no Gd is going to collapse. (This interpretation fits all translations.) Gd as the source of life.
    8. Daat Mikra to 8:12 לא יקטף – קודם שהגיע זמנו לקטף
    Before its time has come to be plucked.
    9. Rashi to 8:12 לא יקטף - לא ישבר ולא ינתק It will be neither broken nor severed. 10. Two different messages
  • Daat Mikra – The reed without a source of life will wither and die
  • Rashi, Ralbag – The reed will thrive at first, but don't be fooled – destruction will come.
  • Rashi and Daat Mikra disagree on whether the wicked will ever seem to be doing well.
    These different interpretations give you entirely different views of the second parable. Whereas the first parable describes a reed dependent on water, and drying out due to lack of it, the second parable describes a plant that is lush and then is uprooted. If we take the Daat Mikra's view that our first plant never had any hope, the two parables are completely separate. However, Rashi's view means that the second parable is a reiteration of the first, and that they are one long message: You can only go so far on your own, and then you must rely on Gd.
    < /fourteenthclass >

    A Brief Review
    Chapter 1
    Initial disaster [at the hands of Satan]; Job responds by acknowledging the Divine right to all that is his
    Chapter 2
    [A second strike.] Job suffers physically; Job rebukes his blasphemous wife, but is less pious [in his response]; The silent friends stay 7 days
    Chapter 3
    Job lashes out against his birthday/the stars [supposedly running the universe]
    Chapter 4-5
    Eliphaz argues for a narrative of hope and urges Job to appeal to Gd
    Chapters 6-7
    Job rebukes Eliphaz for not helping, and either challenges Gd to leave him alone or claims that Gd does not run the world, as that would be beneath Him
    Chapter 8
    Bildad defends Divine justice, contends the wicked will perish. He may contend that events which appear bad turn out to be good.
    8:16-22 Parable 2: The lush plant
    טז רָטֹב הוּא לִפְנֵי־שָׁמֶשׁ וְעַל גַּנָּתוֹ יֹנַקְתּוֹ תֵצֵא׃ It [a tree] is wet before the sun, and in its garden its nursing [its roots] extends throughout. [This tree is doing well: wet, flourishing.] יז עַל־גַּל שָׁרָשָׁיו יְסֻבָּכוּ בֵּית אֲבָנִים יֶחֱזֶה׃ On a pile of stones, its roots become entangled. It will see a house of stones. יח אִם־יְבַלְּעֶ֥נּוּ מִמְּקוֹמ֑וֹ וְכִ֥חֶשׁ בּ֝֗וֹ לֹ֣א רְאִיתִֽיךָ׃ [A few translations.] If it is swallowed up from its place, and its existence is denied, [literally - people say there's never been a tree on this spot, that's how gone it is] יט הֶן־ה֭וּא מְשׂ֣וֹשׂ דַּרְכּ֑וֹ וּ֝מֵעָפָ֗ר אַחֵ֥ר יִצְמָֽחוּ׃ That [transplanting the tree undergoes] is a source for its rejoicing, and it will grow from other earth. 2. The challenge of 8:19
  • ומעפר, אחר יצמחו – And from the dirt, others will grow (Rashi, Ibn Ezra)
  • ומעפר אחר, יצמחו – And from other dirt, they will grow (Ralbag, Malbim, Daat Mikra)
  • 3. Rashi to 8:19 אדם אחר יצמח לקבל גדולתו של זה
    Another man will sprout, to receive this one's wealth.
    4. Malbim to 8:19 ישמח על העקירה הזאת ועל הדרך שמובילים אותו ממקומו למקום אחר, כי מעפר אחר אשר אין שם אבנים שרשים משם יצמחו שרשיו באין מעכב, ונמצא שעקירה זאת היא לטובתו He will rejoice over this uprooting, and over the journey on which they bring him, from this place to another. For from other dirt, where there are no stones, roots there will sprout, roots without obstruction, so that the uprooting will be for his benefit.
    כ הֶן־אֵ֭ל לֹ֣א יִמְאַס־תָּ֑ם וְלֹֽא־יַ֝חֲזִ֗יק בְּיַד־מְרֵעִֽים׃ Gd is not going to reject the תם [Remember that Iyov has been described as תם since the beginning of the book] and He's not going to help people who are wicked כא עַד־יְמַלֵּ֣ה שְׂח֣וֹק פִּ֑יךָ וּשְׂפָתֶ֥יךָ תְרוּעָֽה׃ [If people are wicked and they are harming you, then] he will assist you until your mouth is filled with joy [this is understood as ימלא despite the ה at the end] and your lips will trumpet forth [in a positive sense] כב שֹׂנְאֶ֥יךָ יִלְבְּשׁוּ־בֹ֑שֶׁת וְאֹ֖הֶל רְשָׁעִ֣ים אֵינֶֽנּוּ׃ (פ) Your enemies will wear shame, and the tent of the wicked will no longer exist. Note [per Daat Mikra] the play on words at the end there: Iyov said Gd will come looking for me, וענני. Now Bildad says - the tent of the wicked is what will no longer be.
    Eliphaz and Bildad
    Style
    Eliphaz is more flowery and verbose; Bildad is direct and terse
    Eliphaz speaks of personal experience Bildad cites the experience of others
    Eliphaz is subtle in assigning blame for suffering Bildad is painfully direct
    Substance
    Eliphaz offers a narrative of return Bildad spends more time defending Divine justice
    Eliphaz speaks of direct reward Bilam speaks of delayed reward
    Eliphaz emphasizes the good that can happen Bildad includes the suffering of the wicked

    < / 15athclass >

    Iyov's Response to Bildad

    Outline of Chapters 9-10
  • 9:1-13 Gd is mighty, and there is no winning a debate with Gd
  • 9:14-20 Why I cannot win a debate with Gd
  • 9:21-33 The world is run wickedly
  • 9:34-10:22 What I would tell Gd, given the chance
  • Iyov's starting point is that people suffer unnecessarily. He doesn't need to justify it; it's simply so, and therefore, he's challenging Gd. He's also going to evolve further in terms of displaying his outrage, in that for the first time [Iyov floats in and out of directly addressing Gd; see Ch.7, among others. Noted in a later class.] we will see him address Gd directly and harshly.

    9:1-13 Gd is mighty, and there is no winning a debate with Gd
    א וַיַּ֥עַן אִיּ֗וֹב וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Iyov declared and said ב אָ֭מְנָם יָדַ֣עְתִּי כִי־כֵ֑ן וּמַה־יִּצְדַּ֖ק אֱנ֣וֹשׁ עִם־אֵֽל׃ It's true, I know that it is so - and how can man be צדיק with Gd? ג אִם־יַ֭חְפֹּץ לָרִ֣יב עִמּ֑וֹ לֹֽא־יַ֝עֲנֶ֗נּוּ אַחַ֥ת מִנִּי־אָֽלֶף׃ If he were to desire to quarrel with Gd, Gd will not answer, even one in a thousand times. This desire to put Gd on trial will be a major theme through the rest of the book.
    When he says, "it's true," - what's true? Back in 8:3 Bildad says,
    ג הַ֭אֵל יְעַוֵּ֣ת מִשְׁפָּ֑ט וְאִם־שַׁ֝דַּ֗י יְעַוֵּֽת־צֶֽדֶק׃ Do you think that Gd is going to corrupt justice? Do you believe that Gd [other name] will be corrupt?
    and even more so back in 4:17 "יז הַאֱנוֹשׁ מֵאֱלוֹהַ יִצְדָּק אִם מֵעֹשֵׂהוּ יִטְהַר גָּבֶר." Can a mortal man be more righteous than / just before [in front of] / acquitted by Gd?
    And to all this, Iyov says, וּמַה־יִּצְדַּ֖ק אֱנ֣וֹשׁ עִם־אֵֽל׃
    That's one read of this sentence.
    Now, it sounds like he's saying, "You're right. Gd is righteous." That's unlikely, knowing what we do of Iyov. 5. Metzudat David to 9:2 מה שאמרת "הא-ל יעות משפט וגו'" הנה באמת ידעתי גם אני כי כן הוא, בעבור זה שפטתי שהכל בא מצד המערכה. אבל כל תלונתי מהו הגמול כאשר יצדק אנוש עם א-ל ללכת בדרכיו, הלא גם הוא נעזב להנהגת המערכה... Regarding your declaration, "Will Gd corrupt justice," in truth, I also know that this is so. This is why I concluded that everything come from the constellations. My sole complaint is this: What is the nature of the reward for a person who is righteous with Gd, walking in His ways? He, too, is abandoned to the governance of the constellations… Same point as previously made: Iyov is saying that Gd is guilty by leaving us to the uncaring stars. He believes צדיק means "righteous." 6. Daat Mikra to 9:2 "יצדק" – יצא צדיק בריבו עם אלקים. ומשמעותו כפולה:

    1) יצא זכאי בדינו ו
    2) יצא מנצח בריבו.
    "Be tzaddik" – Emerge as tzaddik from his quarrel with Gd. "Emerge as tzaddik" admits two meanings:
    1) Emerge innocent in his judgment, or
    2) Emerge victorious in his judgment.
    צדיק: to be found righteous in judgement. Iyov still thinks Gd is wrong, but knows he'll lose the case. Gd isn't even going to answer the challenge. Allege whatever you want; nothing will change.

    Now Iyov continues with his linguistic sabotage. Some of these phrases are recognizable from our liturgy.
    ד חֲכַ֣ם לֵ֭בָב וְאַמִּ֣יץ כֹּ֑חַ מִֽי־הִקְשָׁ֥ה אֵ֝לָ֗יו וַיִּשְׁלָֽם׃ Gd is wise of heart; he is mighty in strength. Who can הקשה אליו [tempting to call "ask a question," but more likely who can] be tough with Him and be found whole? [or "have peace."] ה הַמַּעְתִּ֣יק הָ֭רִים וְלֹ֣א יָדָ֑עוּ אֲשֶׁ֖ר הֲפָכָ֣ם בְּאַפּֽוֹ׃ He moves mountains, and the mountains don't realize what's going on. He flips them in His rage. ו הַמַּרְגִּ֣יז אֶ֭רֶץ מִמְּקוֹמָ֑הּ וְ֝עַמּוּדֶ֗יהָ יִתְפַלָּצֽוּן׃ He shakes the earth from its place, and the pillars that support it split.
    He's describing Divine rage, which is a difficult concept. (The idea that Gd gets angry at all, that is.) It may be part of his accusation - that this is what Gd does because He is out of control.
    ז הָאֹמֵ֣ר לַ֭חֶרֶס וְלֹ֣א יִזְרָ֑ח וּבְעַ֖ד כּוֹכָבִ֣ים יַחְתֹּֽם׃ He speaks to the חרס [the Sun. The use of the word חרס to refer to the sun is found also when Yehoshua is buried in תמנת חרס (sp?). חרס literally means pottery. R'Torcz doesn't have an explanation for why the sun would be called חרס - although sunbaked pottery is apparently a thing, and strikes me as a possible reason חרס would be from the word sun in the other direction. Must look up חרס etymology, see if plausible. ~D] and it won't shine, [that is, if Gd wants no sunlight, there is no sunlight,] and seals up the stars. ח נֹטֶ֣ה שָׁמַ֣יִם לְבַדּ֑וֹ וְ֝דוֹרֵ֗ךְ עַל־בָּ֥מֳתֵי יָֽם׃ He extends the heavens alone [without needing any assistance] and He trods upon the height of the seas [various meanings of heights of seas.] Extending the heavens alone is explained by Rashi, Midrash, no angels that existed yet, they were created on Day 2 according to Midrash, etc.
    ט עֹֽשֶׂה־עָ֭שׁ כְּסִ֥יל וְכִימָ֗ה וְחַדְרֵ֥י תֵמָֽן׃ He creates the עש [Artscroll:Ursa Minor.], Orion and the Pleiades, and [the rooms of the south, which commentators explain as] the stars that are not visible in the north. י עֹשֶׂ֣ה גְ֭דֹלוֹת עַד־אֵ֣ין חֵ֑קֶר וְנִפְלָא֗וֹת עַד־אֵ֥ין מִסְפָּֽר׃

    In addition to that last line being familiar to us from tefilla - back in 5:9, Eliphaz says exactly this. "ט עֹשֶׂה גְדֹלוֹת וְאֵין חֵקֶר נִפְלָאוֹת עַד אֵין מִסְפָּר."
    He's mocking Eliphaz. He's using the same phrase Eliphaz used to describe Gd's greatness to state that he can't win with Gd, because Gd has all the power and the might on His side, and therefore Iyov can't get his day in court.
    Eliphaz uses it as praise, and Iyov uses it to describe his pain and anger.
    (It's really remarkable what he's doing here. It's a shame no one reads Iyov... but we also now understand why.) 7. Talmud, Berachot 51b אלמלא חמה של כסיל - לא נתקיים עולם מפני צינה של כימה, ואלמלא צינה של כימה - לא נתקיים עולם מפני חמה של כסיל. If not for the heat of Orion, the world could not withstand the cold of the Pleiades. If not for the cold of the Pleiades, the world could not withstand the heat of Orion. The כסיל and כימה, Orion and the Pleiades, are used in other places in Tanach: in Amos to illustrate the might of Divine creation (Gd created כסיל and כימה.)
    From an astronomical standpoint, they're close together in the sky. In the northern hemisphere, the Pleiades shines all night, in November, with Orion, כסיל, right nearby, but Orion shines most from January to March within the sky - which means that the Pleiades are associated with the introduction of the cold, but then as Orion sets, the heat comes in. That's the way they're viewed - as "ushering in" first the winter and then the warmth.

    Back on the כסל root - now it's a constellation, but we zoomed in on it in 4:6, when Eliphaz said הֲלֹא יִרְאָתְךָ כִּסְלָתֶךָ: either "Your reverence for Gd is your source of confidence/strength," or, according to Rashi who uses the "fool" meaning of כסל, "It turns out that all your supposed fear of Gd was just foolishness." Zoomed in as well in Bildad's thirsty reed analogy, when he said, "אֲשֶׁר־יָקוֹט כִּסְלוֹ" "This wicked person makes the spiderweb his כסל - support." R' Torcz seems not to be assuming there's a relationship, but the linguistic connection seems pretty likely to be deliberate - it's shown up a lot, and this sefer was written with a lot of sensitivity to linguistic nuance. I still think that Rashi on 5:21 was picking up on פרק א's wording, for instance. ~D Also, compare with משלי's use of the word: כי ה' יהיה בכסליך ושמר רגלך מלכד. (here.) Translated as "confidence" by 1917JPS; also apparently assumed to be some form of strength/protection by ספרי on פרשת נשא re: birkat kohanim. ~D2015-05-31 8. Talmud, Rosh haShanah 11b-12a "בשנת שש מאות שנה לחיי נח בחדש השני בשבעה עשר יום לחדש." רבי יהושע אומר: אותו היום שבעה עשר באייר היה, יום שמזל כימה שוקע ביום ומעינות מתמעטין, ומתוך ששינו מעשיהן - שינה הקב"ה עליהם מעשה בראשית, והעלה מזל כימה ביום, ונטל שני כוכבים מכימה, והביא מבול לעולם... "In the 600th year of Noach's life, the second month, the 17th of the month" – Rabbi Yehoshua said: It was the 17th of Iyar, when the mazal of the Pleiades sets during the day and the springs shrink. Because they altered their deeds, Gd altered Creation and elevated the mazal of the Pleiades during the day, and took two stars from the Pleiades and brought a flood to the world… יא הֵ֤ן יַעֲבֹ֣ר עָ֭לַי וְלֹ֣א אֶרְאֶ֑ה וְ֝יַחֲלֹ֗ף וְֽלֹא־אָבִ֥ין לֽוֹ׃ If He would pass before me, I wouldn't even see him. He could pass, and I won't comprehend that He's even there. יב הֵ֣ן יַ֭חְתֹּף מִ֣י יְשִׁיבֶ֑נּוּ מִֽי־יֹאמַ֥ר אֵ֝לָ֗יו מַֽה־תַּעֲשֶֽׂה׃ He will יחתף [usually taken like יחטוף, to grab. Perhaps to smash, per Daat Mikra]; who will turn him back? [Who can resist Gd?] Who can say to Him, what are You doing? 9. "Who will say to Gd: What are You doing?" Ecclesiastes 8:4 יג אֱ֭לוֹהַּ לֹא־יָשִׁ֣יב אַפּ֑וֹ תחתו [תַּחְתָּ֥יו] שָׁ֝חֲח֗וּ עֹ֣זְרֵי רָֽהַב׃ Gd is not going to withdraw His anger. [as in "Who can turn Gd back?"] Beneath Gd collapsed those who helped רהב [possibly "the arrogant." Some connect it to Egypt specifically.]
    Gd is too mighty, says Iyov. According to the view that Iyov believes the stars run the world, what is this description of Divine might about? 10. Metzudat David to 9:4 עם כי היה מסתפק בהשגחה... יודע היה אשר בידו הכח לשדד המערכה כאשר ירצה. Even though he doubted Divine supervision… he knew that He held the strength to overthrow the constellations, should He choose. 11. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 9-10 והכלל העולה מהדברים הוא שאיוב לא היה מריב עם ד' יתברך ושייחס אליו עול במה שיביא מהרעות לאישי האדם, אבל היה מרחיק זה וייחס אלו הרעות אל ההגבלה המסודרת מהכוכבים. ואולם מה שהתרעם מד' יתברך הוא למה לא סדר בכמו אלו האנשים הקשה יום שלא יתהוו, כי יותר היה להם זה טוב. The general message is that Job did not quarrel with Gd and associate with Him corruption for the evils that befall human beings. Rather, he distanced this and associated the evils to the order set from the stars. However, he challenged Gd for not arranging matters such that people of a bitter [birth]day should not exist, as that would be better for them. Gd could have set things up so that what happened to me wouldn't happen to anyone. He could have set it up so I didn't exist! He has the power. < /fifteenthclass >


    9:14-20 Why I can't win my suit
    Recall that he previously said Gd crushes the mighty (or arrogant, we rendered there, but we seem to be going now with mighty).
    יד אַ֭ף כִּֽי־אָנֹכִ֣י אֶֽעֱנֶ֑נּוּ אֶבְחֲרָ֖ה דְבָרַ֣י עִמּֽוֹ׃ I certainly am not able to respond to Gd, to choose my words with Him טו אֲשֶׁ֣ר אִם־צָ֭דַקְתִּי לֹ֣א אֶעֱנֶ֑ה לִ֝מְשֹׁפְטִ֗י אֶתְחַנָּֽן׃ Even if I could come up with an appropriate response, [with a winning answer,] I wouldn't be able to speak. Am I going to appeal to the one who judges me? טז אִם־קָרָ֥אתִי וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֑נִי לֹֽא־אַ֝אֲמִ֗ין כִּֽי־יַאֲזִ֥ין קוֹלִֽי׃ If I were to call Him to answer me, I wouldn't believe He would listen to my voice. 1. Ralbag to 9:15 ואיך אתחנן אל ד' יתברך? הנה אם קראתי ויענני לא אאמין כי יאזין קולי, להיותי פחות מאד ביחס אליו. How will I plead to Gd? If I were to call to Him to answer me, I would not believe that He would listen to my voice, since I am so small in comparison with Him. Even the mighty don't get heard. I can't state my claims in the first place. No one's listening. (And so why would he want to say anything?)
    יז אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׂעָרָ֥ה יְשׁוּפֵ֑נִי וְהִרְבָּ֖ה פְצָעַ֣י חִנָּֽם׃ [Two translations] In a storm [/mighty wind / whirlwind] he crushes me, and he increases my wounds for nothing.
    [Or] For a hair['sbreadth] he crushes me. [As per the gemara that Gd punishes tzadikim according to the fineness of a hair] and he increases my wounds for nothing.
    יח לֹֽא־יִ֭תְּנֵנִי הָשֵׁ֣ב רוּחִ֑י כִּ֥י יַ֝שְׂבִּעַ֗נִי מַמְּרֹרִֽים׃ He will not let me settle my spirit [or breath], because he sates me with bitterness. He's starting to use the word אִם a lot. This is striking because that was a Bildad word, heavy on the אִם. Throws it back in his face; like when he quoted Eliphaz verbatim in 10. Mocking Bildad, who used the אִם to make his claim.
    Iyov here is saying that he cannot make his claim because Gd won't give him a moment to breathe. There's no opportunity. 2. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a אמר רבה: איוב בסערה חרף ובסערה השיבוהו. בסערה חרף, דכתיב: אשר בשערה ישופני, אמר לפניו: רבש"ע, שמא רוח סערה עברה לפניך ונתחלף לך בין איוב לאויב! בסערה השיבוהו, דכתיב: ויען ד' את איוב מן הסערה... Rabbah said: Job blasphemed with a great wind and with a great wind they responded to him. With a great wind he blasphemed, "He would break me with a great wind." He said: Master of the Universe, perhaps a great wind passed before You and You became confused between Iyov (איוב) and Oyev (אויב)! And they responded to him with a great wind, "And Gd replied to Job from the great wind." The gemara picks up on the whirlwind reference. Not crushed in a whirlwind, but crushed as the result of a whirlwind.
    Iyov is also saying - He has all the wind, but won't even let me have my רוח, the air in my lungs. (Daat Mikra)
    כִּ֥י יַ֝שְׂבִּעַ֗נִי מַמְּרֹרִֽים is almost a direct lift from Eicha 3: הִשְׂבִּיעַנִי בַמְּרוֹרִים He has sated me with bitter things. (And of course, being a lament, Eicha and Iyov fit together well.)
    יט אִם־לְכֹ֣חַ אַמִּ֣יץ הִנֵּ֑ה וְאִם־לְ֝מִשְׁפָּ֗ט מִ֣י יוֹעִידֵֽנִי׃ [per Rashi] If what's right is determined by strength, הנה, Gd has it already. [If victory is determined by who's stronger, I can't win.] And if it's by who's right, who will give me a מועד, an appointment in court? 3. Rashi to 9:19 איך אריב עמו אם לכח הוא בא אמיץ הנה הוא, ואם למשפט מי יוכל להועידני לפניו ולהחזיק דבר משפטי How will I fight with Him? If He were to look for strength, He is mighty. If for justice, who can arrange a time for Me to speak before Him, and to strengthen my case? Usually calling Gd אמיץ כח is a positive thing - done elsewhere in Tanach, [apparently?] in the Yom Kippur musaf repetition, there's a piyut called אמיץ כח. (And some paytan creating zmirot clearly agreed, see [I think] Yom Shabbason.) But Iyov is using it negatively.
    כ אִם־אֶ֭צְדָּק פִּ֣י יַרְשִׁיעֵ֑נִי תָּֽם־אָ֝֗נִי וַֽיַּעְקְשֵֽׁנִי׃ Even if I'm right, [Even if I have a righteous/victorious claim,] my mouth will make me wicked. I am תם - complete, and Gd has made me out to be wicked. Two approaches to this idea of פי ירשיעני: 4. Metzudat David to 9:20 וכי בעבור אמרי פי אחשב לרשע? הלא מעצמי אני תם וישר, והוא עשה אותי לעקש בהבאת היסורים על לא חמס! Shall I be considered wicked for the words of my mouth? Personally, I am complete and righteous, and He has made me wicked by bringing suffering in response to no wrongdoing! 5. Rashi to 9:20 אם אצדק פי ירשיעני, כי יסתמו דברי מיראה ויעקשני פי: If I were righteous, my mouth would define me as wicked, for my words would be sealed from fear, and my mouth would make me wicked. It's a direct response to Bildad, who told him to approach Gd. There's no point: I can't convince Gd of my righteousness.
    9:21-33 The world is run wickedly
    כא תָּֽם־אָ֭נִי לֹֽא־אֵדַ֥ע נַפְשִׁ֗י אֶמְאַ֥ס חַיָּֽי׃ I am תם, [he insists. I am the righteous person I was made out to be.] [the phrase לא אדע נפשי is hard; literally, "I don't know myself." You need not read it (as per Newsom's read) as Iyov being so grief-stricken that he doesn't know what he's saying. Rather, see commentators below.] 6. "I don't know my nefesh"
    • Ibn Ezra "Don't I know myself?" [that I am תם] or "I know of no evil on my part"
    • Metzudat David "I don't know how I will find rest" [like six days and then וינפש - rested]
    • Malbim "Maybe I don't really know myself!" [I think I'm תם, but maybe I'm really not.]
    • Daat Mikra "I won't have mercy on myself" [takes אדע differently.]
    And he's responding to Bildad: back in 8:20, Bildad said הֶן־אֵ֭ל לֹ֣א יִמְאַס־תָּ֑ם וְלֹֽא־יַ֝חֲזִ֗יק בְּיַד־מְרֵעִֽים. Gd doesn't reject the תם. Iyov is saying, "Here I am. I am תם. Explain what's going on in my life! What you're saying doesn't make any sense, Bildad. It doesn't match the world around me."
    Eliphaz said good people are not totally crushed. Bildad said that Gd will take care of righteous people, and the bad isn't really bad.
    Harm, says Iyov, befalls the righteous and the wicked alike.
    כב אַחַ֗ת הִ֥יא עַל־כֵּ֥ן אָמַ֑רְתִּי תָּ֥ם וְ֝רָשָׁ֗ע ה֣וּא מְכַלֶּֽה׃ It's all one. That's why I said [in response to you, Bildad,] Gd destroys the righteous and the wicked. [Your statement that Gd will not reject the תם does not hold water.] כג אִם־שׁ֭וֹט יָמִ֣ית פִּתְאֹ֑ם לְמַסַּ֖ת נְקִיִּ֣ם יִלְעָֽג׃ If the rod will kill suddenly, he will mock the destruction of the righteous.
    כד אֶ֤רֶץ ׀ נִתְּנָ֬ה בְֽיַד־רָשָׁ֗ע פְּנֵֽי־שֹׁפְטֶ֥יהָ יְכַסֶּ֑ה אִם־לֹ֖א אֵפ֣וֹא מִי־הֽוּא׃
    [triple-clause sentence.]
    The land is given in the hands of the wicked. The face of its judges he covers. [There's no honesty or justice.] If not, [if it's not the wicked who's doing it,] then who is it? [Who is committing all of this? Who is crushing the righteous?]
    7. Midrash, Bereishit Rabbah 49:9
    א"ר לוי שני בני אדם אמרו דבר אחד, אברהם ואיוב, אברהם "חלילה לך מעשות כדבר הזה להמית צדיק עם רשע," איוב אמר (איוב ט) "אחת היא על כן אמרתי תם ורשע הוא מכלה," אברהם נטל עליה שכר, איוב נענש עליה, אברהם אמר בישולה, איוב אמר פגה.
    Rabbi Levi said: Two men said the same thing, Avraham and Job. Avraham said (Bereishit 18:25), "It would be a disgrace for You to do something like this, to kill the righteous with the wicked." Job said, "It is all one, thus I have said: Complete and wicked, he destroys." But Avraham was rewarded, and Job was punished! Avraham said something mature; Job said something underripe.
    (Not that Iyov was punished for this specifically, but at least it is taking the view that he's being punished (at all). Idea is that these statements are reflective of their personalities and their actions in general.)
    אִם־שׁ֭וֹט יָמִ֣ית פִּתְאֹ֑ם לְמַסַּ֖ת נְקִיִּ֣ם יִלְעָֽג׃
    This can be taken two ways.
    Simply, the righteous are struck down, and the wicked mock them. 8. Metzudat David to 9:23
    אף לפי דבריך אשר שבט המכה ימית פתאום את הרשע כאשר יקבל די גמול מעט מעשה הטוב שעשה, ולא כן ימהר להמית את הצדיק, הלא גם זאת עוד לטובה יחשב להרשע, כי הוא שוחק ומלעיג על המסת הנקיים באריכות ימי היסורין, וטובה בעיניו המיתה הפתאומית:
    Even according to your words, that the rod that strikes will execute the wicked suddenly after he receives sufficient reward for the small good he has done, and that He will not hasten to execute the righteous – this is also considered a favour for the wicked! For he laughs and mocks the destruction of the innocent, with the length of their suffering. In his eyes, it would be better to experience this sudden death.
    More a response to Eliphaz than to Bildad. 9. Malbim to 9:24 ומפרש מי היא ההנהגה הזאת שארץ נתנה ביד רשע, היא הנהגת המערכת הנוהגת ברשע. ומדמה זאת במליצתו כמלך גדול צדיק אשר מסר הנהגת המדינה ביד מושל רשע והוא התנהג ברשע ואכזריות. And [Job] explains: Who is this governor, such that the land is given into the hand of the wicked? It is the government of the constellations, which governs wickedly. [Job] compares this, by analogy, to a great and righteous king who gives control of the land to a wicked ruler, who governs with wickedness and cruelty. כה וְיָמַ֣י קַ֭לּוּ מִנִּי־רָ֑ץ בָּֽ֝רְח֗וּ לֹא־רָא֥וּ טוֹבָֽה׃ My days are so swift in their passing, faster than one can run. They flee - they have never seen something good. See back in 7:6 where he said to Eliphaz, "יָמַ֣י קַ֭לּוּ מִנִּי־אָ֑רֶג וַ֝יִּכְל֗וּ בְּאֶ֣פֶס תִּקְוָֽה׃ My days fly by swifter than the loom; I have no hope for the future."
    כו חָ֭לְפוּ עִם־אֳנִיּ֣וֹת אֵבֶ֑ה כְּ֝נֶ֗שֶׁר יָט֥וּשׂ עֲלֵי־אֹֽכֶל׃ [My days] pass with עניות אבה ["reed boats" or "boats on the river Eiveh"] like a נשר flying after food. [Note another ש במקום ס there.] Two different images - propelled swiftly by the wind, or propelling itself.
    כז אִם־אָ֭מְרִי אֶשְׁכְּחָ֣ה שִׂיחִ֑י אֶעֶזְבָ֖ה פָנַ֣י וְאַבְלִֽיגָה׃ If I'm going to forget my suffering, [though שיח can also be speech] [forget what I'm going through,] I would stop all this appeal and I would become strong. [I'm going to gather strength. If I would say that,] כח יָגֹ֥רְתִּי כָל־עַצְּבֹתָ֑י יָ֝דַ֗עְתִּי כִּי־לֹ֥א תְנַקֵּֽנִי׃ I would gather [like לאגר] together all of my complaints [meaning, lock them up and complain no more], I still know it wouldn't help - You [Gd] wouldn't find me innocent. And there we go. Look at the last word in that sentence - he has finally spoken a word to Gd directly. Something strange here; I was under the impression that the last part of Iyov's previous response, after Eliphaz's speech, was directed at Gd. " מָה־אֱנוֹשׁ כִּי תְגַדְּלֶנּוּ וְכִי־תָשִׁית אֵלָיו לִבֶּךָ׃" (ז:יז)" Hopefully a later explanation will be linked from here later. [ed. inconsistent "firsts" mentioned in class 18; compare early Ch.9 as well, rewrite notes there.]
    כט אָנֹכִ֥י אֶרְשָׁ֑ע לָמָּה־זֶּ֝֗ה הֶ֣בֶל אִיגָֽע׃ I'm going to [lose the case anyways] be found guilty. Why should I attempt to justify myself? ל אִם־הִתְרָחַ֥צְתִּי במו־[בְמֵי־] שָׁ֑לֶג וַ֝הֲזִכּ֗וֹתִי בְּבֹ֣ר כַּפָּֽי׃ If I would cleanse myself with snow [image of purity] that I would purify myself with the purity of my hands [or - בור is sometimes a detergent material.] לא אָ֭ז בַּשַּׁ֣חַת תִּטְבְּלֵ֑נִי וְ֝תִֽעֲב֗וּנִי שַׂלְמוֹתָֽי׃ You would immerse me in שחת [reference to the place of the dead, to animal fodder sometimes, or from להשחית - corruption, destruction] and you would make my clothing תעבה, abhorrent. [No matter what I do to try to be innocent, no matter what I do to argue on my behalf or to purify myself, you would make me filthy. You would strive to find me guilty.] לב כִּי־לֹא־אִ֣ישׁ כָּמֹ֣נִי אֶֽעֱנֶ֑נּוּ נָב֥וֹא יַ֝חְדָּ֗ו בַּמִּשְׁפָּֽט׃ Because a man like me cannot respond to Gd, [I'm never going to be victorious] to come together to justice. לג לֹ֣א יֵשׁ־בֵּינֵ֣ינוּ מוֹכִ֑יחַ יָשֵׁ֖ת יָד֣וֹ עַל־שְׁנֵֽינוּ׃ There is no one who could be an arbitrator, who could put his hand upon both of us and say, this is the one who is right. [Don't tell me about hope and approaching Gd; there is no chance.] 10. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a לו יש בינינו מוכיח ישת ידו על שנינו - אמר רב: עפרא לפומיה דאיוב, כלום יש עבד שמוכיח את רבו?
    "If there were between us an arbiter, who would extend his hand over both of us" – Rav said: Dust upon the mouth of Job! Is there any slave who may instruct his master?!

    < /sixteenthclass >


    9:34-10:22 What I would say to Gd
    כד יָסֵ֣ר מֵעָלַ֣י שִׁבְט֑וֹ וְ֝אֵמָת֗וֹ אַֽל־תְּבַעֲתַֽנִּי׃ Let Gd remove his rod from me, and let his intimidation not frighten me. שבטך vs וּמִשְׁעַנְתֶּךָ - rod which strikes and staff which supports. He's saying - a little too much of the rod. כה אַֽ֭דַבְּרָה וְלֹ֣א אִירָאֶ֑נּוּ כִּ֥י לֹא־כֵ֥ן אָ֝נֹכִ֗י עִמָּדִֽי׃ [If He would do that,] I would speak, and I would not be afraid of Him, [and here's an odd turn of phrase:] not like this I am with me. Daat Mikra: I am not normally someone who is afraid to speak. Now, with Gd I am afraid to speak, because He keeps hitting me.
    Maybe this is a reflection of the seven days of silence when his friends sat with him. So this is "I am not so easily intimidated. This is not like me." Or, alternatively, "I am not as guilty as others are making me out to be."
    But either way, "If Gd would stop hitting me, I would speak to him."
    (Remember that this is all in response to his being encouraged to talk to Gd.)
    א נָֽקְטָ֥ה נַפְשִׁ֗י בְּחַ֫יָּ֥י אֶֽעֶזְבָ֣ה עָלַ֣י שִׂיחִ֑י אֲ֝דַבְּרָה֗ בְּמַ֣ר נַפְשִֽׁי׃ My soul is revolted by the life I have. I would speak - I would tell the bitterness of my soul. 1. Metzudat David to 10:1 מגודל הכאב נכרתה נפשי בעת עודני חי. ולזה אטען על עצמי משא ספור תלאותי ואדבר במרירות נפשי: Due to this great pain, my soul is cut off while I am alive. Therefore I will place upon myself the burden of telling of my suffering, and I will speak the bitterness of my spirit. I'll speak to Gd, but it won't be what you were hoping for.
    ב אֹמַ֣ר אֶל־אֱ֭לוֹהַּ אַל־תַּרְשִׁיעֵ֑נִי הֽ֝וֹדִיעֵ֗נִי עַ֣ל מַה־תְּרִיבֵֽנִי׃ I would say to Gd: Do not find me wicked [guilty in the ostensible trial]. Tell me why you are quarreling with me. [Why are you seeking a fight with me, Gd?]
    ג הֲט֤וֹב לְךָ֨ ׀ כִּֽי־תַעֲשֹׁ֗ק כִּֽי־תִ֭מְאַס יְגִ֣יעַ כַּפֶּ֑יךָ וְעַל־עֲצַ֖ת רְשָׁעִ֣ים הוֹפָֽעְתָּ׃
    [Here is where he leaves the plane of normal discourse with Gd.]
    Is it good for You to cheat me? Is it good for You למאוס - to make repellent the work of Your own hands? [I am the work of Your hands, Gd!] You have been manifest upon the counsel of the wicked. [You're helping the wicked! Is that good?]
    ד הַעֵינֵ֣י בָשָׂ֣ר לָ֑ךְ אִם־כִּרְא֖וֹת אֱנ֣וֹשׁ תִּרְאֶֽה׃ Do You have the eyes of flesh? [the limitations of flesh] Do you see as human beings do? ה הֲכִימֵ֣י אֱנ֣וֹשׁ יָמֶ֑יךָ אִם־שְׁ֝נוֹתֶ֗יךָ כִּ֣ימֵי גָֽבֶר׃ Are Your days like the days of a human being? Are Your years like the years of a human being? ו כִּֽי־תְבַקֵּ֥שׁ לַעֲוֺנִ֑י וּ֭לְחַטָּאתִ֥י תִדְרֽוֹשׁ׃ That You seek to find me guilty, and You go looking for problems. ז עַֽל־דַּ֭עְתְּךָ כִּי־לֹ֣א אֶרְשָׁ֑ע וְאֵ֖ין מִיָּדְךָ֣ מַצִּֽיל׃ You know [it's within your דעת, Gd] that I have done nothing wicked, and yet no one is able to save me from You. He echoes parshat ha'azinu here in a very striking way. מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא, וְאֵין מִיָּדִי, מַצִּיל. I strike and I heal, and there is no one who can save from My hand.
    Iyov has just asked Gd three questions. 2. Metzudat David to 10:4 וכי יש לך עינים דומים לעיני בשר ודם שאינו רואה בהם תעלומות לב כי הלא רואה אתה כל תעלום ויודע אתה מי הצדיק ומי הרשע? ומדוע תחלוף משכורתם? Do You have eyes like those of flesh and blood, which cannot see that which is hidden in the heart? You see all that is hidden, and You know who is righteous and who is wicked! Why do You switch their rewards? ח יָדֶ֣יךָ עִ֭צְּבוּנִי וַֽיַּעֲשׂ֑וּנִי יַ֥חַד סָ֝בִ֗יב וַֽתְּבַלְּעֵֽנִי׃ Your hands formed me and made me at once, all around [that is, completely/entirely] and you will swallow me up. ט זְכָר־נָ֭א כִּי־כַחֹ֣מֶר עֲשִׂיתָ֑נִי וְֽאֶל־עָפָ֥ר תְּשִׁיבֵֽנִי׃ Remember (now/please), you made me like clay [כי הנה כחומר ביד היוצר...] and you reduce me to dust. י הֲלֹ֣א כֶ֭חָלָב תַּתִּיכֵ֑נִי וְ֝כַגְּבִנָּ֗ה תַּקְפִּיאֵֽנִי׃ Like milk you melt me, and you harden/congeal me like cheese. יא ע֣וֹר וּ֭בָשָׂר תַּלְבִּישֵׁ֑נִי וּֽבַעֲצָמ֥וֹת וְ֝גִידִ֗ים תְּסֹכְכֵֽנִי׃ Skin and flesh you clothe me, and with bones and sinews you shelter me. [סכך like schach, and harks back to first two prakim.] יב חַיִּ֣ים וָ֭חֶסֶד עָשִׂ֣יתָ עִמָּדִ֑י וּ֝פְקֻדָּתְךָ֗ שָֽׁמְרָ֥ה רוּחִֽי׃ You have given me life; you have performed kindness for me; and your command guarded my life. [I only live because you gave me life. If you were to take this outside context, you'd have this beautiful ode to Gd's creation.] יג וְ֭אֵלֶּה צָפַ֣נְתָּ בִלְבָבֶ֑ךָ יָ֝דַ֗עְתִּי כִּי־זֹ֥את עִמָּֽךְ׃ And all along, You had in mind that You were going to bring this upon me.
    If you take the astrology view of the book, in which Iyov is complaining that it was all predestined by the stars he was born under, he's saying, "Gd, I know this was your idea all along."
    Note the points he's making with his choice of words in this section (see links).
    Side point: This melting word - metal in hebrew is מתכת, because it's molten. We talk about melting-fat cheilev-meutach re:[?] permitted fuel for shabbos candles in the gemara; borrowed phrase from chalav-meutach, here. 3. Ralbag to 10:12 ופקידותך אשר שמת בכחותי הפועלות למשול על הכחות המתפעלות, הנה הפקידות ההוא שמרה רוחי בקרבי, כי לולא זה לא הייתי יכול להתקיים כלל.
    And Your commands, via which You have placed in my active powers the ability to control the powers that are made to act, those commands are what have guarded my spirit in my midst. Without this, I could not exist at all.
    You gave me all of my powers; You have made me the person I am, and all the time, you expected to take it away.
    Compare to Gd talking to Moshe at the bush. (see R'Torcz's piece about that: Run away, Moshe. It's a trap.) Gd tells Moshe his job is to take the nation into the Land. Gd knows it's not going to happen.
    Also: the Shunami woman who hosted Elisha and was blessed with a child who then died.
    And in general in life, people who lose their faculties with age. Biologically, a lot of it is programmed in from the start. You gave it to take it away. This maps better onto Iyov than either of the Biblical examples do, really; those two were refused by the receivers, and it was then forced upon them, and then taken away.
    Remember Iyov's first reaction: ה' נתן וה' לקח: I didn't earn any of it. Something has happened to Iyov since then. Rabbi Torcz speculates: It's what the friends have done.
    Back at the first strike, his attitude was: It belonged to Gd, and Gd took it away. There was no moral value to Gd's taking it away. Not: Gd gave it to me, and when I was bad he took it away. This was simply the length of time Iyov was given blessing, and it had an expiration date.
    Iyov's friends have now told him that people have things taken away from them because they are bad, and at that point, it isn't about Gd choosing what you have and what you don't - it's Gd zapping you for something.
    That's what offends Iyov. The idea that it all belongs to Gd is fine, but he can't/won't take the idea that it's punishment.
    יד אִם־חָטָ֥אתִי וּשְׁמַרְתָּ֑נִי וּ֝מֵעֲוֺנִ֗י לֹ֣א תְנַקֵּֽנִי׃ [Same אם thrown back again] Even if I did sin... You're going to guard me? [guard as in keep your eye on and punish] You aren't going to cleanse me of my sins? טו אִם־רָשַׁ֡עְתִּי אַלְלַ֬י לִ֗י וְ֭צָדַקְתִּי לֹא־אֶשָּׂ֣א רֹאשִׁ֑י שְׂבַ֥ע קָ֝ל֗וֹן וּרְאֵ֥ה עָנְיִֽי׃ If I have done something wrong, אַלְלַ֬י לִ֗י, woe is me. [In Kinot: there's one soaked in this phrase - it's the refrain - and it's taken from here.] Even if I'm righteous, I can't raise my head! I am filled with shame; see my suffering, [Gd]. טז וְ֭יִגְאֶה כַּשַּׁ֣חַל תְּצוּדֵ֑נִי וְ֝תָשֹׁ֗ב תִּתְפַּלָּא־בִֽי׃ [Two interpretations of this:] And he will become mighty. You will catch me like a [some-category-of] lion, and you will [settle back/sit down/return] and you will display your wonders against me. Daat Mikra: You elevate yourself when you catch me, like [a great hunter does when] catching a lion. [Walking around gloating, sounds like.] Or: 4. Metzudat David to 10:16 מי יתן והיה הרעה גדולה עלי כ"כ עד שתצוד אותי בה, כשחל הזה אשר יצוד דבר מה, אשר ישחיתו פעם אחת ולא ישנה. I wish that this great evil would happen to me, to the point that it would ensnare me, like a lion trapping something, destroying it once without need for a second time. I wish you would catch me like a lion and it would be over with.
    יז תְּחַדֵּ֬שׁ עֵדֶ֨יךָ ׀ נֶגְדִּ֗י וְתֶ֣רֶב כַּֽ֭עַשְׂךָ עִמָּדִ֑י חֲלִיפ֖וֹת וְצָבָ֣א עִמִּֽי׃ You renew Your testimony against me, and your anger against me grows [הרבה]. Your forces are constantly changing in their shifts. [Daat Mikra interpretation]. So Iyov asks why Gd is doing this, and his conclusion is that He shouldn't have given him existence. יח וְלָ֣מָּה מֵ֭רֶחֶם הֹצֵאתָ֑נִי אֶ֝גְוַ֗ע וְעַ֣יִן לֹא־תִרְאֵֽנִי׃ Why did you take me out of the womb, [Gd]? [recall Ch.3] I could expire, and no one would ever see me. יט כַּאֲשֶׁ֣ר לֹא־הָיִ֣יתִי אֶהְיֶ֑ה מִ֝בֶּ֗טֶן לַקֶּ֥בֶר אוּבָֽל׃ I would be as though I had never existed; from the belly to the grave I would be brought. כ הֲלֹא־מְעַ֣ט יָמַ֣י יחדל [וַחֲדָ֑ל] ישית [וְשִׁ֥ית] מִ֝מֶּ֗נִּי וְאַבְלִ֥יגָה מְּעָֽט׃ My few days could run out [חדל - halt]. He could move away from me, and I would strengthen a little. [During whatever brief period I would have, I would at least have something.] In the last two sentences here there are seven expressions of darkness.
    כא בְּטֶ֣רֶם אֵ֭לֵךְ וְלֹ֣א אָשׁ֑וּב אֶל־אֶ֖רֶץ חֹ֣שֶׁךְ וְצַלְמָֽוֶת׃ I would have that brief time before I would go and not come back, to the land of darkness and death. It could have been so easy. Instead of all the wonderful things you gave me, the skin and the bones and everything else, it could have been over - a couple of days and done. What did I need with all of this?
    כב אֶ֤רֶץ עֵיפָ֨תָה ׀ כְּמ֥וֹ אֹ֗פֶל צַ֭לְמָוֶת וְלֹ֥א סְדָרִ֗ים וַתֹּ֥פַע כְּמוֹ־אֹֽפֶל׃ (פ) [Playing with the sounds.] A land of darkness like the shadow of death, with no order, and it would shine upon me like darkness. In summary: Bildad, asking Iyov to talk to Gd is not a good idea.
    In describing Gd as great and wonderful, as Bildad did, and Eliphaz before that, you run the risk of highlighting a basic problem: If Gd is so perfect and so apart from the realm of the physical, mundane, material world, how is Gd able to tolerate human insufficiency? When you're perfect, how can you tolerate imperfect beings?
    Iyov picks up on it and says that Gd is looking for every imperfection in him..
    Divine Contempt for the Human Being 5. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:23 היה דעת איוב בו [בסבל הצדיק] שזה הענין ראיה על השוות הצדיק והרשע אצלו יתעלה על דרך בזיון במין האדם...
    Job's thought regarding this [suffering of the righteous] is that it proves that the righteous and the wicked are the same to Gd, in His contempt for the human race…
    The most perfect human being is still not going to approach the perfection of the Divine. Eliphaz and Bildad emphasized the perfection of Gd, and in so doing, have given Iyov the option of saying, "Well, that explains everything. Gd doesn't understand me. He doesn't value me. To Him, it's only perfection that matters." Effectively, this justifies what Gd has done. Gd legitimately sees me as nothing. I deserve whatever He's going to do to me, because I am a flawed human being just like all the other flawed human beings. Even though we don't like this view - even though, consistent with our canon in general, we think Gd understands the human being - nevertheless, when you place Gd too far above and too different, the result is to say that whatever He does to us is justified as part of His contempt for these ants running around on the planet.
    It's a difficult idea, but despite the difficulties it poses, there's logic to it. The idea itself is sound, positing Gd as the ultimate Other.
    But being Other creates comprehension problems across the boundary.
    (In response to a question raised) Are we inappropriately anthropomorphizing (sp?) Gd when we talk about Divine Mercy? When we talk about Gd knowing our thoughts? Seems not, because the Biblical text itself does that. When Gd says, I love Avraham and will talk to him about what I'm planning to do with Sodom, [? It doesn't seem to actually say that. It seems to be because Avraham will be a great nation, and his children will do צְדָקָה וּמִשְׁפָּט.] that is the antithesis of a contemptuous Gd.

    If he doesn't think that Gd is listening, and he's only talking to Bildad, then what this is is outrage, and he's found a target. Bildad set himself up by telling Iyov to just talk to Gd, and Iyov is venting at him without any expectation that He's going to listen to him.
    Summary
    Eliphaz – Hope and Narrative Job – There is no time, and no hope
    Bildad – Talk to Gd! Job – Talking is fruitless, for Gd is hostile


    Introduction to Tzofar

    Tzofar haNaamati. What's Naamati? I have no idea. (~Ibn Ezra on 2:11 where he first was named.) We don't even know if it's a location or a family. Rabbeinu Bachye: Tzofar may be Tzfo, of the sons of Eisav. (He generally identifies the players here as members of the families of Nachor etc, and therefore of Avraham's extended kin.)
    Order: He speaks third: he is lower than the other two. (Hierarchy, as mentioned previously.) Tzofar speaks most briefly; in fact, he doesn't actually speak in Round 3.
    Where Eliphaz spoke of a vision, and Bildad of received wisdom from his ancestors, Tzofar talks about the wisdom of Gd. He doesn't claim to have any special knowledge himself.
    Expression: He speaks simply, with minimal metaphor and not much flowery language. His sentences are in the same simple two-clause style we're familiar with.
    Content: Most of Tzofar's ideas are rehashes of ideas offered by the other two.
    Interestingly, the statements he makes about Gd and Torah become instant classics in Midrash. When he describes Gd and Divine wisdom, the Talmud takes his descriptions and builds them up and uses them.
    Where Eliphaz offered a vision of Divine favor and a way to a good life, ("If you will only do right, it will all be good,") and Bildad focused more on justifying Divine actions, ("Gd is Just,") Tzofar will talk about the idea of Divine inscrutibility. ("You can't figure out why things happen.") There are two traditional views on what Tzofar is trying to say when he discusses this.
    < /seventeenthclass >

    Note:Class18 overlapped enough with the end of 17 that the previous few paragraphs of notes are from both of them, merged.
    When someone says, "We don't know why things happen," what are they trying to say? 1. Nachmanides, Torat ha'Adam, Shaar haGemul ועתה בא צופר הנעמתי בסיוע עוד על דברי חבריו, ואמר כי יש חכמה נעלמה במעשי האלקים כי כפלים יש לתושיה, כי כל היש ההווה בעולם כפול, ובו חכמה נראית וחכמה נעלמת. אך ידע איוב באמת כי ישה אליו האלקים מעונותיו ויגרע מהם ולא יטפול ויוסיף עליהם. ואם "יחלוף" הקל וירבה האנשים הנקראים "בני חלוף" ויסגיר הארץ בידם ויקהיל אותם, מי ישיבנו בזה אם רשעים הם? כי הוא יודע אנשי השוא ורואה האון שלהם, ואיננו מתבונן למעשיהם כי הוא מוחל להם... And now Tzofar haNa'amati came to help his friends' words further. He said that there is hidden wisdom in Divine deeds, for there are two layers to [Divine] counsel. All that exists in this world is double, and in [this counsel] is visible wisdom and hidden wisdom. (11:6) Job does know, in truth, that Gd subtracts from his sins and reduces them, and He does not add on to them. (11:6) And if He will increase people [yachalof in 11:10 refers to adding people, who are called bnei chiluf] and He will give the land into their hands and cause them to congregate, who will respond to Gd even if they are wicked? He knows the people of emptiness and He sees their guilt, and He does not contemplate their deeds because He forgives them (11:11)… What Ramban sees in Tzofar is a statement that you don't know why Gd does what Gd does: there's a layer of reason to which you are not privy, and therefore when apparently bad things happen, you can't criticize Gd, because you can't know what his calculations are. This is probably what people mean when they make this statement that we can't understand Gd.
    Alternatively: 2. Maimonides, Guide of the Perplexed 3:23 ואמנם דעת צופר הנעמתי הוא דעת מי שרואה שהכל נמשך לרצון לבד, ולא יבקש לפעולותיו סבה כלל ולא יאמר "למה עשה זה" ו"למה לא עשה זה". ומפני זה לא יבוקש דרך היושר ולא גזרת חכמה בכל מה שיעשהו ד', שעצמותו ואמתתו מחייבים שיעשה מה שירצה. ויד שכלנו תקצר תעלומות חכמתו אשר מדינה וממשפטה שיעשה מה שירצה, לא לסבה אחרת. In truth, the view of Tzofar haNa'amati is the view of one who sees that everything is governed by [Divine] Will alone, and he does not seek a cause for His actions, and he does not say, "Why did He do this?" or "Why did He not do this?" Therefore, neither the path of [Divine] justice will not be sought, nor the decree of wisdom in all that Gd does, for His very existence and truth mandates that He should do as He wishes. Our intellectual capacity will be too small to grasp His hidden wisdom, which does what it wishes because of its own justice and rules, and for no other reason. Don't bother asking why Gd takes actions. Gd's actions are right by definition, irrespective of how we do or don't understand it. Rambam is suggesting that whatever Gd does is north on the moral compass.
    ["The hand of our intellect" = our intellectual abilities.]
    Rambam here seems to think you don't have to believe that there's a hidden wisdom that you could conceivably understand. [Though R'Torcz holds back from saying this is generally Rambam's view.]
    R'Torcz: compare to the scene in The Once and Future King in which Arthur finds himself among the ants. The ants don't evaluate things based on "Good" and "Not-Good," but "Done" and "Not-Done". "Complete" or "Incomplete." A True Foreign Intelligence, as the AI/SF types would say. When Hashem completes the world וירא אלקים כי טוב, Onkeles there, apparently making a point, doesn't translate טוב as the usual Aramaic word for good, טב, but as תקין. Functional.
    There may not be anything resembling logic at all.

    Tzofar also seems to accuse Iyov of wickedness, though we're not sure that's what he is doing. See 11:14: יד אִם־אָ֣וֶן בְּ֭יָדְךָ הַרְחִיקֵ֑הוּ וְאַל־תַּשְׁכֵּ֖ן בְּאֹהָלֶ֣יךָ עַוְלָֽה׃ If there is wickedness in your hand, distance it from yourself, and do not leave something corrupt in your tent. 3. Rabbeinu Bachya, Kad haKemach "Hashgachah" ענה צופר וכונתו לסייע דברי חביריו כי איוב חטא ועל כן באה עליו כל הרעה הזאת Tzofar replied, intending to support the words of his friends, that Job had sinned and therefore all of this evil had befallen him. Outline of Chapter 11
  • 11:1-4 A protest: You think you are right because no one rebukes you, so I will rebuke you
  • 11:5-12 Divine wisdom is great and hidden
  • 11:13-15 Repent and approach Gd!
  • 11:16-20 Then life would be good for you, while the wicked are destroyed
  • 11:1-4 Protest: Someone must respond to you
    א וַ֭יַּעַן צֹפַ֥ר הַֽנַּעֲמָתִ֗י וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ And Tzofar the Naamati [whatever that is] declared and said: ב הֲרֹ֣ב דְּ֭בָרִים לֹ֣א יֵעָנֶ֑ה וְאִם־אִ֖ישׁ שְׂפָתַ֣יִם יִצְדָּֽק׃ Do you think because you said a lot of words then no one can answer you? [or will answer you, no?], and do you think the person with the lips is naturally the one who's right? [You think that just because you have a lot to say and take a while saying it that no one has a response.] ג בַּ֭דֶּיךָ מְתִ֣ים יַחֲרִ֑ישׁו וַ֝תִּלְעַ֗ג וְאֵ֣ין מַכְלִֽם׃ Your lies [bodeh, make something up] silence many people, and you mock [Gd's justice] and nobody shames you for what you've done. ד וַ֭תֹּאמֶר זַ֣ךְ לִקְחִ֑י וּ֝בַ֗ר הָיִ֥יתִי בְעֵינֶֽיךָ׃ And you say, my לקח [acquisitions/purchases, or lessons of wisdom - כי לקח טוב נתתי לכם] is pure, and I was pure in your eyes [because otherwise you would have responded to me]. Tzofar is saying to Iyov, If I don't answer you, you're going to assume I agree with you. Therefore I must respond. 4. Daat Mikra to Iyov, pg. פד מדברים אלו של צופר נראה שהיו אנשים רבים מקשיבים לדברי איוב, מלבד שלשת רעיו. From Tzofar's words it appears that there were many people listening to Job's words, aside from his three friends. Because your lies are silencing people. Perhaps Elihu, who wasn't on the list of people who came, is one of these "people around." Also, what else would it mean that people are silent? Eliphaz and Bildad both responded. This is also consistent with the idea of public dialogues. 5. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 11:4 תאמר אל מול המקום, "הנה למוד הרגל דרכי היא זכה וברורה, וגם בעיניך אני בר ונקי", ר"ל "יודע אתה שהדין עמדי ותעשוק גמולי." You say to Gd, "The path to which I am accustomed is pure and clear, and in Your eyes as well I am pure and clean," meaning, "You know that justice is with me, and You cheat me of that which I deserve." 11:5-11 Gd's wisdom is great and hidden – and doubled?
    ה וְֽאוּלָ֗ם מִֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן אֱל֣וֹהַּ דַּבֵּ֑ר וְיִפְתַּ֖ח שְׂפָתָ֣יו עִמָּֽךְ׃ But who would give ["I wish"] that Gd would speak [to you,] and He would open His lips with you. ו וְיַגֶּד־לְךָ֨ ׀ תַּֽעֲלֻמ֣וֹת חָכְמָה֮ כִּֽי־כִפְלַ֪יִם לְֽת֫וּשִׁיָּ֥ה וְדַ֡ע כִּֽי־יַשֶּׁ֥ה לְךָ֥ אֱ֝ל֗וֹהַ מֵעֲוֺנֶֽךָ׃ And He would tell you hidden wisdom, because there is a double level to wisdom, and you would know [if Gd told you about wisdom] that Gd is in fact lending [?] you for your sins. [He's waiting patiently and hasn't punished you for your sins.]
    He's not only playing up Divine wisdom but mocking Iyov's desire to hear from Gd directly.
    ויפתח שפתיו is probably a play on tehillim: ה' שפתי תפתח ופי יגיד תהילתך. It's a humble approach, "opening your lips to speak;" it suggests speaking to someone honoured. Do you, Iyov, expect Gd to approach you with humility? To just tell you the double-layered secret wisdom? Who do you think you are, making this request of your Creator?
    ז הַחֵ֣קֶר אֱל֣וֹהַ תִּמְצָ֑א אִ֤ם עַד־תַּכְלִ֖ית שַׁדַּ֣י תִּמְצָֽא׃ Are you going to find the depths of what Gd does, the depths of Gd's actions? ח גָּבְהֵ֣י שָׁ֭מַיִם מַה־תִּפְעָ֑ל עֲמֻקָּ֥ה מִ֝שְּׁא֗וֹל מַה־תֵּדָֽע׃ In the heights of the heavens, what action could you perform? His counsel is deeper than She'ol, the grave. What do you know of it? ט אֲרֻכָּ֣ה מֵאֶ֣רֶץ מִדָּ֑הּ וּ֝רְחָבָ֗ה מִנִּי־יָֽם׃ Its measure is longer than the land and broader than the sea. [Iyov, this is so far beyond you. You can't be seriously asking Gd to provide this for you.] 6. 11:7-9 vs. 9:3-10 In 9:3-10: Iyov, responding to Bildad, spoke about Gd's power over the mountains, the land, the heavens and the sea. [really?] He invoked four different spaces, the same four invoked here. Tzofar is sort of one-upping Iyov, telling him Gd's power is even broader than the land, deeper than the sea, etc. Iyov is going to come back in the next chapter and stomp on this. י אִם־יַחֲלֹ֥ף וְיַסְגִּ֑יר וְ֝יַקְהִ֗יל וּמִ֣י יְשִׁיבֶֽנּוּ׃ If Gd were to be מחליף [where יחלוף is to pass by] and imprison [or quarantine] and gather, who would respond to him?
    Rashi: "...gather for an attack, who could challenge him?
    Daat Mikra: להסגיר like a מצורה. Iyov is suffering from the boils on his skin. He is being quarantined, and Tzofar is saying: (sort of a low blow) If Gd will quarantine somebody, he will gather people back in (like the metzora once clean). Gd does things like this to people. He inflicts and then brings back, and no one can question these things.
    יא כִּי־ה֭וּא יָדַ֣ע מְתֵי־שָׁ֑וְא וַיַּרְא־אָ֝֗וֶן וְלֹ֣א יִתְבּוֹנָֽן׃ Because He knows the nature of wicked people; he sees corruption and he will not contemplate.
    Rashi: He looks like He will not contemplate it, but really does.
    Ralbag: Gd sees the person who is corrupt and doesn't contemplate.
    Daat Mikra: He knows the nature of the wicked and doesn't need to contemplate it. He knows exactly what to do with it.
    Irrespective of which translation you choose, he's saying: it's all beyond your understanding, Iyov.
    ו וְיַגֶּד־לְךָ֨ ׀ תַּֽעֲלֻמ֣וֹת חָכְמָה֮ כִּֽי־כִפְלַ֪יִם
    That which you perceive is superficial; your perception is limited by your humanity. Reality is a different layer, incomprehensible. 7. Malbim to 11:6 הדברים הנמצאים מתחלקים לשנים, א] כפי מה שהם בעצמותם, ב] כפי מה שהם מוחשים ומושגים לחושינו, כי אנו אין אנו משיגים מן הדברים רק את מקריהם החיצונים כפי מה שהם פועלים על חושינו, ומזה לא נוכל לדון על מהות הדברים כפי מה שהם בעצמם... Everything that exists may be divided into two categories: 1) As it is, and 2) As it is sensed and grasped by our senses. We do not grasp things – only their external events, as they act on our senses. Based on this we cannot assess the essence of things, as they truly are… Territory vs. our map thereof.
    You only see that which your senses perceive: the way the object acts on your sense. 8. Rashi to Yechezkel 2:10 פנים ואחור - מה דהוה מן שרויא ומה דעתיד למהוי בסופא: "Front and back" – That which has been since the beginning, and that which will be at the end. That which you can't see, and that which you can see. Quoting that pasuk: 9. Midrash, Sifri Bamidbar 103 והיא כתובה פנים ואחור (יחזקאל ב י) והלא אף קלי הדעת וההדיוטות עושים כן ומה ת"ל פנים ואחור פנים בעוה"ז ואחור לעוה"ב פנים שלוותם של רשעים ויסורים של צדיקים בעוה"ז ואחור מתן שכרן של צדיקים ופורעונותם של רשעים לעוה"ב "And it was recorded, front and back" – But even light intellects and regular people do that! What is the meaning of "front and back"? "Front" is this world, "back" is the next world. "Front" is the peace of the wicked and the suffering of the righteous in this world, "back" is the reward for the righteous and punishment of the wicked in the next world. The injustice we perceive, and the justice we do not perceive.
    < /eighteenthclass >


    4. Talmud, Eruvin 21a מאי דכתיב +תהלים קי"ט+ לכל תכלה ראיתי קץ רחבה מצותך מאד? דבר זה אמרו דוד ולא פירשו אמרו איוב ולא פירשו אמרו יחזקאל ולא פירשו עד שבא זכריה בן עדו ופירשו. אמרו דוד ולא פירשו... אמרו איוב ולא פירשו דכתיב +איוב י"א+ ארכה מארץ מדה ורחבה מני ים. אמרו יחזקאל ולא פירשו דכתיב +יחזקאל ב'+ ויפרש אותה לפני והיא כתובה פנים ואחור וכתוב אליה קינים והגה והי... עד שבא זכריה בן עדו ופירשו דכתיב... ויאמר אלי מה אתה ראה ואמר אני ראה מגלה עפה ארכה עשרים באמה ורחבה עשר באמה וכי פשטת לה הויא לה עשרין בעשרין וכתיב היא כתובה פנים ואחור וכי קלפת לה כמה הויא לה ארבעין בעשרין וכתיב +ישעיהו מ'+ מי מדד בשעלו מים ושמים בזרת תכן וגו' נמצא כל העולם כולו אחד משלשת אלפים ומאתים בתורה What is the meaning of, "Every entity has an end; your mitzvot are very broad"? David said this without explaining it, Job said it without explaining it, Ezekiel said it without explaining it, until Zecharyah came and explained it. Job said, 'Her measure is longer than the land, & broader than the sea.' Ezekiel said, 'And he spread it before me, and it bore writing on front & back, and upon it was written, 'Lamentations, moaning and woe.'… Until Zecharyah explained it… 'And he said to me: What do you see? And I said: I see a folded [afah] scroll, 20 amah long and 10 amah wide.' Unfold it, and it is 20 by 20. It is written, 'bore writing on front and back', so if the sides were peeled away it would be forty by twenty. Isaiah 40:12 says, 'Who measured the sea in His hand, and founded the heavens with His zeret [which is .5 amah].' If so, the world is [.5 amah by .5 amah], or 1/3200 of the Torah. Torah broader than the world. Human achievement is unable to cover everything. 5. Rashi to 11:7 החקר אלוק תמצא - שאתה סבור שקיימ' הכל? "Will you find the depths of Gd" such that you believe you have fulfilled everything? Tzofar's new point: You're not as perfect as you think, Iyov. You haven't achieved everything. 6. Ralbag to 11:6 האדם יחטא כשלא יעשה טוב תמיד להשתדל להשכיל ולדעת הש"י כפי היכולת, ולזה תחשוב להיותך צדיק והנך חוטא... כאילו העלימו ד' יתברך מן האדם, ר"ל שלא בראו באופן שיוכל להשיג זה, וזה כי האדם לקצורו מהשיג עצמו באופן שלם, ולא ידע מה שאפשר לו לעשות מן הטוב, אשר הוא חוטא לפי דעת צופר אם יקצר מזה. Man sins when he does not perform good perpetually, to strive and gain insight and know Gd according to his abilities. This is why you think yourself righteous, even as you sin… It is as though Gd hid it from people, meaning that He did not create people such that they could grasp this. A person, because his mind is too small to grasp himself fully, will not know how much good he could accomplish, such that he sins – in Tzofar's view – when he falls short of it. To the extent of your abilities. Tzofar is saying that's what Iyov fell short of. 7. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 11:7 וכאומר, "וכי יודע אתה מי הוא הראוי להקרא צדיק ומי לרשע יחשב?" כי הכל היא לפי שעור מדרגת הכנת האדם, כי מי שהכנתו מרובה ומקצר בעבודת אלקים לא לצדיק יחשב, ומי שהכנתו מעט הנה כל דבר לרב יחשב!... It is as though he were saying, "Do you know who is suited to be called righteous, and who is considered wicked?" All is according to the measure of a person's potential, for one whose potential is great, and who does little in serving Gd, will not be considered righteous. And one whose potential is limited – anything he does is considered great!... It's not that you don't understand what is happening to you, but that you don't understand you. You think you know yourself to be good, but maybe your potential is far greater than you've been achieving. (This philosophy could drive someone off the edge, by the way.)

    11:12-14 Prescription: Repent and approach Gd!
    יב וְאִ֣ישׁ נָ֭בוּב יִלָּבֵ֑ב וְעַ֥יִר פֶּ֝֗רֶא אָדָ֥ם יִוָּלֵֽד׃ The one who has been hollow should acquire a heart. [Imperative.] A person is born as a wild donkey. [Or, a wild donkey can be born into a human being. Either is an acceptable read. But re-word this later] You don't have comprehension yet, but we demand of you that you come to it. Fits with Iyov being judged for not reaching his potential: You don't have to remain a wild donkey. 8. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 11:12 גם הסכל הריק מחכמה עם כי עשה העמל מחסרון הדעת עכ"ז ענש יענש כי ראוי לאיש נבוב וריק מחכמה לקנות לב להשתדל בחכמה להשכיל דרכי ד' כי כל אדם כאשר יולד הוא כעיר פרא מבלי חכמה וכאשר יכין לבו הנה ישכיל. The fool, who is empty of wisdom, performs [evil] struggle out of ignorance – but he will still be punished, for a person who is hollow and empty of wisdom should acquire a heart, working at wisdom to gain insight into the paths of Gd. All men are as wild donkeys, ignorant, when they are born; when they prepare their hearts, they gain insight. Everyone is born ignorant; it's your responsibility to learn.
    יג אִם־אַ֭תָּ֗ה הֲכִינ֣וֹתָ לִבֶּ֑ךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ֖ אֵלָ֣יו כַּפֶּֽךָ׃ If/When you prepare your heart, [or as in כונה] and you will spread your hands towards Gd [in prayer or beseeching]. יד אִם־אָ֣וֶן בְּ֭יָדְךָ הַרְחִיקֵ֑הוּ וְאַל־תַּשְׁכֵּ֖ן בְּאֹהָלֶ֣יךָ עַוְלָֽה׃ If/When there is corruption in your hands, distance it from yourself, and do not have something corrupt in your tent.
    Daat Mikra and others read this as an accusation, but R'Torcz doesn't think it has to be read so. 9. Talmud, Ketuvot 19b אסור לו לאדם שישהה שטר פרוע בתוך ביתו, משום שנאמר: אל תשכן באהליך עולה. One may not keep a document from a paid-off debt [owed to him] in his house; it is written, "Do not keep corruption in your tent." (Just a side note.)
    11:15-20 And then life will be wonderful
    טו כִּי־אָ֤ז ׀ תִּשָּׂ֣א פָנֶ֣יךָ מִמּ֑וּם וְהָיִ֥יתָ מֻ֝צָ֗ק וְלֹ֣א תִירָֽא׃ Then you will raise up your face from having any blemishes, and you will be מצק [strong, tough. steadfast?] and you will not fear. טז כִּי־אַ֭תָּה עָמָ֣ל תִּשְׁכָּ֑ח כְּמַ֖יִם עָבְר֣וּ תִזְכֹּֽר׃ Then you will forget עמל; you will remember it like you remember that there was water in a certain place. עמל is a carefully chosen word. See: 10. עמל (struggle)
    • 3:10 Iyov's original speech, wishing for death before birth: כִּי לֹא סָגַר, דַּלְתֵי בִטְנִי; וַיַּסְתֵּר עָמָל, מֵעֵינָי
    • 3:20 לָמָּה יִתֵּן לְעָמֵל אוֹר; וְחַיִּים, לְמָרֵי נָפֶשׁ Why does Gd give light to the one who struggles in this way?
    • 4:8 כַּאֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי, חֹרְשֵׁי אָוֶן; וְזֹרְעֵי עָמָל יִקְצְרֻהוּ. Eliphaz's response: I've seen justice in this world; those who plant עמל (with connotations not just of struggle but of evil) will harvest it.
    • 5:6-7 ו כִּי, לֹא-יֵצֵא מֵעָפָר אָוֶן; וּמֵאֲדָמָה, לֹא-יִצְמַח עָמָל. ז כִּי-אָדָם, לְעָמָל יוּלָּד; וּבְנֵי-רֶשֶׁף, יַגְבִּיהוּ עוּף. And, he continues, that עמל, evil struggle, doesn't come from the ground. A person is born for עמל.
    • 7:3 ג כֵּן הָנְחַלְתִּי לִי, יַרְחֵי-שָׁוְא; וְלֵילוֹת עָמָל, מִנּוּ-לִי. Iyov says: I have received months [or nights] of emptiness, and I have nights of עמל.
    עמל will be like water that passed which you barely remember was here.
    יז וּֽ֭מִצָּהֳרַיִם יָק֣וּם חָ֑לֶד תָּ֝עֻ֗פָה כַּבֹּ֥קֶר תִּהְיֶֽה׃ [The מ doesn't mean "from" but "greater than"] Greater than the light of noon, your time will rise. [You will be even brighter than noon.] Darkness will be like morning. יח וּֽ֭בָטַחְתָּ כִּי־יֵ֣שׁ תִּקְוָ֑ה וְ֝חָפַרְתָּ֗ לָבֶ֥טַח תִּשְׁכָּֽב׃ And you will believe that there is hope, and you will burrow a secure place for yourself. (Either a burrow like an animal digs, or a moat around your place.) Note the word תקוה: 11. תקוה (hope) 3:9, 7:6 If you will only repent and pray, you will have security, and more:
    יט וְֽ֭רָבַצְתָּ וְאֵ֣ין מַחֲרִ֑יד וְחִלּ֖וּ פָנֶ֣יךָ רַבִּֽים׃ You will sprawl/lie down [more animal connotations] and no one will be able to frighten you, and many people will come to you [for counsel. You will have status again. (In contrast to his current complaint that he is degraded by others now.)] כ וְעֵינֵ֥י רְשָׁעִ֗ים תִּ֫כְלֶ֥ינָה וּ֭מָנוֹס אָבַ֣ד מִנְהֶ֑ם וְ֝תִקְוָתָ֗ם מַֽפַּח־נָֽפֶשׁ׃ And the eyes of the wicked will be destroyed. They will have nowhere to run. Their hope will be [either] a depressed spirit [or they will exhale and expire]. He promises a lot of brightness.

    An escape from rogez 12. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations pg. 107 One important aspect of practice is termed "misrecognition". Participants in a practice, such as a religious ritual, engage in their activities with conscious intent, specific purpose, and a sense of the meaningfulness of the activity. Although this self-awareness is of great significance, it does not and cannot understand all that is happening in the practice. As Foucault put it, "People know what they do; they frequently know why they do what they do; but what they don't know is what what they do does." When engaged in ritual (bow for Modim; lean at the Seder) we may know why.
    But beyond the requirement and the motivations, they have effects. Shaking a lulav on Sukkot
    אִם־אַ֭תָּ֗ה הֲכִינ֣וֹתָ לִבֶּ֑ךָ וּפָרַשְׂתָּ֖ אֵלָ֣יו כַּפֶּֽךָ
    Following the view that this word means kavanna, direction:
    It's a re-ordering of who you are. Separating away from other things, and focusing your concentration on something in particular.
    And raising hands is a humbling, respect-for-a-superior gesture.
    אִם־אָ֣וֶן בְּ֭יָדְךָ הַרְחִיקֵ֑הוּ וְאַל־תַּשְׁכֵּ֖ן בְּאֹהָלֶ֣יךָ עַוְלָֽה׃
    The hands and the tent: the hands are the human version of the tent, and the structural house you occupy is the tent in the second clause.
    טו כִּי־אָ֤ז ׀ תִּשָּׂ֣א פָנֶ֣יךָ מִמּ֑וּם וְהָיִ֥יתָ מֻ֝צָ֗ק וְלֹ֣א תִירָֽא׃
    The image of raising your face towards Gd - an element of intimacy there. A warmth and a relationship that did not exist before. יִשָּׂא ה' פניו אליך. (Compare Gd-as-Judge not being נשא פנים - showing favor. Issues with contrast to this bracha aside, the implications of the term there are clearly what we've been describing.)
    תִּשָּׂ֣א פָנֶ֣יךָ מִמּ֑וּם - A מום disqualifies a korban. Until now, Iyov, you couldn't be close to Gd this way; you have some kind of a defect that disqualifies you. Now you will be rid of this disqualifying blemish, and you will be eligible to be an offering before Gd, and the result is going to be the loss of your turmoil. You will be מצק, strong, with no fear. All the עמל will flow away like water, etc, etc.
    A Brief Review
    Chapter 1
    Initial disaster; Job responds by acknowledging the Divine right to all that is his
    Chapter 2
    Job suffers physically; Job rebukes his blasphemous wife, but is less pious; The silent friends stay 7 days
    Chapter 3
    Job lashes out against his birthday/the stars
    Chapter 4-5
    Eliphaz argues for a narrative of hope and urges Job to appeal to Gd
    Chapters 6-7
    Job rebukes Eliphaz for not helping, and either challenges Gd to leave him alone or claims that Gd does not run the world, as that would be beneath Him
    Chapter 8
    Bildad defends Divine justice, contends the wicked will perish. He may contend that events which appear bad turn out to be good.
    Chapters 9-10
    Job rebukes Bildad; I cannot convince Gd that I am right, and Gd is hostile to me. If I were to talk to Gd, it would be to challenge Him for what He has done to me.
    Chapter 11
    Tzofar says that Gd's wisdom involves hidden elements. Turn to Gd; life will improve.
    How have they answered the problem of theodicy?
    Job
    1) Gd looks to destroy people, or
    2) Gd has outsourced human events to the stars
    Eliphaz
    There will be justice, but you must be patient.
    Bildad
    There is justice; that which you think is bad may actually be good.
    Tzofar
    There is justice; you don’t have the information Gd uses in determining what will happen

    < /nineteenthclass >


    Is Iyov correct in saying that it's more pious to describe Gd based on our experiences and perceptions than based on what we aspire for Gd to be?
    They're describing Gd based on what they hope Gd would be, based on what the think they're supposed to believe? Are we supposed to put forth what we're taught, or what we experience? Overview
    12:1-13 You are not enlightening me, only mocking me
    12:14-25 Gd is indeed the mightiest – and the source of all destruction
    13:1-12 Gd will punish you for misrepresenting Him
    13:13-19 I will speak truth regarding Gd
    13:20-14:6 Addressing Gd: My case against You
    14:7-22 There is no hope of resurrection, and so there is no hope at all
    12:1-13 You are not enlightening me, only mocking me
    א וַיַּ֥עַן אִיּ֗וֹב וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Iyov declared and said: ב אָ֭מְנָם כִּ֣י אַתֶּם־עָ֑ם וְ֝עִמָּכֶ֗ם תָּמ֥וּת חָכְמָֽה׃ It is true, you are the many, [the [ignorant, per Daat Mikra] masses,] and with you, wit will perish. [You'll get the last word] ג גַּם־לִ֤י לֵבָ֨ב ׀ כְּֽמוֹכֶ֗ם לֹא־נֹפֵ֣ל אָנֹכִ֣י מִכֶּ֑ם וְאֶת־מִי־אֵ֥ין כְּמוֹ־אֵֽלֶּה׃ [I've got news for you:] I also have a heart like you, I am not less than you, and who doesn't know the things you're saying? This is a direct response.
    Either עם means ignorant masses, (Daat Mikra) or just the general population (Metzudas David).
    עִמָּכֶ֗ם תָּמ֥וּת חָכְמָֽה - No one has it but you. (Sarcastic approach.)
    Or (Metzudas David): You think you have a monopoly on wit because there are a lot of you? 1. Ibn Ezra to 12:2 "עמכם" בעבור כסילותכם, כעניין "נסרחה חכמתם"
    "With you" – Because of your foolishness, like, "Their wisdom has decayed."
    "The things you are saying are killing my brain."
    This section is very hard to translate.
    ד שְׂחֹ֤ק לְרֵעֵ֨הוּ ׀ אֶֽהְיֶ֗ה קֹרֵ֣א לֶ֭אֱלוֹהַּ וַֽיַּעֲנֵ֑הוּ שְׂ֝ח֗וֹק צַדִּ֥יק תָּמִֽים׃ I will be a source of laughter for רעהו ["his friend." People get to laugh about me with each other.] The person who calls out to Gd and Gd answers him. I have a source of laughter for the צדיק תמים. [All you high-and-mighty people who are so close to Gd, who say, "Call out to Gd and He will answer!" You're laughing at me, mocking me.] 2. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 12:4 הנה אני אהיה לשחוק וללעג למחשבתו, אשר בעבור גודל הצלחתו אשר ישיג כל תאותו - כאלו בכל אשר יקרא לשאול מאלוק יענה וישיב לו למלאות שאלתו - לזה גבה לבו עד כי ישחוק עלי אשר אני באמת צדיק תמים. Behold, in his thoughts I am a target for laughter and mockery. Due to his great success in achieving his desires – as though whenever he calls out with a request of Gd, Gd answers him to fill his request – therefore, his heart is haughty, to the point that he laughs at me, even as I am truly completely righteous! ה לַפִּ֣יד בּ֭וּז לְעַשְׁתּ֣וּת שַׁאֲנָ֑ן נָ֝כ֗וֹן לְמ֣וֹעֲדֵי רָֽגֶל׃ [1) Development of his previous sentence:] I am a torch of scorn [I am burning with scorn] for the people who are עשתות שאנן [people who are strong like and at peace? or complacent in their thoughts - in either case, the opposite of Iyov himself, who is in רגז.] Set to מעדי רגל [those who stumble?] 3. "A torch of scorn"
    Daat Mikra: I am a target of scorn for those who rest peacefully; I am set to stumble
    Rashi: The fire of Gehennom awaits those who are arrogant in their peace; [There should be a torch of scorn.] they are set to stumble
    Ibn Ezra: I am tragic, causing scorn from those who rest peacefully; this leads me to stumble.
    ו יִשְׁלָ֤יוּ אֹֽהָלִ֨ים ׀ לְשֹׁ֥דְדִ֗ים וּֽ֭בַטֻּחוֹת לְמַרְגִּ֣יזֵי אֵ֑ל לַאֲשֶׁ֤ר הֵבִ֖יא אֱל֣וֹהַּ בְּיָדֽוֹ׃ The tents are ישליו [like שלו - peaceful] at rest for the thieves [bandits who take spoils]. They are secure for those who anger Gd. When you spoke to me in previous chapters, you promised me peace. The people at peace are the thieves. Security is for the wicked. (Daat Mikra)
    The fact that you're doing ok doesn't mean I should trust that you have the secret to a good life. (Metzudat David; he takes it as a more direct response.) 4. Rashi to 12:6 לכל אשר הביא לו הצור השלום בידו אם טוב אם רע To those for whom Gd has provided peace, whether [they are] good or bad. 5. Ralbag to 12:6 לעובדי כו"ם שיביאו הכו"ם בידיהם וישתחוו להם To the worshippers of idols, who bring idols in their hands and bow to them. There is peace aplenty for sinners. Your peace proves nothing. 6. Midrash, Bereishit Rabbah 30:7 כל מקום שנאמר "איש" צדיק ומומחה - שכל ק"ך שנה היה נח נוטע ארזים וקוצצן, אמרו למה כדין? אמר להון כך אמר מאריה דעלמא, דהוא מייתי מבולא על עלמא. א"ל אין איתי מבולא לא אתי אלא על ביתיה דההוא גברא! כיון שמת מתושלח אמרו ליה הא לא אתי מבולא אלא על ביתיה דההוא גברא. הה"ד (איוב יב) "לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל". Wherever it says ish, this is a righteous person, a tested expert. For throughout 120 years, Noach planted cedars and cut them down. They said to him, "Why do this?" He replied, "The Master of the World has declared that He is flooding the world." They said to him, "If He brings a flood, it will come only to your house!" When Metushelach died, they said to him, "Indeed, the flood has come only to your house." Thus Job 12:5 says, "A torch of scorn for the thoughts of those who are at ease, prepared for those whose feet slip." א"ר אבא בר כהנא: Rabbi Abba bar Kahana said: כרוז אחד עמד לי בדור המבול, זה נח, תמן אמרין "כרוז ליה" "לפיד ליה" One herald stood for Me in the generation of the flood: Noach. There they say for "He has a herald," "He has a torch." "בוז" שהיו מבזים עליו וקרו ליה ביזיא סבא. "Scorn" – For they mocked him, calling him, "The disgraced old man." "לעשתות שאנן", שהיו קשים כעשתות. "For the thoughts of those who are at ease" – For they were as tough as pieces of iron ore. "נכון למועדי רגל", שהיו מוכנים לשני שברים, לשבר מלמעלה ולשבר מלמטה. "Prepared for those whose feet slip" – For they were prepared for two breaks, from above and from below. ז וְֽאוּלָ֗ם שְׁאַל־נָ֣א בְהֵמ֣וֹת וְתֹרֶ֑ךָּ וְע֥וֹף הַ֝שָּׁמַ֗יִם וְיַגֶּד־לָֽךְ׃ But go ask the animals; they will guide you, and the birds in the sky will tell you, ח א֤וֹ שִׂ֣יחַ לָאָ֣רֶץ וְתֹרֶ֑ךָּ וִֽיסַפְּר֥וּ לְ֝ךָ֗ דְּגֵ֣י הַיָּֽם׃ or the plants of the earth will teach you, and the fish of the sea can tell you. ט מִ֭י לֹא־יָדַ֣ע בְּכָל־אֵ֑לֶּה כִּ֥י יַד־יְ֝הוָה עָ֣שְׂתָה זֹּֽאת׃ Who doesn't know everything you've told me, that this is in fact from the hand of Gd? י אֲשֶׁ֣ר בְּ֭יָדוֹ נֶ֣פֶשׁ כָּל־חָ֑י וְ֝ר֗וּחַ כָּל־בְּשַׂר־אִֽישׁ׃ All souls are found in Gd's hand. [contrast tehillim: בידו אפקיד רוחי, willingly put soul in Gd's hand; Also, see 2:6 - he is in your hand, Satan, only guard his nefesh]

    I know it already! The birds know it; the fish know it. Everyone knows it. You think I don't?
    (Note echo of Tzofar's parts-of-the-world)
    7. Talmud, Sanhedrin 108b מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם, ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים, והיו מבזין אותו, אמרו לו: זקן! תיבה זו למה? - אמר להם: הקב"ה מביא עליכם את המבול. אמרו: מבול של מה? אם מבול של אש - יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה. ואם של מים הוא מביא, אם מן הארץ הוא מביא - יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ, ואם מן השמים הוא מביא, יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו, ואמרי לה עקש שמו. אמר להם: הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם, שנאמר נכון למועדי רגל This verse teaches that Noach rebuked them, saying things as tough as torches, and they scorned him, saying, "Old man! What is that boat for?" He told them, "Gd is bringing the flood upon you." They said, "A flood of what? If it's fire, we have something [fireproof] called alita. If it's water and from the ground, we have pieces of iron with which we can cover the ground. If it's from the sky, we have something [spongelike] called ikev, or ikesh." He told them, "He will bring it from between your heels," as it says, "prepared for those whose feet slip." יא הֲלֹא־אֹ֭זֶן מִלִּ֣ין תִּבְחָ֑ן וְ֝חֵ֗ךְ אֹ֣כֶל יִטְעַם־לֽוֹ׃ The ear comprehends words, and the palate [with connotations of comprehension] can taste food. יב בִּֽישִׁישִׁ֥ים חָכְמָ֑ה וְאֹ֖רֶךְ יָמִ֣ים תְּבוּנָֽה׃ In the elderly lies wisdom; in those who have lived long lives is found understanding יג עִ֭מּוֹ חָכְמָ֣ה וּגְבוּרָ֑ה ל֝֗וֹ עֵצָ֥ה וּתְבוּנָֽה׃ with such a person lies wisdom and strength; this person has counsel and understanding. 8. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 12:11-12 האוזן השומעת תבחן הדברים ממי נאמרו, והחיך הטועם הוא יטעם לו טעם המאכל המר הוא אם מתוק, כי בו ניתן ההרגש הזה. ויובן א"כ הרבה מן הדברים ע"פ החוש: ובעבור זה ימצא הרבה מן החכמה בלב הישישים, כי בעבור רוב הימים ראו הרבה בחוש... The listening ear distinguishes the source of words, and the tasting mouth tastes whether food is bitter or sweet, for it possesses this sensitivity, and so much can be understood via the senses. And because of this, much wisdom will be found in the heart of the aged; due to their great years, they have perceived much… (relationship of these pesukim: causative.)
    My senses see more than this wisdom you claim is hidden. 9. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 12-14 ורצה בזה כי מהחוש נקח התחלה ושרש על מה שנחקר בו, ולזה תמצא בישישי' חכמה, ואורך הימים יהיה סבת התבונה, מצד שבאורך הזמן יתבארו לאדם מהחוש דברים רבים יעמוד מהם על אמתת מה שיחקור עליו. וזה אמר כנגד צופר שהיה צעיר ממנו לימים, או כנגד שנים מרעיו... Meaning, from the senses one can draw a beginning and root for whatever we examine. Therefore, wisdom will be found in the aged, and long life will be the cause of understanding, for over long periods of time a person's senses will clarify many things for him, guiding him to the truth he seeks. [Job] said this opposite Tzofar, who was much younger, or opposite two of his friends… Intelligence begins in observation. The senses are the source of knowledge, and over a long life much can be inferred, and wisdom comes with long observation.
    This is his response to Tzofar, the youngest of the three. People who are older than you, who have seen more life than you, have wisdom as well.
    12:14-25 Gd is indeed the mightiest – and the source of all destruction
    יד הֵ֣ן יַ֭הֲרוֹס וְלֹ֣א יִבָּנֶ֑ה יִסְגֹּ֥ר עַל־אִ֝֗ישׁ וְלֹ֣א יִפָּתֵֽחַ׃ Gd will destroy, and it will not be built up; He will close a person in, and it will never be opened. [He will not be released; also, contrast סגירה - Iyov's quarantine.] 10. Rabbi David Altschuler, Metzudat David to 12:14 כאשר יחפוץ להשגיח הלא ישדד המערכה. When He wishes to supervise, He will destroy the constellations. Gd could easily intervene if He wanted. 11. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 12-14 כל אלו הענינים יחס איוב אל ד' יתברך בהשתלשלות הסבות ר"ל שהם מסודרים לפי דעתו מהגרמים השמימיים, ויוחסו אל ד' יתברך מפני היותו הסבה הראשונה לכל מה שימצא Iyov ascribed all of these events to Gd, through the hierarchy of causes, meaning that in his view they are arranged by the celestial causes. They are attributed to Gd because He is the first cause for all that is found. There's no option for Gd to claim distance: He set up the system.
    טו הֵ֤ן יַעְצֹ֣ר בַּמַּ֣יִם וְיִבָ֑שׁוּ וִֽ֝ישַׁלְּחֵ֗ם וְיַ֖הַפְכוּ אָֽרֶץ׃ He closes up the water and it dries out [drought]; He sends the water and it overturns the land. [He sends destruction either way.] טז עִ֭מּוֹ עֹ֣ז וְתֽוּשִׁיָּ֑ה ל֝֗וֹ שֹׁגֵ֥ג וּמַשְׁגֶּֽה׃ With him, [as you said, Tzofar,] with Gd is counsel and wisdom. Along with that comes the error and the cause of error. [Those are also Gd's responsibility.] 12. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 12-14 ומקצת אלו הדברים שזכר איוב יהיה קצת ראיה על שאלו העניינים הם מוגבלים ומסודרים מצד המערכת שאם לא היה העניין כן הוא מן הפלא למה תמנע בעת מן העתים מהחכם חכמתו ומהמנהיג הטוב טוב הנהגתו ומהגבור הסדור הראוי לו בגבורתו From some of these things Job mentioned there is some evidence that these events are bounded and arranged by the constellations. Were it not so, it would be wondrous that sometimes a sage loses his wisdom, and a good ruler loses his good governance, and the warrior loses the order worthy of his might. יז מוֹלִ֣יךְ יוֹעֲצִ֣ים שׁוֹלָ֑ל וְֽשֹׁפְטִ֥ים יְהוֹלֵֽל׃ He takes the counsellors and makes them wander [into foolishness]; he makes the judges [who we assume to be wise] foolish. יח מוּסַ֣ר מְלָכִ֣ים פִּתֵּ֑חַ וַיֶּאְסֹ֥ר אֵ֝ז֗וֹר בְּמָתְנֵיהֶֽם׃ He opens up the cords of the kings, [so that those they had imprisoned are not freed. [Echoes of תהילים ב?]] but he puts a belt around them [turning them into prisoners.] יט מוֹלִ֣יךְ כֹּהֲנִ֣ים שׁוֹלָ֑ל וְאֵֽתָנִ֣ים יְסַלֵּֽף׃ He takes the כהנים (who were advisors, people of counsel) and makes them foolish, and he corrupts the path of those who had been steadfast. כ מֵסִ֣יר שָׂ֭פָה לְנֶאֱמָנִ֑ים וְטַ֖עַם זְקֵנִ֣ים יִקָּֽח׃ He removes the speech of those who had been faithful [who had given good advice] and takes away the wisdom of the elderly. כא שׁוֹפֵ֣ךְ בּ֭וּז עַל־נְדִיבִ֑ים וּמְזִ֖יחַ אֲפִיקִ֣ים רִפָּֽה׃ He pours scorn on princes, and the belt of אפיקים [princes, or dams eg of streams] He loosens. [Contrast Ps. 107:40] כב מְגַלֶּ֣ה עֲ֭מֻקוֹת מִנִּי־חֹ֑שֶׁךְ וַיֹּצֵ֖א לָא֣וֹר צַלְמָֽוֶת׃ He reveals from the depths the darkness, and brings the shadow of death to light. כג מַשְׂגִּ֣יא לַ֭גּוֹיִם וַֽיְאַבְּדֵ֑ם שֹׁטֵ֥חַ לַ֝גּוֹיִ֗ם וַיַּנְחֵֽם׃ He makes the nations great and then he destroyes them;. He makes the land smooth for [or makes the land a trap for] nations, and guides them into a trap. כד מֵסִ֗יר לֵ֭ב רָאשֵׁ֣י עַם־הָאָ֑רֶץ וַ֝יַּתְעֵ֗ם בְּתֹ֣הוּ לֹא־דָֽרֶךְ׃ He removes the heart of the leaders of the nations, and he guides them into emptiness, where there is not path כה יְמַֽשְׁשׁוּ־חֹ֥שֶׁךְ וְלֹא־א֑וֹר וַ֝יַּתְעֵ֗ם כַּשִּׁכּֽוֹר׃ They will feel their way in darkness without light, and He guides them as though they were drunk. Praise of Gd, His great might, but all in terms of destruction.
    < /twentiethclass >



    וְטַ֖עַם זְקֵנִ֣ים יִקָּֽח׃ contrast with his early statement that in the elderly lies wisdom יב בִּֽישִׁישִׁ֥ים חָכְמָ֑ה וְאֹ֖רֶךְ יָמִ֣ים תְּבוּנָֽה׃ 2. Talmud, Shabbat 152a תלמידי חכמים, כל זמן שמזקינין חכמה נתוספת בהם, שנאמר: "בישישים חכמה וארך ימים תבונה." ועמי הארץ, כל זמן שמזקינין טפשות נתוספת בהן, שנאמר "מסיר שפה לנאמנים וטעם זקנים יקח." When Torah scholars age, they gain wisdom, as in, "In the aged is wisdom; in long life is understanding." When others age, they gain foolishness, as in, "He removes speech from the consistent, and takes the comprehension of elders." And yet there are great Torah scholars who suffered dementia, and people who have not studied Torah and remain wise into their old age. This is one way to reconcile those two contrasting versions.

    13:1-12 Gd will punish you for misrepresenting Him; you are the ones who lack faith
    א הֶן־כֹּ֭ל רָאֲתָ֣ה עֵינִ֑י שָֽׁמְעָ֥ה אָ֝זְנִ֗י וַתָּ֥בֶן לָֽהּ׃ All of this [all of what you have told me, or all the ways Gd is destructive]- my eyes have seen it; my ear has heard and understood it. ב כְּֽ֭דַעְתְּכֶם יָדַ֣עְתִּי גַם־אָ֑נִי לֹא־נֹפֵ֖ל אָנֹכִ֣י מִכֶּֽם׃ Just like your knowledge, I know this. I am no less than you.
    It's an added rejection of Tzofar's point. 3. Malbim to 13:1-2 לא תוכל לאמר ששכל האדם אינו משיג האמת מפני שאינו משיג רק את המוחשים לא אמתת הדברים בעצמם, כי כל אלה הדברים השגתי בחושי... ולא תוכל לומר שחוש הראות הטעה אותי, כי כן שמעה אזני, עד שהתברר לי שגם אנשים אחרים ראו את המראה כמו שראיתיה אנכי, וא"א לומר שחוש הראות של כל בני אדם טועה בדרך אחד. וגם "ותבן לה", וא"כ אינו דמיון וטעות רק השגה אמתית. וגם לא תוכלו לאמר שאתם משיגים את הדברים באופן אחר ממה שהשגתי אני, כי הדעת שלכם משונה מדעתי, כי כדעתכם ידעתי גם אני... וגם לא תוכלו לאמר שעכ"פ דעתכם גדולה וגבוהה מדעתי בכמות, והשגת[כ]ם גדולה מהשגתי, "כי לא נופל אנכי מכם." You cannot say that a person's mind does not grasp truth because it grasps only sensations and not the essential truth of things, for I have grasped all of this with my senses… And you cannot say that my vision has fooled me, for "my ear has also heard this", such that it has become clear to me that others see what I have seen. One cannot say that the vision of all people errs in the same way! Also, "this was comprehended by her", and so it is not imagination and error, but true comprehension. You also cannot say that you grasp things in a way other than I do, since your minds are different from mine – for "I also know as you do"… And you also cannot say that your minds are greater and loftier than mine in magnitude, and your comprehension is greater than mine, "for I am no lower than you." We're not all going to have the same delusion. This implies that this is reality. And you can't claim to be smarter than I am. I am no lower than you. I understand everything that you understand.
    ג אוּלָ֗ם אֲ֭נִי אֶל־שַׁדַּ֣י אֲדַבֵּ֑ר וְהוֹכֵ֖חַ אֶל־אֵ֣ל אֶחְפָּֽץ׃ But I will speak to Gd, and I want to educate [harsh connotation] Gd. ד וְֽאוּלָ֗ם אַתֶּ֥ם טֹֽפְלֵי־שָׁ֑קֶר רֹפְאֵ֖י אֱלִ֣ל כֻּלְּכֶֽם׃ And you? You're smearing [as smearing a layer of pitch] on lies. Worthless healers, all of you.
    I pursue truth while you pursue lies. I will speak to Gd (because it's worthless to speak to you.) And you are the wicked ones, because you're promoting falsehood.
    רֹפְאֵ֖י אֱלִ֣ל - like אלילים, which makes it witch doctors. Or like אל, don't, making it non-healers. Or sinews - a specific sinew was believed to be unhealable, and they are people claiming falsely to be able to heal the unhealable. 4. Malbim to 13:3-4 החלוף שביני וביניכם מה שדעתכם בלתי מסכים לדעתי, אינו מצד ההשגה או מצד המשיג. רק בא מצד התכלית והאמצעיים אשר שמנו לנו למטרה בוכוחנו. The difference between me and you, such that your mind does not agree with mine, is not a result of comprehension or [the righteousness of] the one who is comprehending. It only comes from the purpose and means we have set as goals in our debate. You're just trying to win the argument, and twisting things to fit. My goal is to teach Gd a lesson, so I have no blinkers on.
    ה מִֽי־יִ֭תֵּן הַחֲרֵ֣שׁ תַּחֲרִישׁ֑וּן וּתְהִ֖י לָכֶ֣ם לְחָכְמָֽה׃ If you would just be quiet, that would be wisdom for you. 5. Malbim to 13:5 אחרי שכל תשובתכם הוא ששכל האדם א"א שישיג את הדברים האלה. ובזה היה טוב שתחרישו, כדרך גם אויל מחריש חכם יחשב. וזה היה נחשב להם לחכמה. כי האומר "איני יודע" חכמתו הוא שיחריש, ולא יתוכח: Because your entire response is that the human mind cannot grasp these things, it would have been good for you to be silent, just as a silent fool is considered wise. (Proverbs 17:28) This would have been considered wisdom for you. One who says "I don't know" would be wise to be silent, and not quarrel. ו שִׁמְעוּ־נָ֥א תוֹכַחְתִּ֑י וְרִב֖וֹת שְׂפָתַ֣י הַקְשִֽׁיבוּ׃ Hear my תוכחה and listen to the רבות of my lips. [ריב is usually used in association with litigation. A legal dispute is a ריב] ז הַ֭לְאֵל תְּדַבְּר֣וּ עַוְלָ֑ה וְ֝ל֗וֹ תְּֽדַבְּר֥וּ רְמִיָּֽה׃ Will you speak on corruption on behalf of Gd? [This "on behalf of" is agreed upon by the commentators.] 6. Malbim to 13:7 הלקל תדברו עולה. כיון על שטת אליפז ובלדד שהם ייחסו עולה אל הקל, שיעניש עונש כבד בעבור חטא קל לדעת אליפז, או שיגיע לו רע כדי שתמורת זה יתן לו אח"כ טוב כדעת בלדד, שזה ג"כ עולה, שיש אדם שלא ירצה בתמורה זאת. "Will you attribute corruption to Gd?" He refers to the approach of Eliphaz and Bildad, who attributed corruption to Gd - that He would send a heavy punishment for a light sin according to Eliphaz, or that bad would happen to a person so that he might later be given good according to Bildad. This [latter approach] is corruption, too, for there are people who do not want such an exchange. Your view of reality includes a corrupt Gd.
    Are you going to get Gd's favor this way?
    ח הֲפָנָ֥יו תִּשָּׂא֑וּן אִם־לָאֵ֥ל תְּרִיבֽוּן׃ You're looking for an intimate relationship with Gd because you're justifying Gd's conduct? ט הֲ֭טוֹב כִּֽי־יַחְקֹ֣ר אֶתְכֶ֑ם אִם־כְּהָתֵ֥ל בֶּ֝אֱנ֗וֹשׁ תְּהָתֵ֥לּוּ בֽוֹ׃ Would it be good if you had that intimacy with Gd? Then Gd would investigate you! If you are going to mock Gd the way you mock a human being with your responses, י הוֹכֵ֣חַ יוֹכִ֣יחַ אֶתְכֶ֑ם אִם־בַּ֝סֵּ֗תֶר פָּנִ֥ים תִּשָּׂאֽוּן׃ Gd is going to rebuke [/educate] you. If you are going to try to gain that intimate relationship with Gd. יא הֲלֹ֣א שְׂ֭אֵתוֹ תְּבַעֵ֣ת אֶתְכֶ֑ם וּ֝פַחְדּ֗וֹ יִפֹּ֥ל עֲלֵיכֶֽם׃ Gd's exaltation [or fire, per Rashi] will frighten you. His terror will fall upon you יב זִֽ֭כְרֹנֵיכֶם מִשְׁלֵי־אֵ֑פֶר לְגַבֵּי־חֹ֝֗מֶר גַּבֵּיכֶֽם׃ That which you have mentioned are parables of ash. [complicated end phrase; clay?]
    In summary, this perek thus far:
    Gd is going to punish you for misrepresenting him. I know what I've seen, and I've heard it from others, so it's not just me, and it's my comprehension, not just the evidence of my senses, and bottom line: I am pursuing truth, while you are just lying to justify your vision of how Gd works.
    It's not how Gd works, and and Gd doesn't like it when people say things about Him that aren't true.

    Intimacy with Gd is the last thing you want; you'll suffer for the lies you've told, and any other inadequacies.
    13:13-19 I will speak truth regarding Gd – and in this my faith will be evident יג הַחֲרִ֣ישׁוּ מִ֭מֶּנִּי וַאֲדַבְּרָה־אָ֑נִי וְיַעֲבֹ֖ר עָלַ֣י מָֽה׃ Be silent from me. I'll speak, and whatever happens, happens. [One of the Crusade-based kinos starts with this line, without the אני.] 7. Malbim to 13:13 אחר שכל מה שדברתם להצדיק את הקל היה רק מצד היראה והפחד לא מצד האמת, א"כ מי הכריח אתכם לדבר? הלא כבר הייתם יוצאים ידי חובתכם אם הייתם שותקים. Since all that you have said to justify Gd is only a result of fear and terror, and not truth, who forced you to speak? You could have fulfilled your duty had you been silent. You ultimately believe what I do, but you're afraid to say so, because you think Gd will zap you if you do. So who asked you to talk?
    יד עַל־מָ֤ה ׀ אֶשָּׂ֣א בְשָׂרִ֣י בְשִׁנָּ֑י וְ֝נַפְשִׁ֗י אָשִׂ֥ים בְּכַפִּֽי׃ Why should I lift up my flesh in my teeth, [A person muzzling himself by biting his arm; we would say biting his tongue] holding my soul in my hands [by not speaking]?
    טו הֵ֣ן יִ֭קְטְלֵנִי לא [ל֣וֹ] אֲיַחֵ֑ל אַךְ־דְּ֝רָכַ֗י אֶל־פָּנָ֥יו אוֹכִֽיחַ׃
    [Major difference caused by the kri u'ktiv here:]
    Even if he kills me, for Him I will hope. / If he kills me, I will not hope.
    Note: the last pasuk of that class will be discussed for about 20 minutes of the next class; the four possible interpretations are summarized here.
    < /twenty-firstclass >


    1. Pronounced: לו איחל – For Him I will hope
    Written: לא איחל – I will not hope
    He calls them toflei sheker - in vidui, tafalnu sheker, lifted right from here. 2. Metzudat David to 13:15 אל תחשבו שצעקתי יורה שעל אשר אחשב שאבדה תוחלתי, סרה ממני בעבור זה יראת ד', כי לא כן הוא. כי אף אם יקטלני, עוד אקוה לו לעדן את נפשי בתענוג הרוחני... Do not think that my cry demonstrates that I think my hope is lost, and therefore any reverence for Gd has left me. It is not so. Even should He kill me, I would still hope for Him to give my soul spiritual pleasure. This is interesting, because we'll see Iyov seem to question the existence of an Afterlife.
    This poem draws on the language of Iyov: 3. Rabbi Shlomo ibn Gabirol, Keter Malchut אלקי, אם עוני מנשוא גדול, My Gd, if my sin is too great to bear, מה תעשה לשמך הגדול? what will You do for Your great Name? ואם לא אוחיל לרחמיך, And if I will not hope for Your mercy, מי יחוס עלי, חוץ ממך? Who will have mercy upon me, other than You? לכן, אם תקטלני לך איחל, Therefore, if You will kill me – I will hope for You; ואם תבקש לעוני אברח ממך אליך, if You will seek my sins – then I will flee from You toward You, ואתכסה מחמתך בצלך, and I will shelter from Your anger (heat) in Your shade, ובשולי רחמיך אחזיק עד אם רחמתני To the hem of Your mercy I will cleave until You have mercy upon me, ולא אשלחך כי אם ברכתני. and I will not release You until You bless me. זכר נא כי כחומר עשיתני, Remember, now (please) that You have made me, as clay, ובאלה התלאות נסיתני. And with this suffering You have tested me. Consistent with Metzudat David that this is an expression of Iyov's faith over what he perceives as the other's lack of faith. In his mind, he is privy to Gd's true nature. The others have made a false image of Gd to be more comfortable with. He has experienced what no one else has; he's confident that he's right.

    Malbim reads it entirely differently: 4. Malbim to 13:15 הכי אירא שיקטלני כשאדבר נגדו? הלא "לו איחל"- הלא זאת תוחלתי, שימהר להמיתני, כדי שאפטר מן היסורים הקשים ממות! Should I fear that He might kill me when I speak against Him? "For Him I will hope" – This is my hope, that He hasten to kill me, that I might be exempt from suffering that is more harsh than death. I have nothing to fear. I can say whatever I want, and Gd will finally kill me! [Some sort of taboo against suicide in this book, but he does want to die.] 5. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 12-14 אף על פי שימיתני ד' יתברך, הנני מיחל בו שתושע בו נפשי, אבל דרכי אוכיח בכל עוז אל פניו כי לא לפניו חנף יבא Even though blessed Gd kills me, I still hope for Him, for my soul to be rescued by Him, but I will rebuke with all strength, to His face, for a flatterer will not come before Him. According to Ralbag here, Iyov says: I long for Gd, but that's not going to make me be like you, my visitors who kowtow to Gd, saying things they think Gd wants to hear and who paper over all the problems out of fear that if they point out a theological problem Gd is going to be angry at them. That's not what Gd wants of you, he says. Even if Gd is going to kill me, I'm going to do that which I think Gd wants, which is to speak truth.
    Or, reading it with the ktiv לא, not the kri לו: 6. Ralbag, Summary of Chapters 12-14 ד' יתברך ימיתני בלא ספק, "לא איחל" שאנצל מזה המכאוב, ועם כל זה אשתדל בכל עוז להוכיח דרכי אל פניו לפי שזאת ההנהגה היא המשובחת לפי החוק האנושי, ואף על פי שלא אחשוב שיהיה לי בזה תועלת להנצל מאלו הרעות. Blessed Gd will kill me, without a doubt; "I will not hope" to be saved from this pain. And yet, I will work with all strength to offer rebuke to His face, for this conduct is what is praiseworthy according to human law, even though I do not expect it to benefit me, saving me from this harm. Iyov is convinced he's doing right, even with no benefit to him. The human being is granted an intellect to use it, and if this is what I perceive to be true, that's what I'm supposed to say. Even if it's not going to benefit me, I have to be an honest person, to follow the ethics that I believe appropriate for a human being - and therefore He's going to kill me, and I have no hope for anything else... but I still need to say that which I believe is correct. So the pasuk הֵ֣ן יִ֭קְטְלֵנִי לא [ל֣וֹ] אֲיַחֵ֑ל אַךְ־דְּ֝רָכַ֗י אֶל־פָּנָ֥יו אוֹכִֽיחַ׃ can be taken as:
    1. Yes I am lashing out, and yes I have faith in him.
    2. I'm lashing out because I'm kind of hoping he's going to kill me - I have faith in that.
    3. I am lashing out and I have faith in him - that's what Gd wants me to do. He wants us to be honest!
    4. (Based on the ktiv לא, not the kri לו) I am convinced that I'm doing the right thing, even if it's not going to benefit me.
    What emerges from all of these reads is consistent with the context of Iyov as saying, My faith in Gd is evident, I have not ceased to believe that there is a Gd there (though he may accuse Gd of actively harming him, or of outsourcing the universe to the stars) - but he believes that what Gd has done to him is unjust and inappropriate, and he is going to continue to say so to Gd. [Discussion of this pasuk with relevant gemara later.]

    This was all about the first half of the pasuk. Now, regarding the second half: אֶל־פָּנָ֥יו אוֹכִֽיחַ
    Harking way back to perek alef: He will bless/curse to your face.
    So has the Satan won? Has Iyov now blasphemed to Gd's face? 7. Daat Mikra, pg. צט (13:16) בפסוק הקודם תפס איוב (שלא מדעתו) את לשונו של השטן: "אם לא על פניך יברכך". ודומה כאילו השיג השטן את מבוקשו. אולם כאן מתברר שכוונת איוב אינה כוונתו של השטן: האלקים עצמו יעזור כביכול לאיוב בריבו של איוב עם האלקים. In the previous verse, Job (unwittingly) used the language of the Satan, "if he will not 'bless' You to your face". It seems that the Satan has achieved his goal! But here it is clarified that Job's intent is not that of the Satan: Gd himself will help Job, as it were, in Job's quarrel with Gd. In Iyov's mind Gd is on his side.
    טז גַּם־הוּא־לִ֥י לִֽישׁוּעָ֑ה כִּי־לֹ֥א לְ֝פָנָ֗יו חָנֵ֥ף יָבֽוֹא׃ Gd is my salvation; those who flatter will not get to go before Gd. [Gd wants me to do this; He is empowering me to do so.]
    More so, per Metzudat David: Even were I worthless - He is with me because I speak the truth. Speaking the truth is what gives me value, and that is why Gd is on my side.
    יז שִׁמְע֣וּ שָׁ֭מוֹעַ מִלָּתִ֑י וְ֝אַֽחֲוָתִ֗י בְּאָזְנֵיכֶֽם׃ Hear my words, the expression of my speech [chavat da'at - to express an opinion] יח הִנֵּה־נָ֭א עָרַ֣כְתִּי מִשְׁפָּ֑ט יָ֝דַ֗עְתִּי כִּֽי־אֲנִ֥י אֶצְדָּֽק׃ I have arranged justice. I know I am going to be צדיק. יט מִי־ה֭וּא יָרִ֣יב עִמָּדִ֑י כִּֽי־עַתָּ֖ה אַחֲרִ֣ישׁ וְאֶגְוָֽע׃ Who is it who could defeat me? I would be silent and expire; but I know I am right.
    13:20-14:6 My case against You
    We'll see a theme here of Iyov's desire to flee from Gd.
    Iyov thinks it's wrong for Gd to be punishing him. Whether or not he's completely innocent, whether or not he lived up to his potential - it's not worth it for Gd to attack him for this. 8. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job, pg. 159 At one point Job imagines the speech he would make before Gd in a trial (13:18-23). Yet the words he speaks are those one might find in a psalm… In a psalm of complaint such questions do not seek literal answers but are appeals for transformation of the present situation. As Job recontextualizes them within the accents of legal discourse, however, they are requests for an explanation and an accounting. A psalm of complaint.
    So here are my conditions for this trial:
    כ אַךְ־שְׁ֭תַּיִם אַל־תַּ֣עַשׂ עִמָּדִ֑י אָ֥ז מִ֝פָּנֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א אֶסָּתֵֽר׃ I have only two conditions, and if you fulfill them I'll deal fairly. [non-Rashi view.] כא כַּ֭פְּךָ מֵעָלַ֣י הַרְחַ֑ק וְ֝אֵ֥מָתְךָ֗ אַֽל־תְּבַעֲתַֽנִּי׃ Keep your hands off me, Gd, and do not intimidate me with your terror. כב וּ֭קְרָא וְאָנֹכִ֣י אֶֽעֱנֶ֑ה אֽוֹ־אֲ֝דַבֵּ֗ר וַהֲשִׁיבֵֽנִי׃ Then call me an I will answer you, or I'll speak and You'll respond.
    This is more of a debate - or a trial in which one side is both litigant and judge. Can read it as Iyov, or as Gd.
    אָ֥ז מִ֝פָּנֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א אֶסָּתֵֽר׃
    Twisting around the idea of hester panim. 9. Parody of Divine concealment (13:21-22) Deuteronomy 31:18; Jeremiah 2:13 ("כִּי-שְׁתַּיִם רָעוֹת, עָשָׂה עַמִּי - my nation has sinned in two ways."); Isaiah 58:9 "My nation has committed two evils." The two sins they have performed are parallel to what Iyov is saying about Gd. Gd, don't do these two sins to me, and I will not hide my face from you. (This parallel may be deliberate.)
    כַּ֭פְּךָ מֵעָלַ֣י הַרְחַ֑ק
    10. Rashi to 13:21 כפך. כפייתך... ויש פותרים כפך כלומר ידך וקשה לי לאומרו כי לא מצינו כף לרעה כי אם להגן Kapecha: Your compulsion (kefiyatcha)… Some explain kapecha, "your hand". This is hard for me to say, as we have not seen kaf for harm, only for protection. Iyov turns what is usually positive into negative again - in his mind, proximity to Gd is a bad thing, and so Gd's "hand" has negative connotations here.
    Tehillim 139:5 - אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי; וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה. You put your כף upon me, Gd, says David haMelech. Another example of Tehillim as the opposite of Iyov - wanting connection with Gd vs wanting Him out of his life ("Do not harm me or frighten me").
    וּ֭קְרָא וְאָנֹכִ֣י אֶֽעֱנֶ֑ה
    parallel to Yeshaya 58:9, אָז תִּקְרָא וה' יַעֲנֶה.

    First of Iyov's three claims:
    I am no sinner.
    כג כַּמָּ֣ה לִ֭י עֲוֺנ֣וֹת וְחַטָּא֑וֹת פִּֽשְׁעִ֥י וְ֝חַטָּאתִ֗י הֹדִיעֵֽנִי׃ How many sins, Gd, do I really have? [עון - sin of desire, חטא - a sin of שוגג, and פשע, rebellion - as per an unspecified gemara in Yuma.] Tell me how I've rebelled; tell me my mistakes. [Tell me what the charges are!] כד לָֽמָּה־פָנֶ֥יךָ תַסְתִּ֑יר וְתַחְשְׁבֵ֖נִי לְאוֹיֵ֣ב לָֽךְ׃ Why do You hide your face, and think of me as an אויב [linguistic name-parallel. He's upset, presumably, at the lack of a positive relationship.]
    Second claim: I'm insignificant and not worthy of Your attention.
    כה הֶעָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֣ף תַּעֲר֑וֹץ וְאֶת־קַ֖שׁ יָבֵ֣שׁ תִּרְדֹּֽף׃ [Do You frighten/harass/pursue a driven leaf?]/[Are You afraid of a driven leaf?] Do You pursue dried-up straw? כו כִּֽי־תִכְתֹּ֣ב עָלַ֣י מְרֹר֑וֹת וְ֝תוֹרִישֵׁ֗נִי עֲוֺנ֥וֹת נְעוּרָֽי׃ Such that You decree for me bitter suffering, and You are going to have the sins of my youth conquer me. כז וְתָ֘שֵׂ֤ם בַּסַּ֨ד ׀ רַגְלַ֗י וְתִשְׁמ֥וֹר כָּל־אָרְחוֹתָ֑י עַל־שָׁרְשֵׁ֥י רַ֝גְלַ֗י תִּתְחַקֶּֽה׃ And You put my legs in the סד [what, stockade? something that immobilizes.] and You guard all of my paths [not letting me go anywhere.] On the roots of my feet you engrave it. [You mark my imprisonment, engraving it on my feet.]
    הֶעָלֶ֣ה נִדָּ֣ף תַּעֲר֑וֹץ
    Though the most literal translation seems to be, "are You afraid," the commentators (Rashi, ibn Ezra, Ralbag) render it "Do you frighten." 1. Fear? Deuteronomy 7:21, Joshua 1:9 But Daat Mikra takes it as Are You afraid.
    וְתָ֘שֵׂ֤ם בַּסַּ֨ד ׀ רַגְלַ֗י
    But Gd hasn't shackled him - he could leave his tent and go anywhere he wants. Where does he want to go?
    Out of Gd's sight. He wants to be Yonah.
    < /twentysecondclass >

    כח וְ֭הוּא כְּרָקָ֣ב יִבְלֶ֑ה כְּ֝בֶ֗גֶד אֲכָ֣לוֹ עָֽשׁ׃ And he is like something that deteriorates; like a garment eaten by a moth. א אָ֭דָם יְל֣וּד אִשָּׁ֑ה קְצַ֥ר יָ֝מִ֗ים וּֽשְׂבַֽע־רֹֽגֶז׃ Man is born from woman; he is of short days, and filled with רגז [turmoil] 2. Malbim to 14:1 שהוא פחות וגרוע מצד שני קצות חייו, כי מצד קצהו הראשון הוא ילוד אשה, נולד מטפה טמאה... ומצד קצהו האחרון הוא קצר ימים He is lesser and inferior in the two ends of his life. In his beginning he is born of woman, born from an impure drop… And in his end he is of short days. It's about his mundane physicality.
    ב כְּצִ֣יץ יָ֭צָא וַיִּמָּ֑ל וַיִּבְרַ֥ח כַּ֝צֵּ֗ל וְלֹ֣א יַעֲמֽוֹד׃ Like a flower he comes forth, and is cut off, and he flees like shade, and he does not endure. Inferior at the beginning, inferior at the end.
    Also, note his verbs - יצא, יברח - wanting to flee, and being incapable
    ג אַף־עַל־זֶ֭ה פָּקַ֣חְתָּ עֵינֶ֑ךָ וְאֹ֘תִ֤י תָבִ֖יא בְמִשְׁפָּ֣ט עִמָּֽךְ׃ On a creature like this [זה - like an object] you open your eyes? And I - you're going to bring me to judgement with You? ד מִֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן טָ֭הוֹר מִטָּמֵ֗א לֹ֣א אֶחָֽד׃ Nobody gets to go from being tamei to tahor in your eyes, Gd.
    Change in meter here - it's like a sigh. 3. Ibn Ezra to 14:4 עניינו כענין "הן בעון חוללתי (תהילים נא:ז)", כי האדם נברא מדבר טמא: It is like Psalms 51:7, "I was conceived in sin," for a human being is created from something impure. Remember how he brought korbanot for his kids, because "maybe they sinned in their hearts"? Iyov believes that humans are sinful by their nature.
    ה אִ֥ם חֲרוּצִ֨ים ׀ יָמָ֗יו מִֽסְפַּר־חֳדָשָׁ֥יו אִתָּ֑ךְ חקו [חֻקָּ֥יו] עָ֝שִׂ֗יתָ וְלֹ֣א יַעֲבֽוֹר׃ If man's days are decreed, the number of his months already set by you, Gd - you've set his boundary and it's never going to change ו שְׁעֵ֣ה מֵעָלָ֣יו וְיֶחְדָּ֑ל עַד־יִ֝רְצֶ֗ה כְּשָׂכִ֥יר יוֹמֽוֹ׃ So Gd, turn away from him; let man be, until he completes his day, like a labourer שְׁעֵ֣ה - like in Kayin and Hevel: וַיִּשַׁע יְהוָה, אֶל-הֶבֶל וְאֶל-מִנְחָתוֹ. וְאֶל-קַיִן וְאֶל-מִנְחָתוֹ, לֹא שָׁעָה
    Whereas Gd turning towards somebody is benevolent and positive in the beginning, for Iyov it is emphatically a negative.
    Remember the claim that he was guilty for not fulfilling his potential - Metzudat David says this is what he's responding to. 4. Metzudat David to 14:3-4 אף על זה - אף על בריה שפלה כזה פקחת עיניך להשגיח במעשיו ולדקדק אחריו, ויותר מזה שגם אותי שאני מנוקה מעון תביא עמך במשפט לענשני על אשר קצרתי בחכמה לפי שיעור הכנתי, וכאשר אמר צופר:
    מי יתן - וכי אפשר שהנולד מן הטמא יטהר כ"כ, עד שיתמיד בכל עת להרחיב לבו בחכמה?...
    "Even upon this" – Even upon a creature as low as this You have opened Your eyes to supervise his deeds and pursue him. More, upon me, one who is innocent of sin, You will bring me to judgment with You, to punish me for being deficient in wisdom vis-à-vis the measure of my potential, as Tzofar had said. "Who will place" – Is it possible for one born from the impure to be so pure, to the point that he will continually expand his heart with wisdom?
    5. Midrash, Bamidbar Rabbah 19:1 "מי יתן טהור מטמא? לא אחד?"
    כגון אברהם מתרח, חזקיה מאחז, יאשיה מאמון, מרדכי משמעי, ישראל מעובדי כוכבים, העולם הבא מעולם הזה, מי עשה כן? מי צוה כן? מי גזר כן? לא יחידו של עולם?
    "Who will place the pure from the impure? Not the One?" Like Avraham from Terach, Chizkiyah from Achaz, Yoshiyahu from Amon, Mordechai from Shimi, Israel from idolaters, the next world from this world, who has done this? Who commanded this? Who decreed this? Not the One of the universe?

    (Compare also the מי יתן that משה wishes in Bamidbar 11:29.)

    14:7-22 There is no hope
    ז כִּ֤י יֵ֥שׁ לָעֵ֗ץ תִּ֫קְוָ֥ה אִֽם־יִ֭כָּרֵת וְע֣וֹד יַחֲלִ֑יף וְ֝יֹֽנַקְתּ֗וֹ לֹ֣א תֶחְדָּֽל׃ Trees have hope: if it's cut down, it's still going to produce growth [interesting word choice - used before for death] and its shoots will not end. ח אִם־יַזְקִ֣ין בָּאָ֣רֶץ שָׁרְשׁ֑וֹ וּ֝בֶעָפָ֗ר יָמ֥וּת גִּזְעֽוֹ׃ Even if its roots will age in the ground, and and it dies in the dust, ט מֵרֵ֣יחַ מַ֣יִם יַפְרִ֑חַ וְעָשָׂ֖ה קָצִ֣יר כְּמוֹ־נָֽטַע׃ from the scent of water it will flower, and it will produce branches just like a sapling. [Even age doesn't stop them.]
    י וְגֶ֣בֶר יָ֭מוּת וַֽיֶּחֱלָ֑שׁ וַיִּגְוַ֖ע אָדָ֣ם וְאַיּֽוֹ׃ But a human will die, and be cut off [or weak]. יא אָֽזְלוּ־מַ֭יִם מִנִּי־יָ֑ם וְ֝נָהָ֗ר יֶחֱרַ֥ב וְיָבֵֽשׁ׃ The water is gone from the river, and the river dries up יב וְאִ֥ישׁ שָׁכַ֗ב וְֽלֹא־יָ֫ק֥וּם עַד־בִּלְתִּ֣י שָׁ֭מַיִם לֹ֣א יָקִ֑יצוּ וְלֹֽא־יֵ֝עֹ֗רוּ מִשְּׁנָתָֽם׃ A man lies down and does not get up, until the heavens themselves see that he will not be awoken from his sleep
    Contrast Daniel 12:2 וְרַבִּים, מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת-עָפָר יָקִיצוּ
    Also contrast with Bildad's idea: destruction can happen but will have a positive end, with the metaphor of a tree. Uprooted, but replanted later in a better place.
    Iyov says there's a limit to his metaphor. I wish it were true; I wish human beings had hope of a resurrection יג מִ֤י יִתֵּ֨ן ׀ בִּשְׁא֬וֹל תַּצְפִּנֵ֗נִי תַּ֭סְתִּירֵנִי עַד־שׁ֣וּב אַפֶּ֑ךָ תָּ֤שִׁ֥ית לִ֖י חֹ֣ק וְתִזְכְּרֵֽנִי׃ Would that it were so, that He would hide me away in she'ol [the grave] until your anger was gone. You would set a boundary for me, an end, and then remember me [and bring me back] יד אִם־יָמ֥וּת גֶּ֗בֶר הֲיִ֫חְיֶ֥ה כָּל־יְמֵ֣י צְבָאִ֣י אֲיַחֵ֑ל עַד־בּ֝֗וֹא חֲלִיפָתִֽי׃ If a person dies, and is brought back - then all the days of my labour I would hope for this, until the days of my passing would come. טו תִּ֭קְרָא וְאָנֹכִ֣י אֶֽעֱנֶ֑ךָּ לְֽמַעֲשֵׂ֖ה יָדֶ֣יךָ תִכְסֹֽף׃ You would summon me, and I would answer you. You would long for that which your hands produce. [You would call and I would answer you; it would be great. If I could only believe in hope of a good end.] 6. Ibn Ezra to 14:15 תקרא ואנכי אענך - לקחת נפשי אין בי כח למאן: תכסוף - כאילו תתאוה לראות מעשה ידיך והיא הנשמה... "You will call and I will answer You" – To take my life; I lack the strength to refuse. "You will yearn" – As it were, you will desire to see Your handiwork, the soul… I would die willingly, if I knew there was somewhere else. You would summon me, and I would be ready. 7. Malbim to 14:15 הגם שבחיים האלה בעוה"ז אינו רוצה לענות אותי על צעקתי שאני צועק על שנתיסרתי בחנם, בחיים האחרים שיביאו חליפת חיים אלה אז תקרא אתה אלי ותחייני ותשיב לי טובה תחת יסורי, כאלו אז למעשי ידיך תכסוף. Although He does not want to answer my cries in response to my unjustified suffering in this world, in another life which will replace this one, You will call to me and give me life, and You will benefit me in place of my suffering, as though You will yearn for Your handiwork. טז כִּֽי־עַ֭תָּה צְעָדַ֣י תִּסְפּ֑וֹר לֹֽא־תִ֝שְׁמ֗וֹר עַל־חַטָּאתִֽי׃ Now you would count my steps, and you would not guard my sins [Instead, you'd be counting my steps because you want to be close to me, instead of dogging me to inflict pain as now.] יז חָתֻ֣ם בִּצְר֣וֹר פִּשְׁעִ֑י וַ֝תִּטְפֹּ֗ל עַל־עֲוֺנִֽי׃ No longer would my sins be sealed in a bag before you; you would not layer on the sins for me. [Like טפלנו שקר]
    I would love to see a world in which You were friendly. I want hope.
    יח וְ֭אוּלָם הַר־נוֹפֵ֣ל יִבּ֑וֹל וְ֝צ֗וּר יֶעְתַּ֥ק מִמְּקֹמֽוֹ׃ But when a mountain falls, יבול [it deteriorates - Or, to produce]. A stone shifts from its place. Mountains have more hope than man does. 8. Rashi to 14:18 הר הנופל גבהו יבול ויעשה עפר ותהא לו תקוה ליהנות ממנו וצור אשר נעתק ממקומו גם הוא, יבול לשון תבואה When a mountain falls, its height yibol and will turn into dirt, and it will have a hope that benefit will come of it. The same is true for a stone that is moved from its site. Yibol is an expression of produce [yevul]. יט אֲבָנִ֤ים ׀ שָׁ֥חֲקוּ מַ֗יִם תִּשְׁטֹֽף־סְפִיחֶ֥יהָ עֲפַר־אָ֑רֶץ וְתִקְוַ֖ת אֱנ֣וֹשׁ הֶאֱבַֽדְתָּ׃ Stones are eroded by water; the streams will flood the dirt of the ground, but [as far as human beings,] the hope of man, you destroyed כ תִּתְקְפֵ֣הוּ לָ֭נֶצַח וַֽיַּהֲלֹ֑ךְ מְשַׁנֶּ֥ה פָ֝נָ֗יו וַֽתְּשַׁלְּחֵֽהוּ׃ You attack him eternally, and he's gone; his face changes [in death] and he's gone. כא יִכְבְּד֣וּ בָ֭נָיו וְלֹ֣א יֵדָ֑ע וְ֝יִצְעֲר֗וּ וְֽלֹא־יָבִ֥ין לָֽמוֹ׃ His children are honored and he won't know it; they'll be in pain and he won't know it. כב אַךְ־בְּ֭שָׂרוֹ עָלָ֣יו יִכְאָ֑ב וְ֝נַפְשׁ֗וֹ עָלָ֥יו תֶּאֱבָֽל׃ Only his flesh will pain him, and his soul will mourn him.
    Is he conscious, or is he not conscious, according to Iyov? 9. Metzudat David to 14:22 כאשר בשרו עוד עליו אז יכאב מדבר המכאוב וכשהיתה נפשו אצלו אז התאבלה בעבור צער ורוע המקרה אבל לאחר המיתה לא ירגיש עוד... While his flesh is still on him, it will be pained by the pain. While his soul is still in him, it will mourn due the pain and the bad circumstance [it anticipates]. But after death, it will no longer sense… The idea that a soul is present during shiva - the gemara cites our pasuk: 10. Talmud, Shabbat 152a-b אמר רב חסדא: נפשו של אדם מתאבלת עליו כל שבעה, שנאמר ונפשו עליו תאבל. וכתיב ויעש לאביו אבל שבעת ימים. אמר רב יהודה: מת שאין לו מנחמין הולכין עשרה בני אדם ויושבין במקומו. ההוא דשכיב בשבבותיה דרב יהודה לא היו לו מנחמין, כל יומא הוה דבר רב יהודה בי עשרה, ויתבי בדוכתיה. לאחר שבעה ימים איתחזי ליה בחילמיה דרב יהודה, ואמר ליה: תנוח דעתך שהנחת את דעתי. אמר רבי אבהו: כל שאומרים בפני המת יודע, עד שיסתם הגולל... Rav Chisda said: A person's soul mourns for himself for seven days, as it is written, 'His soul will be avel for himself,' and it is also written, 'And he performed, for his father, a seven day eivel.' Rav Yehudah said: If there are no people to be comforted after a person's death, then ten men go sit in his place. There was such a case in Rav Yehudah's neighborhood, and each day Rav Yehudah brought a group of ten and they sat in his place. After seven days, the deceased appeared in a dream of Rav Yehudah and said to him, "May your mind rest, for you caused rest for my mind." Rabbi Avahu said: The deceased knows all that is said in its presence, until the grave is closed… 11. Talmud, Berachot 18b בני רבי חייא נפוק לקרייתא אייקר להו תלמודייהו, הוו קא מצערי לאדכוריה. אמר לו חד לחבריה: ידע אבון בהאי צערא? אמר לו אידך: מנא ידע? והא כתיב: יכבדו בניו ולא ידע! אמר ליה אידך: ולא ידע? והא כתיב: אך בשרו עליו יכאב ונפשו עליו תאבל!... The sons of Rabbi Chiya travelled among the villages, and their learning became difficult for them. They laboured in pain to remember it. One of them said to the other: Does our [deceased] father know of this pain? The other replied: How would he know? Job 14:21 says, "His sons will be honoured and he will not know!" The other replied: Doesn't he know? Job 14:22 says, "His flesh will pain him, and his soul will mourn for itself!"… They take the words of Iyov as correct because it is canonized by the Anshei Knesset haGdolah.
    Strange. Does that mean they're rejecting techiyas hameisim? The simple read is that this is just Iyov talking, but the Talmud bothers to wrestle with his statements. Iyov contradicts himself. Maybe, just as in Kohelet, the speaker is going through turmoil... Or: 12. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, Emunot v'Deiot 7 ואחר כן חקרתי במוצא השלישי [לאלה שטוענים שתחית המתים רק בעולם הבא], והוא הכתוב במקרא. והסתכלתי אולי יש בה מה שמונע תחיית המתים בעולם הזה, ומצאתי ספקות שאפשר שנתלים בה המרחיקים את זה, וראיתי לזכרם הנה ולבטלם. מהם... (שם י"ד י"ב) ואיש שכב ולא יקום ומה שדומה לזה.
    והתבוננתי כל זה היטב ולא מצאתי אחד מהם שהחפץ בו שהבורא אמר שלא יחיה את המתים אבל כל זה ספור שאין אדם יכול לקום מן הקבר אחר רדתו אליו, ושאינו יכול להנער מן העפר ולשוב אל ביתו. ומה שיהיה מהמאמרים האלה דברי בני אדם הוא, שמתחננים בו לפני בוראם ושואלים ממנו לרחם עליהם...
    I then investigated a third source [for those who claim that there is no resurrection of the dead, other than in the next world], and this is recorded in Scripture. I looked for something that might deny the resurrection of the dead in this world, and I found doubts which those who deny this might depend on. I saw fit to cite them here and defeat them. Among them is… Job 14:12, "A man lies and will not rise", and the like. I examined all of this well, and I did not find any of them that meant that the Creator said He will not resurrect the dead. Rather, these say that a person cannot rise from the grave [independently] after he descends there, and that he cannot shake off the dust and return home. That which is found in these statements is the word of people, who plead before their Creator and ask Him to have mercy upon them…
    These sources say man cannot return from the grave - not that he cannot be returned by Gd.
    In summary:
    1. You can't convince me
    2. Everything that's happening is unjust
    3. I want to bring Gd up on charges:
      1. I haven't sinned.
      2. I'm insignificant and unworthy of Your attention.
      3. I'm temporary and lowly, so why bother with me?
    4. And there is no hope, only death. There's nothing to hope for.

    13. Midrash, Avot d'Rabbi Natan I 6:2 מה היה תחלתו של ר' עקיבא.
    אמרו בן ארבעים שנה היה ולא שנה כלום. פעם אחת היה עומד על פי הבאר אמר מי חקק אבן זו אמרו לו המים שתדיר נופלים עליה בכל יום אמרו לו עקיבא אי אתה קורא אבנים שחקו מים (איוב י"ד י"ט). מיד היה רבי עקיבא דן ק"ו בעצמו מה רך פסל את הקשה דברי תורה שקשין כברזל על אחת כמה וכמה שיחקקו את לבי שהוא בשר ודם מיד חזר ללמוד תורה.
    What was Rabbi Akiva's beginning? They said: He was forty years old, and he had not learned at all. Once he was standing by a well and he asked, "Who carved this stone?" They told him, "The water which continually falls upon it, daily." And they said to him, "Akiva! Have you not read (Job 14:19), 'Stones were eroded by water?'" Immediately, Rabbi Akiva drew a logical inference for himself: If the soft can carve the hard, then how much more so could words of Torah, which are hard as iron, carve my heart of flesh and blood! Immediately, Rabbi Akiva sought to study Torah.

    < /twentythirdclass >


    Introduction to Round Two

    Two major themes: Iyov will respond that his visitor are hopelessly wrong, and people who do bad things do not suffer. 1. Mishnah, Avot 1:7 נתאי הארבלי אומר הרחק משכן רע ואל תתחבר לרשע ואל תתיאש מן הפורענות: Nitai of Arbel said: Distance yourself from a bad neighbour; Do not join a wicked person; Do not abandon hope of punishment. "Hope of punishment"? (פורענות is like פרעון, payment, but you don't see it used in a positive sense anywhere he can think of.)
    Avot d'Rabi Natan is a critical text for reading pirkei avot. It's from the times of the tannaim, but it's an expansion on the ideas seen there, which gives you a richer understanding of pirkei avot. So Avot d'Rabi Natan on this mishna: 2. Midrash, Avot d'Rabbi Natan I 9:5-6 [אל תתיאש מן הפורענות]
    כיצד? מלמד שיהא לבו של אדם מתפחד בכל יום ויאמר אוי לי שמא תבא עלי פורענות היום ושמא למחר ונמצא מתפחד בכל יום, שנאמר כן באיוב פחד פחדתי (איוב ג' כ"ה): דבר אחר אל תתייאש מן הפורענות כיצד בזמן שאדם רואה מה שבידו מצליח אל יאמר בשביל שזכיתי נתן לי המקום מאכל ומשתה בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת [לי] לעולם הבא. אלא יאמר אוי לי שמא לא נמצאת לי לפניו אלא זכות אחד בלבד נתן לי מאכל ומשתה בעולם הזה כדי שיאבדני לעולם הבא:
    How? This teaches that one's heart should fear daily, saying, 'Woe is me, perhaps punishment will come upon me today or tomorrow!' He will then be afraid every day, as it is written regarding Job (Job 3:25), "I was very afraid." Alternatively: "And do not give up hope of punishment" – How? When a person sees that his deeds succeed, he should not say, "Because I am righteous, Gd has given me food and drink in this world, and the core reward will last for me in the next world." Rather, he should say, "Woe is me, perhaps only one merit was found for me before Gd, and Gd gave me food and drink in this world in order to destroy me in the next world."
    Worry about your own future; don't assume you're fine.

    Do they really believe bad people get what's coming to them?
    Also, what are they trying to accomplish when they say this to Iyov? 3. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 118 Whenever I teach the book of Job, I find it almost impossible to get a class to entertain, even as a hypothetical possibility, that these poems might be true. It seems obvious that stories about the fate of the wicked are patently false. After all, the students can all name counterexamples. For myself, I do not know whether I believe the story told by the friends about the fate of the wicked is true. I do, however, think that it is one of the most complex, difficult and provocative claims made in the book, and that it is not adequately refuted in the way my students initially attempt.


    Introduction to Eliphaz's second speech

    Still most senior and most poetic of the friends. He believes there is Divine justice, and just because you are good doesn't mean you never sin, and you can still deserve punishment. 4. Rambam, Guide of the Perplexed 3:23 דעת אליפז בזה המאורע הוא גם כן אחת מן הדעות הנאמרות בהשגחה, וזה שהוא אמר שכל מה שחל באיוב היה חולו על צד הדין, כי היו לו חטאים היה ראוי בגללם למה שחל בו... ולא סר אליפז מלכת בזה הדרך, ר"ל האמינו כל מה שישיג האדם שהוא במשפט, וחסרונותינו כלם אשר נתחייב בעבורם העונש תעלם ממנו השגתם ואפני התחייבנו העונש בעבורם. Eliphaz's view on these events was like one of the views voiced regarding Divine supervision. [It is] as he said, that all that happened to Job was a function of justice, for Job had sins for which he deserved that which happened to him… And Eliphaz never left this path, meaning his belief that whatever happens to a person is just, and that we fail to grasp all of our failings for which we deserve this punishment, and how we came to deserve punishment for them. We saw this near the beginning - Eliphaz believes Iyov is basically a good person, but... 5. Malbim to 15:2 ודעת אליפז שהצלחת הרשע היא רק הצלחה מדומה, ואינה הצלחה אמתיית, שהגם שלפי ראות העין תראהו מצליח אוסף הון וחיל וקנינים, לבו תמיד מלא פחד, ודומה לו תמיד כאילו נרדף מפני חרב, וכאילו כבר השיגהו ריש ועוני וכל רעות הזמן, עד שלבו לא ישמח מעשרו וירגז וידאג ויתבהל תמיד... Eliphaz believed that the success of the wicked is only imaginary success, not true success. Although the eye sees him to be successful, gathering wealth, might and acquisitions, his heart is always full of fear, perpetually imagining himself pursued by the sword, as though poverty and suffering and all of the evils of time have already caught him, to the point that his heart cannot rejoice in his wealth, and he is in turmoil, worried and upset always… A wicked person's apparent success hides his feeling of fear. He always needs to amass more, because he's afraid he'll lose what he has.)
    Does he really believe this?
    Also: is he painting a picture of Iyov?

    Eliphaz still likes to play with words, using the same word in multiple places with different meanings:
    תגרע meaning one thing in פס' ד and another in ח, and חוללת in ז and in כ, and רוח in ב and יג. The word שב will be used two different ways in the same pasuk, ל"א.

    Eliphaz doesn't explain what wickedness is; he's not accusing Iyov of anything in particular. As far as he's concerned, there's a thing called wicked and here is what Gd does to them. 6. Outline of the chapter
  • 15:1-16 – Rejecting Job's words against Gd
  • 15:17-24 – The wicked suffer emotionally [as we just saw Malbim describe]
  • 15:25-35 – The wicked have no future
  • 15:1-16 – Rejecting Job's words
    א וַ֭יַּעַן אֱלִיפַ֥ז הַֽתֵּימָנִ֗י וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Eliphaz declared and said: ב הֶֽחָכָ֗ם יַעֲנֶ֥ה דַֽעַת־ר֑וּחַ וִֽימַלֵּ֖א קָדִ֣ים בִּטְנֽוֹ׃ Does a wise man declare the intelligence of the wind [something empty, intangible, temporary] and will the east wind fill his belly? [You call yourself wise, Iyov [Link? Can't find src] ]
    ג הוֹכֵ֣חַ בְּ֭דָבָר לֹ֣א יִסְכּ֑וֹן וּ֝מִלִּ֗ים לֹא־יוֹעִ֥יל בָּֽם׃ The person who rebukes/educates with something that fails to nourish [we saw Iyov's use of this word late in his last speech.]
    Back in Ch.4, Eliphaz was apologetic about speaking - it was a much more respectful beginning. Now that he's heard Iyov respond to himself, Bildad and Tzofar, he's lost that respect. He's no longer impressed with Iyov.
    ד אַף־אַ֭תָּה תָּפֵ֣ר יִרְאָ֑ה וְתִגְרַ֥ע שִׂ֝יחָ֗ה לִפְנֵי־אֵֽל׃ You, [Iyov,] nullify יראה [you have undermined awe] and diminished שיחה [the word שיחה is idle conversation in most places - מיעוט שיחה in the 48 Traits - but note also Yitzchak's lasuach, or שיח שרפי קודש in קדושה. In this context, set opposite יראה, it probably has this latter meaning.]
    Earlier, Tzofar seemed concerned about the potential negative impact of Iyov's words on the silent observers of this conversation. Eliphaz expresses the same worry here.
    The logical end to your arguments is that there is no point to devotion. 7. Ralbag, Summary of the Chapter תפר מההמון יראת ד' ית', כי ההמון לחולשת שכלם לא יראו מעשות רעות אלא מדאגה פן יענישם ד' ית', ולזה כשתאמר שלא יועיל הצדק שלא יבאו אלו הרעות אלא למי שבמערכתו בעת הלידה שיבואהו, אתה מפר יראת ד' ית' מההמון... You will nullify reverence for Gd from the masses; the masses, with their poor intellects, fear performing evil only out of worry lest Gd punish them. Thus, when you say that righteousness will not prevent the arrival of evil, but that evil comes to one who is born under constellations which summon it, you nullify reverence for Gd from the masses… He's warning Iyov that his words risk undermining the faith of the masses that there is visible justice, and that this will lead them away from acting correctly. "People need to think he does, or they'll get lost." Is this a good argument to someone suffering? To anyone? Obviously not.
    It encourages a shallow form of religion for everybody - a false piety, in which people do the right thing because it gets them lollipops, in which punishment is a deterrent.
    Apparently Eliphaz thinks this is the best they can do - and better that they be good out of misguided self-interest than be evil.
    Similar to the way we use incentives to prevent crime - people won't steal if they know they'll go to jail for it, and - and I don't really like this analogy. It's parallel in that we accept that people won't necessarily be good for the right reasons and so we give them other reasons to be good, but jail time is a real incentive, whereas Eliphaz here is saying the people need a false one.
    Another understanding of Eliphaz's words: 8. Talmud, Bava Batra 16a אמר רבא: בקש איוב לפטור את כל העולם כולו מן הדין, אמר לפניו: רבונו של עולם, בראת שור פרסותיו סדוקות, בראת חמור פרסותיו קלוטות; בראת גן עדן, בראת גיהנם; בראת צדיקים, בראת רשעים, מי מעכב על ידך! ומאי אהדרו ליה חבריה [דאיוב]? "אף אתה תפר יראה ותגרע שיחה לפני קל" - ברא הקדוש ברוך הוא יצר הרע, ברא לו תורה תבלין. Rava said: Job sought to exempt the entire world from judgment. He said before Gd: Master of the Universe! You created the ox with split hooves and You created the donkey with sealed hooves! You created Gan Eden and You created Gehennom! You created righteous people and You created wicked people! Who can stop You? What did Job's friends respond? "You also nullify reverence and reduce sichah before Gd" – Gd created the yetzer hara, and He created Torah as an antidote for it. (See also this article using this idea in Toronto Torah.)
    "You made the righteous and You made the wicked."
    They're putting into Iyov's mouth a rejection of the concept of Free Will.
    According to this gemara, Eliphaz is really telling Iyov: you are eliminating the concept of יראה and the value of Torah [שיחה], saying we are fixed at birth and cannot grow.
    You can be more than this. You aren't a beast who is determined to be kosher or non-kosher at the beginning of your life. [על דעתך כי לא ארשע earlier is being interpreted as Gd choosing for him]
    You are cancelling reverence for Gd because you are limiting/reducing Torah before Gd. Torah is an antidote, a means by which we grow beyond what we were created as. [תבלין - spices is a reference to a medicine, incidentally. See קידושין ל:‏ which says "בראתי יצר הרע ובראתי לו תורה תבלין ואם אתם עוסקים בתורה אין אתם נמסרים בידו."]
    "Be careful what you say because you're shaking people's faith" vs this more substantive reply. You can be more than this, Iyov. You're not a beast, determined to be kosher or non-kosher at birth. You have the means, through Torah, of improving.

    ה כִּ֤י יְאַלֵּ֣ף עֲוֺנְךָ֣ פִ֑יךָ וְ֝תִבְחַ֗ר לְשׁ֣וֹן עֲרוּמִֽים׃
    [Two meanings:]
    Your mouth teaches your sin to other people. You choose the language of the clever to teach other people your sins. [You are promoting wrong to the people who are listening to you speak. (When he was claiming that Gd approves of what he is saying) ]
    or: You should be more clever with your speech. [That ו - it's future or imperative. If you don't like being seen as wicked, choose your words more carefully!]
    ו יַרְשִֽׁיעֲךָ֣ פִ֣יךָ וְלֹא־אָ֑נִי וּ֝שְׂפָתֶ֗יךָ יַעֲנוּ־בָֽךְ׃ Your own mouth indicts you as wicked, not I. Your lips respond to you. [Notice the mouth imagery.]
    < /twentyfourthclass >


    ז הֲרִאישׁ֣וֹן אָ֭דָם תִּוָּלֵ֑ד וְלִפְנֵ֖י גְבָע֣וֹת חוֹלָֽלְתָּ׃ Were you born before Adam? Were you conceived/formed before the hills? 9. Talmud, Pesachim 5a רב נחמן בר יצחק אמר: ראשון - דמעיקרא משמע, דאמר קרא "הראשון אדם תולד." Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak said: Rishon means "before", as in the verse, "Were you born before Adam?" Iyov claimed to Tzofar that he was wise because he was old. So Eliphaz retorts: You think you're the first human being ever born? You're so ancient, you've seen it all and are unchallengeable? 1. Metzudat David to 15:7-8 מה תבוז לדברי צופר על כי הוא צעיר לימים ואתה ישיש? וכי ראשון נולדת לאדם... וכאומר "מהו אשר הוא צעיר לימים? הלא יתכן שקבל אמריו ממי שקדם לך, אשר שפט גם הוא מן החוש אשר ראה ברוב הימים!" ואם תתפאר למולו במרבית הידיעה הבאה מפאת החכמה, האם התבוננת בסוד אלוק להבין מסתוריו?... Why do you mock the words of Tzofar because he is young and you are aged? Were you born before Adam… As if to say, "Why does his youth matter? Perhaps he received his statements from one who preceded you, who also judged from what he sensed in his long life!" And should you glorify yourself before him due to the great knowledge that comes from wisdom – have you examined the secrets of Gd, to understand His mysteries?
    ח הַבְס֣וֹד אֱל֣וֹהַ תִּשְׁמָ֑ע וְתִגְרַ֖ע אֵלֶ֣יךָ חָכְמָֽה׃ Do you hear the secrets of Gd? That others lack in wisdom? ט מַה־יָּ֭דַעְתָּ וְלֹ֣א נֵדָ֑ע תָּ֝בִ֗ין וְֽלֹא־עִמָּ֥נוּ הֽוּא׃ What do you know that we don't know? What do you understand that won't be with us? [that we don't understand?] י גַּם־שָׂ֣ב גַּם־יָשִׁ֣ישׁ בָּ֑נוּ כַּבִּ֖יר מֵאָבִ֣יךָ יָמִֽים׃ There are שב [age] and ישיש among us, older even than your father.
    When Eliphaz made his first speech to Iyov, he said, הַאֱנוֹשׁ מֵאֱלוֹהַ יִצְדָּק - can a person be a victor over Gd? (among other translations, including "more righteous than Gd".)
    (Remember, we also saw that he may just be trying to provoke a reaction from Iyov - saying something outrageous to jolt him into objecting. Eliphaz is saying, "Can someone possibly be more righteous than Gd?" and Iyov is supposed to react, "Of course not.")
    יא הַמְעַ֣ט מִ֭מְּךָ תַּנְחֻמ֣וֹת אֵ֑ל וְ֝דָבָ֗ר לָאַ֥ט עִמָּֽךְ׃ Are the consolations of Gd [whatever they are] too little for you? When Gd speaks gently with you [or, when I spoke gently to you - and recall that Eliphaz was more gentle than the other two], you reject that? יב מַה־יִּקָּחֲךָ֥ לִבֶּ֑ךָ וּֽמַה־יִּרְזְמ֥וּן עֵינֶֽיךָ׃ What is your heart telling you? [lit. taking you. ויקח קרח - he persuaded.] And what are your eyes ירזמון? [Hapax. Rashi: make it ירמזון, to hint.] You reject Gd's consolations. What is it that makes you reject them?
    What are these consolations? 2. Malbim to 15:11 התנחומין שינחמך קל על עצבון ידיך באדמה אשר אררה ד' ועל חיי העוה"ז הכלים ואובדים, ינחמך קל בדבר אשר לאט וכסה עמך, שהיא הנפש הרוחניות [prob. רוחנית] הלוטה ומכוסה תחת מעטה הגויה והיא לוטה בסוד ד'... The consolation Gd will provide you for your suffering on the land Gd has cursed, for life in this world which ends and is lost, Gd will console you with that which He has hidden with you, the spiritual soul which is concealed beneath the cloak of the body, concealed in the secret of Gd. (לאט not as "slow and gentle" but meaning hidden.)
    It's the next world. Iyov, there is justice coming in the next world. Why don't you accept this consolation of Gd?
    Or, it means that he had goodness before. Was it too little for you, Iyov?
    Or (Daat Mikra, Ralbag) it means the comfort that he, Eliphaz, has offered. All those speeches we've been giving you, that things will be great, that you can come back to Gd - is that too small for you? Do you not accept that? ("of Gd" because of that vision.)
    יג כִּֽי־תָשִׁ֣יב אֶל־אֵ֣ל רוּחֶ֑ךָ וְהֹצֵ֖אתָ מִפִּ֣יךָ מִלִּֽין׃ You return your רוח [words of רוח, of emptiness] to Gd, and produced words from your mouth. [Everything you have to say is just wind and words, Iyov.] יד מָֽה־אֱנ֥וֹשׁ כִּֽי־יִזְכֶּ֑ה וְכִֽי־יִ֝צְדַּ֗ק יְל֣וּד אִשָּֽׁה׃ What is man that he should be considered righteous, that one born of woman should be צדיק? [Again, could mean victor, not just righteous.] טו הֵ֣ן בקדשו [בִּ֭קְדֹשָׁיו] לֹ֣א יַאֲמִ֑ין וְ֝שָׁמַ֗יִם לֹא־זַכּ֥וּ בְעֵינָֽיו׃ Gd does not trust his holy ones [angels] and the heavens are not righteous in his eyes. טז אַ֭ף כִּֽי־נִתְעָ֥ב וְֽנֶאֱלָ֑ח אִישׁ־שֹׁתֶ֖ה כַמַּ֣יִם עַוְלָֽה׃ Man is נתעב [from the word תעבה - man is abhorrent] and and evildoer. The man who drinks sin like water. 3. Metzudat David to 15:16 האדם הנתעב במעשיו והנבאש במעלליו ומרבה לעשות עול, כדרך השותה את המים אשר ירבה לשתות די ספוקו על כי אין הדרך לתת בעדו מחיר Man is abhorrent in his deeds and repellent in his sins, and he increases corruption like one who drinks water, who drinks as much as he needs because one does not normally pay for it. 4. Talmud, Yoma 72b אמר רבא: כל תלמיד חכם שאין תוכו כברו - אינו תלמיד חכם. אביי ואיתימא רבה בר עולא אמר: נקרא 'נתעב', שנאמר "אף כי נתעב ונאלח איש שתה כמים עולה." Rava said: A Torah scholar who is not the same inside and out is not a Torah scholar. Abbaye, and some say Rabbah bar Ulla, said: He is called 'abhorrent', as in, "He is also abhorrent and impure, man, who drinks corruption like water." 15:17-35 The suffering and hopelessness of the wicked
    He's said something similar before about how wicked people are going to suffer. יז אֲחַוְךָ֥ שְֽׁמַֽע־לִ֑י וְזֶֽה־חָ֝זִ֗יתִי וַאֲסַפֵּֽרָה׃ I will tell you; listen to me. I have seen, and I will tell you. [Before, in his vision in Ch. 4, he said ראיתי. Again, חזיתי] יח אֲשֶׁר־חֲכָמִ֥ים יַגִּ֑ידוּ וְלֹ֥א כִֽ֝חֲד֗וּ מֵאֲבוֹתָֽם׃ [and more - ] sages speak of this, and they did not eliminate anything of what they were told by their ancestors. יט לָהֶ֣ם לְ֭בַדָּם נִתְּנָ֣ה הָאָ֑רֶץ וְלֹא־עָ֖בַר זָ֣ר בְּתוֹכָֽם׃ To them alone the land was given; [to these great sages] and there were no strangers [lesser people] among them. [These are experience people who can tell you what I'm now going to say about the suffering of the wicked.] 5. Metzudat David to 15:19 החכמים ההם משלו ברוב חכמתם על כל העולם כאלו להם לבדם נתנה הארץ ולא עבר בתוכם לנחול עמהם איש זר אשר איננו מהם, וכאומר הואיל וקבלו הדבר מאבותם ואין דרך האב להשריש דבר כזב בלב הבן, והמקבלים היו חכמים גדולים משכילים לבחון האמת הוא או כזב, ואף עיני כן ראו בחוש, אם כן בודאי אמת נכון הדבר: Those sages, through their great wisdom, reigned over the entire world as though it had been given only to them, and no stranger who was not of them passed among them, to take a share with them. It is as if to say that since they received this from their ancestors, and a father does not embed a false idea in his son's heart, and those who received the tradition were great, insightful sages who could discern truth from falsehood, and my eyes also saw this, it certainly must be true. כ כָּל־יְמֵ֣י רָ֭שָׁע ה֣וּא מִתְחוֹלֵ֑ל וּמִסְפַּ֥ר שָׁ֝נִ֗ים נִצְפְּנ֥וּ לֶעָרִֽיץ׃ All the days of the wicked person, he is afraid [or aggrieved]. All of the years that are stored away Note that he's playing with his words again.
    כא קוֹל־פְּחָדִ֥ים בְּאָזְנָ֑יו בַּ֝שָּׁל֗וֹם שׁוֹדֵ֥ד יְבוֹאֶֽנּוּ׃ The sound of frightening things is in his ears; he is afraid when he is at peace that he will be attacked. כב לֹא־יַאֲמִ֣ין שׁ֭וּב מִנִּי־חֹ֑שֶׁךְ וצפו [וְצָפ֖וּי] ה֣וּא אֱלֵי־חָֽרֶב׃ He will have no trust in his own well-being when he is in the dark, and he anticipates the sword coming. כג נֹ֘דֵ֤ד ה֣וּא לַלֶּ֣חֶם אַיֵּ֑ה יָדַ֓ע ׀ כִּֽי־נָכ֖וֹן בְּיָד֣וֹ יֽוֹם־חֹֽשֶׁךְ׃ He wanders; where is the bread? He knows that the day of darkness is coming. כד יְֽ֭בַעֲתֻהוּ צַ֣ר וּמְצוּקָ֑ה תִּ֝תְקְפֵ֗הוּ כְּמֶ֤לֶךְ ׀ עָתִ֬יד לַכִּידֽוֹר׃ He is frightened [of trouble] by the enemy; it attacks him, like a king anticipating כידור [an attack, war, a brand of fire?]
    Wicked people suffer terribly from stress. Don't think the wicked people are fine.
    There's a subtext here: We've seen Iyov complain about his own emotional suffering. Eliphaz could be seen as inviting Iyov to see himself in the despair described here, in the mirror of the wicked.
    Does Eliphaz really think that all wicked people are living in terror of their downfall?

    A different read of his intro: Eliphaz is actually teaching that Iyov's mistake is his refusal to admit his mistakes. The sages of old admitted their mistakes and were forgiven. 6. Rashi to 15:18-19 "אשר חכמים יגידו" ויתוודו פשעם ולא כחדו עוונם מאבותם, זהו אשר ראיתי, והנני אספר לך. והיכן ראיתי? יהודה הודה ולא בוש במעשה תמר, ראובן הודה ולא בוש במעשה בלהה. ומה היה שכרם? "להם לבדם נתנה הארץ," בשכר זה זכה יהודה למלכות נצח ונטלו שניהם מן הנחלה חלקם ולא גורשו מן נחלתם בעוונם מאחר שהודו. "ולא עבר זר בתוכם" כשבא משה לברכם, שנא' (דברים לג) "יחי ראובן ואל ימות וזאת ליהודה." "The sages will tell it", admitting their sin and not denying it from their ancestors. This I saw, and I tell you. When did I see it? Yehudah admitted and was not ashamed, regarding Tamar. Reuven admitted and was not ashamed, regarding Bilhah. And what was their reward? "To them alone was the land given," in return Yehudah earned eternal monarchy, and they both received their portion and were not evicted for their sins, because they admitted it. "And no stranger passed among them" when Moshe came to bless them in Deuteronomy 33, "Let Reuven live… This is for Yehudah". כה כִּֽי־נָטָ֣ה אֶל־אֵ֣ל יָד֑וֹ וְאֶל־שַׁ֝דַּ֗י יִתְגַּבָּֽר׃ He extended his arm against Gd [when things were good], and brings himself forth as a גיבור [warrior - acts as if he is mighty] against Gd. כו יָר֣וּץ אֵלָ֣יו בְּצַוָּ֑אר בַּ֝עֲבִ֗י גַּבֵּ֥י מָֽגִנָּֽיו׃ He runs forth against Gd with his neck outstretched [arrogantly, fearlessly]; with thickness atop that which protects him [armor, or thick sinews and bones. Either way, runs forth to do battle with Gd] כז כִּֽי־כִסָּ֣ה פָנָ֣יו בְּחֶלְבּ֑וֹ וַיַּ֖עַשׂ פִּימָ֣ה עֲלֵי־כָֽסֶל׃ because he covers his face with his fat, and he makes פימה on top of כסל. The כסלים are the loins. And this is no less than the third time we've stopped to be stuck on the word כסל this book. 4:6 see extended discussion of word there, and 8:14 with slightly less discussion. Note also, without it being discussed in class, apparent כסל-root for כסיל, the constellation Orion in 9:9, where I've commented further. In addition to here in 15:27, expect it again in 31:24 7. Rashi to 15:27 עשה פה על חלצים, שחלבו ועובי שומנו כפול על כסליו, ונראין כמי פה: It forms a mouth over his thighs, for his fat and the thickness of his fat fold over his loins, appearing like a mouth. Eliphaz is mocking the person who has it all. He had all the wealth, and he goes forth to raise up his arm against Gd, and wonders why he gets struck down. The description is reminiscent of Eglon. [R'Torcz's comparison, not mine.]
    < /twentyfifthclass >

    כח וַיִּשְׁכּ֤וֹן ׀ עָ֘רִ֤ים נִכְחָד֗וֹת בָּ֭תִּים לֹא־יֵ֣שְׁבוּ לָ֑מוֹ אֲשֶׁ֖ר הִתְעַתְּד֣וּ לְגַלִּֽים׃ The wicked person dwells in ruined cities, in houses which are no longer settled, which are destined to be ruins. [גל - pile of stones. גל wave is a pile of water.] which would make me think in Hebrew גל is more about amount and less about motion, but it doesn't fit in with גלגלים etc. Odd.
    Interesting structure here; normally Eliphaz uses the couplet-structure we've seen until now, in which the second half of each pasuk is a repetition of or builds upon the first half. This one is a triplet.
    He's described a descent - first a city, then a ruined house, then a heap of stones.
    But why is he dwelling in an abandoned city? Ibn Ezra says a wicked person has to hide out in uninhabited areas because he's afraid for his safety.
    In Eliphaz's first speech, he said that a wicked person [? ... we were translating the word אויל as a fool at the time...] will not endure.
    Rashi reads this as building on that previous idea. The city is not a ruin when the wicked person goes to live there. He builds up the cities, but they collapse.
    Third possible meaning: He finds a ruin and builds it up, but it collapses; that is the fate of the wicked. כט לֹֽא־יֶ֭עְשַׁר וְלֹא־יָק֣וּם חֵיל֑וֹ וְלֹֽא־יִטֶּ֖ה לָאָ֣רֶץ מִנְלָֽם׃ He will not become wealthy, and his חיל [wealth, strength, might] will not endure, and their intact wealth will not endure. Ibn Ezra: Their intact wealth. מנלם - that which theirs which had been complete. יטה לארץ meaning extend, as נוטה שמים: to extend the heavens.
    Metzudat David: מנלם is their punishment; that which is supposed to affect them, and it will not miss them. ל לֹֽא־יָס֨וּר ׀ מִנִּי־חֹ֗שֶׁךְ; יֹֽ֭נַקְתּוֹ תְּיַבֵּ֣שׁ שַׁלְהָ֑בֶת וְ֝יָס֗וּר בְּר֣וּחַ פִּֽיו׃ He is never getting out of the darkness; his יונק [root. That which nurses/drinks] will be dried up and consumed by the fire, and it will be knocked over by the wind of His mouth. Recall the previously-mentioned fear of the darkness that Eliphaz believes the wicked person has. Eliphaz has this thing about the wicked living in the dark. [seen prev?]
    Also, note two different meanings of יסור in the same sentence: escape vs be knocked over.
    And look at that last clause - knocked over by the wind of His mouth. Until know, he's been acting as if it was some natural result; now it's Gd intervening. (There's an entirely different read that takes "פיו" as "his new growth.") It seems out of place. לא אַל־יַאֲמֵ֣ן בשו [בַּשָּׁ֣יו] נִתְעָ֑ה כִּי־שָׁ֝֗וְא תִּהְיֶ֥ה תְמוּרָתֽוֹ׃ He will not believe, the one who wanders in nothing, that what he receives in return is going to be emptiness. [He lives in nothingness, yet doesn't believe that's what he's going to get for it.] 1. Metzudat David to 15:31 התועה ללכת בדרך שוא לא היה מאמין אשר תמורתו תהיה שוא ר"ל שגמולו יהיה כמפעלו One who wanders, following an empty path, does not believe that his reward will be empty, like his deeds. Whether he doesn't believe it because he doesn't think he's so bad or because he thinks he won't get caught, in the end he's going to get nothing.
    לב בְּֽלֹא־י֭וֹמוֹ תִּמָּלֵ֑א וְ֝כִפָּת֗וֹ לֹ֣א רַעֲנָֽנָה׃ Before his time comes, it will be full, and [continuing the tree image] his כיפה [branch - something that arches] will not be fresh. [contrast with tehillim, where the tzadik is described: דשנים ורעננים יהיו] לג יַחְמֹ֣ס כַּגֶּ֣פֶן בִּסְר֑וֹ וְיַשְׁלֵ֥ךְ כַּ֝זַּ֗יִת נִצָּתֽוֹ׃ He violently casts down his unripe fruit [like a grapevine, dropping the unready grapes] and he throws down his flower like the olive. [Everything he had is gone early.] לד כִּֽי־עֲדַ֣ת חָנֵ֣ף גַּלְמ֑וּד וְ֝אֵ֗שׁ אָכְלָ֥ה אָֽהֳלֵי־שֹֽׁחַד׃ Because the group of wicked people [חנף in Iyov tends to be plain wickedness] are גלמוד [childless?], and fire consumes the tent of the wicked. לה הָרֹ֣ה עָ֭מָל וְיָ֣לֹד אָ֑וֶן וּ֝בִטְנָ֗ם תָּכִ֥ין מִרְמָֽה׃ (ס) They conceived עמל [worthless struggle] and they produce emptiness/wickedness, and their belly only prepares a trick. There is promise and it is not fulfilled.
    So what's the point? Why do they emphasize the suffering of the wicked? Why do they need to convince Iyov of this?
    1. Warning: Stop. It's a warning: pursue what you're doing and you'll get zapped
    2. Rejecting his rejection. It's a statement that there is Divine justice, and therefore you're wrong in claiming there isn't.
    3. Promise for a future. It's a statement that the wicked are punished, and therefore you should understand that the righteous are rewarded, too, and so you will be rewarded for your goodness eventually.
    Do they really believe this?
    One approach is that they do not. They simply want to say that Iyov, in particular, is suffering because he is wicked.
    Another idea: 2. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pp. 118-125 Yet if such statements were intended as universal, exceptionless claims, only a deluded fool could believe them, and whatever the friends may be, they are not fools… - because there would really be no point in having a book which offers opinions that we're supposed to reject out of hand; such a book wouldn't make it into tanach. There arguments must have something to teach us. What is at stake between Job and the friends is making evident the nature of the world, which each attempts to communicate through vivid evocations. This work of disclosure is the work of metaphor, the "seeing as" that produces redescriptions of reality. Thus, the dialogue between the friends and Job becomes a struggle over metaphors and a conflict over stories… The idea that this is the way the world works, as we show using our metaphors about trees and houses. This claim about reality [that justice exists - MT], however unobvious it may appear to modern readers, was one of the most widespread and fundamental beliefs in the ancient Near East, attested to in many literary forms, though given its most articulate expression in wisdom literature. Restated in conceptual terms [as opposed to metaphor or example - MT], this belief is that good and evil have a different relation to reality. The resilient, enduring quality of good derives from its participation in the structures of creation itself, whereas evil, no matter how powerful and vital it appears, is actually fragile and subject to disintegration because it has no root in that order of creation (e.g., Psalm 1)… Like the gemara's idea about אמת and שקר and the letter-shapes. [Hey, come on, Rabbi! כתב עברי!]
    אמת stands and שקר collapses. Yes, that's cute, but it expresses a deep idea. The world is built on truth. [So where's that עולם שקר line come from?] By definition, the world is a true world; it is created by Gd, whose seal is truth. שקר is the opposite: it is decay and destruction; it has no place in this world, and it will not endure. This is a value statement, not a claim about observed reality. Goodness is going to thrive, and evil is going to collapse. It has to be so. One cannot convince another of the truth of this perception by means of argument, for the issue is fundamentally one of perception itself. Rather, as [Raphael] Demos says, one can only "evoke" a world, a vivid pattern of a whole… The persuasive power of an iconic narrative does not derive from a simple empiricism. Although it cannot be wholly disconfirmed by experience and remain plausible, the story remains surprisingly resilient in the face of a mixture of conforming and nonconforming experience People who don't believe this, who instead think that 'nice guys finish last' will respond to apparent justice by saying it doesn't represent the world. That's not the way the world works. Something bad is going to happen to the good guy. And someone who says that goodness endures and wickedness suffers [will also not change his view in response to the actual world. I believe confirmation bias is the phrase.] will see contradictions as anomalies. An example from contemporary American culture may illustrate. Consider popular business literature in which the story is told, over and over, of the individual who turns a creative idea into a flourishing business. This is the iconic narrative of entrepreneurial capitalism. Everyone knows that the large majority of new businesses fail, yet the story does not lose its power… That story is seen as expressing the nature and essence of an entrepreneurial society with all the static cleared away…
    An anecdote about the success of the wicked cannot explain the reality of this world of values, which is experienced as such every day. Such things may happen, but they are perceived as anomalies, lacking explanatory power. But the story of the wicked overtaken by calamity, like the story of the restoration of the good person, rings true because it is consonant with the foundational values of the society.
    Really, intrinsically, they believe that this is how the world works. Just like people might really believe opposite ideas of what Israel is. That's how the world is; all anomalies are just - odd, but irrelevant exceptions. 3. A third approach? src: זמורתא תהא (R'Torczyner's bentcher) on נער הייתי
    The book of Tehillim [Psalms] is neither a work of history nor a collection of prophecies. Rather, Tehillim is an archive of prayers. Tehillim is King David's monument to Faith, a record of his relationship with his Creator throughout the epic struggles of the most embattled figure in all of Jewish Scripture. From family strife to national upheaval to international conflict, from punishment and rejection and distance from G-d to cycles of sin and repentance and love and longing for the Divine, from public humiliation to the vision of a triumphant Temple built, King David expressed in words the extremes of human emotion he experienced through the numerous religious apices and nadirs of his seventy years of life. Through that lens, the words, "I have never seen a righteous person abandoned," may be more prayer than assertion. The king who had known dire circumstances—poverty, flight, life as a fugitive before King Shaul in the land of his foes, a son Avshalom who attempted to kill him in pursuit of his throne, another son Adoniyahu who staged a feast while his father lay on his deathbed in an attempt to claim the throne for himself—pledged fealty to G-d, saying, "Despite all of the suffering I have seen and experienced, I have faith that You would never truly abandon the righteous." We invoke this prayer at the close of our Birkat haMazon, as part of our own assertion of faith. "The man who trusts in G-d is blessed, for I believe G-d will not abandon a righteous person, or his descendants. G-d will give strength to His nation, and He will send them shalom." This is King David's prayer, and ours as well.
    Tehillim is not meant to be read as historical statement; it's meant to be read as prayer.

    So they may be just using it as a charge against Iyov: wicked people suffer, you're suffering, do the math.
    Or, this may be their actual worldview. Fundamentally, good things are rewarded and bad things are punished
    Or, the healthy reaction they want Iyov to have. This is what you, Iyov, ought to develop for yourself.

    Eliphaz has become harsher since his first speech, perhaps in reaction to Iyov's harshness against Gd, or perhaps since Iyov asserted his own piety, and accused them of being fools trying to bribe Gd.
    < /twentysixthclass >


    Introduction to Chapters 16-17 (Review) Job's response to Eliphaz's first speech (Chapters 6-7)
    • I never asked for your help – and the help you provide is not what I need!
    • You ridicule my outrage, but Gd has forced me to be outraged
    • Gd has smashed me, or allowed me to be smashed
    • I have no hope; there is no narrative for a hope-filled future
    • I will turn to Gd, but in defiance
    1. Outline of Chapters 16-17
  • 16:1-5 Rejects their words as foolish, and betraying a lack of comprehension
  • 16:6-16 Gd has crushed me, on multiple levels
  • 16:17-22 I am innocent, and so I demand justice from Gd
  • 17:1-10 Gd has robbed me of support
  • 17:11-16 My suffering is great, and I have no hope
  • 16:1-5 Your words are foolish and uncomprehending
    א וַיַּ֥עַן אִיּ֗וֹב וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Iyov declared and he said: ב שָׁמַ֣עְתִּי כְאֵ֣לֶּה רַבּ֑וֹת מְנַחֲמֵ֖י עָמָ֣ל כֻּלְּכֶֽם׃ I've heard so much like this. [What you're telling me is old news; I've heard this before.] You are מנחמי עמל [the word עמל in Iyov means not only struggle which bears no fruit, but - in this sefer - with connotations of evil: effort towards a wicked purpose.]
    Echo of 15:11: הַמְעַ֣ט מִ֭מְּךָ תַּנְחֻמ֣וֹת - Are the consolations of Gd too little for you? ג הֲקֵ֥ץ לְדִבְרֵי־ר֑וּחַ א֥וֹ מַה־יַּ֝מְרִֽיצְךָ֗ כִּ֣י תַעֲנֶֽה׃ Is there any end to words of air? What is your incentive for responding? [Why are you continuing this dialogue with me?]
    We've seen "words of air" before. (For instance, his first response to Eliphaz, or Bildad's reaction to that, or Eliphaz just now.) ד גַּ֤ם ׀ אָנֹכִי֮ כָּכֶ֪ם אֲדַ֫בֵּ֥רָה ל֤וּ־יֵ֪שׁ נַפְשְׁכֶ֡ם תַּ֤חַת נַפְשִׁ֗י אַחְבִּ֣ירָה עֲלֵיכֶ֣ם בְּמִלִּ֑ים וְאָנִ֥יעָה עֲ֝לֵיכֶ֗ם בְּמ֣וֹ רֹאשִֽׁי׃ I can speak just like you. If your lives were in my place, and I were in your place, I would join with you with words; I would shake my head at your terrible suffering; I would give you courage with my mouth. [this מו ראשי and מו פי is a poetic form sometimes found in tanach] ה אֲאַמִּצְכֶ֥ם בְּמוֹ־פִ֑י וְנִ֖יד שְׂפָתַ֣י יַחְשֹֽׂךְ׃ The movement of my lips would save you from trouble. 2. Metzudat David to 16:2 כולכם מנחמים תנחומי הבל לומר שאחר התשובה ישגה אחריתי - ואם אין בידי עון, מה מקום לתשובה? ומה זה תספר לפני עונש הרשעים, לעורר לבי לתשובה? All of you provide empty consolation, saying that my end will flourish after repentance – but if I have not sinned, what place is there for repentance? And why do you speak of the punishment of the wicked, to awaken my heart to repentance? you're trying to get me to repent - if I were in your shoes I would speak and shake my head. 3. Rashi to 16:4 ככם אדברה - ככם אני יודע לקנתר:
    "Like you I would speak" – Like you, I know how to attack.
    4. Malbim to 16:4 הכי גם אנכי ככם אדברה? בתמיהה. אם היה מקרה כזאת מגיע אליכם ואתם הייתם המנוגעים תחתי ואני הייתי בא לנחם אתכם, וכי הייתי מדבר כמוכם להרשיע אתכם ולהכאיב את לבבכם? לא כן, כי בהפך הייתי עושה, אחבירה עליכם במלים... "Would I speak like you?" This is an expression of wonder. If such a thing would happen to you, and you were struck instead of me, and I came to comfort you, would I speak like you, indicting you and paining your hearts? No! I would do the opposite. "I would join upon you with words"… So Malbim says Iyov claims he would do it right, vs. Rashi who says he would expect to make the same mistakes as the friends are. It seems that the word אחבירה implies Malbim's view: I would join myself to you with words. The friends have failed to do this. There hasn't been any empathy. אחבירה - friendship, instead of this spiritual and emotional remove from which the friends have been judging Iyov and finding him wanting.

    16:6-16 Gd has crushed me, on multiple levels 5. The last time Job described Gd as crushing him: Job 6:1-10 - the last time he responded to Eliphaz. ... strange (class 27 | 00:36:00) R'Torcz calls this Iyov describing Gd as crushing him. However, when we learned that section (class 11 | 00:43:00) we distinctly translated it as a wish that Gd would crush him. 6:4 matches the point he's making; just not 6:9. Mark it down with the change from אויל meaning "fool" to meaning "wicked one" on the list of I-wonder-about-the-correct-translation-of-this.
    He responds to Eliphaz in particular with this kind of thing. Eliphaz with his claims that Gd punishes the wicked, but that if you turn to Gd, Gd will save you, gets this resonse from Iyov.
    Iyov says, Gd has smashed me with such violence that He's clearly my enemy, and so your claim that Gd is going to be on my side is just unacceptable. I'm going to underscore what it is Gd does to me.
    In this section, watch the way he addresses Gd - he goes back and forth about something critical.
    ו אִֽם־אֲ֭דַבְּרָה, לֹא־יֵחָשֵׂ֣ךְ כְּאֵבִ֑י; וְ֝אַחְדְּלָ֗ה, מַה־מִנִּ֥י יַהֲלֹֽךְ׃ If I will speak, my pain will not be spared me; if I would stop speaking, what would leave me? [Neither speech nor silence is improving my condition] Metzudat David on this pasuk says Iyov is saying: you say I suffer because I speak out against Gd, and because my speech undermines people's faith - but my silence is no better. (Recall his 7 days of silence.)

    ז אַךְ־עַתָּ֥ה הֶלְאָ֑נִי הֲ֝שִׁמּ֗וֹתָ כָּל־עֲדָתִֽי׃
    (Multiple translations:)
    Artscroll: Oh how it has wearied me; You shocked my entire clan into silence.
    JPS1917: But now He hath made me weary; Thou hast made desolate all my company.
    JPS modern: Now he was [?] He has truly worn me out; You have destroyed my whole community.
    The second half is clearer; You-Gd have done this to me. In the first half, it/He is also Gd. Iyov just changed into second-person here.
    ח וַֽ֭תִּקְמְטֵנִי לְעֵ֣ד הָיָ֑ה וַיָּ֥קָם בִּ֥י כַ֝חֲשִׁ֗י בְּפָנַ֥י יַעֲנֶֽה׃ You wizened/wrinkled/shriveled me. It has become a witness against me. My weakened body has stood up against me and given testimony to my face.
    He has been crushed/creased/shriveled/whatever by Gd, speaking to Gd directly. It (the wrinkling/whatever) has been a witness against me (for reasons we'll come back to). In my own face it testifies against me.
    ט אַפּ֤וֹ טָרַ֨ף ׀ וַֽיִּשְׂטְמֵ֗נִי; חָרַ֣ק עָלַ֣י בְּשִׁנָּ֑יו; צָרִ֓י ׀ יִלְט֖וֹשׁ עֵינָ֣יו לִֽי׃ His anger has torn at me and He has despised me; He gnashed his teeth against me; my Foe brandishes/flashes his eyes at me.
    Back to third person. Also - look what he calls Gd! (Though Rashi can't accept that, and says צרי is the Satan, and that on some level Iyov knows what's going on.) 6. Daat Mikra to 16:9 מחמת הרגשתו שכעסו של אלקים חל עליו, שוב אין הוא יכול לדבר אל אלקים בלשון נוכח, וחוזר ומדבר אליו בלשון נסתר. Because of his feeling that Gd was angry at him, he could no longer speak to Gd directly, and he reverted to addressing Gd in the third person. He can't speak to Gd directly; Gd is too angry. 7. Ralbag to 16:7 פעם לנוכח ופעם שלא לנוכח על דרך אומרו משכני אחריך נרוצה הביאני המלך חדריו: Sometimes direct and sometimes indirect, like, "Draw me; we will run after You. The King has brought me to His chambers." (Song of Songs 1:4) 8. Metzudat David to 16:6 ואם בזה תחשבו להחדיל אמרי במה שתאמרו שאני מיפר היראה אשר היא עוד סבה לבל ילכו היסורים, הנה לא כן הוא כי כמו אם אדברה לא יחשך כאבי, כן לא יחשך אם אחדל מלדבר, כי מה מן העון אשר ילך לו על ידי מירוק היסורים, עד שאשוב להיות נקי... And if with this you think to halt my statements, saying that I eliminate awe and this is another reason why my pains don't leave me, it is not so. Just as speaking does not spare me pain, so ceasing speech will not spare me. What sin will depart via the cleansing afforded by suffering, until I am clean?... 9. Malbim to 16:8 נודע בקורות עמים הקדמונים כשהיו רוצים לבחון את איש שנחשד על גניבה ורצח ויתר עבירות והוא היה מכחיש, היו מיסרים את הנחשד ביסורים קשים ומרים, והיו מביטים בפני המיוסר, אם ראו שסובל יסורים אלה כאלו אינו מרגיש בהם כלל, היו דנים מזה שהעלילה שקר, ואם ראו שמרגיש ביסוריו וכ"ש אם היה צועק חמס, דנו שהעלילה אמת It is known in the history of early nations that when they wished to test someone who was suspected of theft, murder or other sins, and he denied it, they would torture him with harsh, bitter suffering, and they would look at the tortured person's face. If they saw that he bore the torture as though he didn't feel it, they concluded that the claim was false. If they saw that he felt the torture, and certainly if he cried Chamas!, they concluded that the claim was true. Trial by ordeal. Iyov says, You look at the fact that I'm in pain, and say, aha! guilty! (Though R'Torcz thinks this is kinda anachronistic, since trial by ordeal is probably post-biblical.)
    < /twentyseventhclass >

    י פָּעֲר֬וּ עָלַ֨י ׀ בְּפִיהֶ֗ם בְּ֭חֶרְפָּה הִכּ֣וּ לְחָיָ֑י יַ֝֗חַד עָלַ֥י יִתְמַלָּאֽוּן׃ They opened up their mouths against me; in [or creating] shame they slapped me. Together they raised themselves up against me. יא יַסְגִּירֵ֣נִי אֵ֭ל אֶ֣ל עֲוִ֑יל וְעַל־יְדֵ֖י רְשָׁעִ֣ים יִרְטֵֽנִי׃ Gd gives me into the hands of a tyrant, and via wicked people he knocks me down. This doesn't need to be the visitors. Remember, some of his attackers were invaders. It could also be a generic feeling of being besieged.
    Iyov seems to be saying that not only does Gd hate him, but He's rallying others against him.
    יב שָׁ֘לֵ֤ו הָיִ֨יתִי ׀ וַֽיְפַרְפְּרֵ֗נִי; וְאָחַ֣ז בְּ֭עָרְפִּי וַֽיְפַצְפְּצֵ֑נִי, וַיְקִימֵ֥נִי ל֝֗וֹ לְמַטָּרָֽה׃ I was at peace, and then He [butterflied me? ... ] broke me apart. [פירורין, crumbs? crumbled?] He grabbed me by the scruff of my neck, and he smashed me, and he set me up as a target. Utter and complete harm.
    יג יָ֘סֹ֤בּוּ עָלַ֨י ׀ רַבָּ֗יו; יְפַלַּ֣ח כִּ֭לְיוֹתַי, וְלֹ֣א יַחְמ֑וֹל; יִשְׁפֹּ֥ךְ לָ֝אָ֗רֶץ מְרֵרָֽתִי׃ His shooters [רובה?] surround [/focus on] me; He will split my kidneys, and have no mercy; He will spill out my bile onto the ground. יד יִפְרְצֵ֣נִי פֶ֭רֶץ עַל־פְּנֵי־פָ֑רֶץ; יָרֻ֖ץ עָלַ֣י כְּגִבּֽוֹר׃ He breaks me open with break after break; He [crushes/runs up to] me like a warrior. Complete physical devastation.
    טו שַׂ֣ק תָּ֭פַרְתִּי עֲלֵ֣י גִלְדִּ֑י וְעֹלַ֖לְתִּי בֶעָפָ֣ר קַרְנִֽי׃ I stitched sackloth on my scab [גלד], and I rub my horn in the dust. [קרן - pride. My pride is in the dust.] טז פָּנַ֣י חמרמרה [חֳ֭מַרְמְרוּ] מִנִּי־בֶ֑כִי וְעַ֖ל עַפְעַפַּ֣י צַלְמָֽוֶת׃ My face is like this red clay [חמר - clay] from crying [this phrase is also in איכה] and the shadow of death is upon my eyes. And a personal devastation as well.

    16:17-22 I am innocent, and so I demand justice from Gd
    יז עַ֭ל לֹא־חָמָ֣ס בְּכַפָּ֑י וּֽתְפִלָּתִ֥י זַכָּֽה׃ There is no חמס [violent theft] on my hands, [I never committed חמס - theft which disrupts justice,] and my prayer is pure. תפילה זכה is the name of the tefilla right before Yom K begins, which asks forgiveness for various sins. (זכה like זך; as in שמן זית זך, or for that matter זכות.)
    Since when is Iyov praying? And what is a pure prayer? Metzudat David: I never mixed in an inappropriate thought; my kavana was pure. (How does that fit context? ~RT)
    1. Rashi to 16:17 לא קיללתי חבירי ולא פיללתי לו רעה: I did not curse my friend, and I did not pray for him to be harmed. Might be a knock at his friends' empathy or lack thereof. It does match the first half of the sentence.
    יח אֶ֭רֶץ אַל־תְּכַסִּ֣י דָמִ֑י וְֽאַל־יְהִ֥י מָ֝ק֗וֹם לְזַעֲקָתִֽי׃ Land, do not cover my blood; let there be no place where my cry will be hidden. יט גַּם־עַ֭תָּה הִנֵּה־בַשָּׁמַ֣יִם עֵדִ֑י וְ֝שָׂהֲדִ֗י בַּמְּרוֹמִֽים׃ My testimony is in the skies; my cry is in the heavens.
    That image comes from Cain and Hevel: Your brother's blood cries out to me from the earth. Let the earth not cover my spilled blood, says Iyov. 4. Covering the spilled blood: Bereishit 4:10; Bamidbar 35:33; Devarim 19:10; Isaiah 26:21 The idea that the blood is absorbed by the land does not rid the murderer of his guilt; it poisons everything. 2. Heaven and Earth as witnesses: Devarim 30:19, Devarim 31:28 3. Rashi to Devarim 30:19 שהם קיימים לעולם, וכאשר תקרה אתכם הרעה יהיו עדים שאני התרתי בכם בכל זאת. דבר אחר... אמר להם הקב"ה לישראל, הסתכלו בשמים שבראתי לשמש אתכם, שמא שנו את מדתם, שמא לא עלה גלגל חמה מן המזרח והאיר לכל העולם... They endure forever, and and when bad things happen to you they will be My witnesses that I warned you of this. Or… Gd told Israel: Look at the heavens I created to serve you, have they changed their ways? Has the Sun ever risen in the east, illuminating the world… כ מְלִיצַ֥י רֵעָ֑י אֶל־אֱ֝ל֗וֹהַ דָּלְפָ֥ה עֵינִֽי׃ [Hard to translate this phrase.] My intercessors/orators/advocates, my friends [or: my inner thoughts are my friends]; my eyes tear towards Gd. כא וְיוֹכַ֣ח לְגֶ֣בֶר עִם־אֱל֑וֹהַּ וּֽבֶן־אָדָ֥ם לְרֵעֵֽהוּ׃ Let me argue with Gd as one argues with another person [Rashi.]
    Note all these terms of litigation. 7. Rashi to 16:21 והלואי יעשה לי זאת שיתן לי מקום להתווכח גבר עם אלוק, להשוות שני הריבים - ריב גבר עם קונו וריב בין אדם לרעהו. I wish He would do this to me, giving me room to be a man quarrelling with Gd, equating two quarrels: The man with his Creator, and one man with another. I want the same chance to argue my case as a person gets in court.
    כב כִּֽי־שְׁנ֣וֹת מִסְפָּ֣ר יֶאֱתָ֑יוּ וְאֹ֖רַח לֹא־אָשׁ֣וּב אֶהֱלֹֽךְ׃ Because I only have numbered years remaining; [I have little time left] and the path I walk, I'm never going to walk again. 5. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 156 Job's descriptions of graphic divine violence in chapter 16 initially allude to the place of such language in prayers of supplication. Whereas in psalms of supplication this imagery establishes both the righteous power of Gd and the neediness of the faithful yet guilty petitioner, Job disrupts the traditional transaction effected by such language by juxtaposing it to legal discourse, as he seeks to preserve his blood and his cry as testimony to a murder, a charge to be argued by his heavenly witness (16:18-19). He's still not praying; he's anti-praying 6. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 157 The necessity of giving witness becomes so strong that when he thinks of death as preventing him from bringing his accusation or defending himself, Job's imagination supplies surrogates who will speak for him (the earth, 16:18; a heavenly witness, 16:19; an inscribed text, 19:23-24; a goel, 19:25).

    17:1-10 Gd has robbed me of all support; all I have is my suit
    א רוּחִ֣י חֻ֭בָּלָה יָמַ֥י נִזְעָ֗כוּ קְבָרִ֥ים לִֽי׃ My spirit is wounded; my days are crushed. There are graves for me.
    Why plural? MD: Everything I look at is a grave.
    Perhaps - his days are crushed; the days are as graves. (I think this is R'Torcz's own guess; the phrasing sounded that way.) (It actually reads like my days are crushing graves for me. Look for that idiom? לזעך קברים? What word is that, anyways? -- someone asked this. Turns out it's a hapax.) "In some cases, you do it by context, and you look at the words that surround it, and they can give you a hint. However, when you have a word like this, you have more assistance, which is, Zayin and Daled, in Ancient Near-Eastern languages, often interchange." [seen that in Aramaic.~D] "And we have דעכ as a term for crushing, elsewhere, so that can often give you a clue - looking at letter substitutions." Morfix gives דעך as to be extinguished, to die out; to fade, to ebb, to dwindle. We have that root in this book, referring to streams drying up. To be uprooted or cut off, it's rendered. 6:17. To be severed from its place where it had been, in our context. "Also, in Arabic, the root זעכה is used to mean something that is cut off or something that is made to wait.")
    Listen to the phrase-patterns. (Each two-word phrase, max two syllables.) It sounds like he's gasping.
    ב אִם־לֹ֣א הֲ֭תֻלִים עִמָּדִ֑י וּ֝בְהַמְּרוֹתָ֗ם תָּלַ֥ן עֵינִֽי׃ I have all this mocking with me; with the sound of this mocking my eye goes to sleep. [I go to sleep seeing the way they mock me.] ג שִֽׂימָה־נָּ֭א עָרְבֵ֣נִי עִמָּ֑ךְ מִֽי ה֝֗וּא לְיָדִ֥י יִתָּקֵֽעַ׃ [Gd, I want to litigate with You, per MD.] Gd, give me your hand. I want some kind of guarantee [ערבות] from You [that you will see through this trial]. Who will clasp his hand to mine? 8. Metzudat David to 17:3 חזר פניו כלפי המקום ואמר "שים עתה לבך אלי לתת לי ערב במקומך, להיות בטוח בו שתשלם ההתווכחות בינינו לבוא על האמת. ומי הוא אשר יתקע ידו לתוך ידי לקבל על עצמו בקיום גמור להשלים את ההתווכחות?" He then turned his face back to Gd and he said, "Turn Your heart to me, to give me a guarantor in your place, so that I might be confident that You will complete the litigation between us, to come to truth. Who will put his hand in mine, to accept upon himself full responsibility to complete the litigation?" ד כִּֽי־לִ֭בָּם צָפַ֣נְתָּ מִּשָּׂ֑כֶל; עַל־כֵּ֝֗ן לֹ֣א תְרֹמֵֽם׃ [Gd,] You have hidden their [these visitors'] hearts from wisdom; [when they speak] you aren't exalted [by it. They can't be your representatives, Gd.] 9. Metzudat David to 17:4 אין לי חפץ ברעי אלה, כי לבם הסתרת משכל ולא בחכמה ידברו. על כן לא תרומם על ידם, כי אין בידם מענה להצדיק אותם ולרומם תפארתך. I have no desire for these friends of mine; You have blocked their hearts from insight, and they will not speak with wisdom. Therefore You will not be elevated by them, for they lack a response that will justify them, and exalt Your glory. ה לְ֭חֵלֶק יַגִּ֣יד רֵעִ֑ים וְעֵינֵ֖י בָנָ֣יו תִּכְלֶֽנָה׃ To smooth talk, they say, that's my friend, ["When people speak smoothly, they're suckered in by that." ... I'm not clear on the 'they' vs. the speakers...] while the eyes of that person's children will end/be worn out [from lack of hope.]
    Each of these visitors accepts smooth flattery, and the result is that his children will have no hope of help, because people won't fulfill their word.
    ו וְֽ֭הִצִּגַנִי לִמְשֹׁ֣ל עַמִּ֑ים וְתֹ֖פֶת לְפָנִ֣ים אֶֽהְיֶֽה׃ This visitor makes me a target for the mockery of nations [they hold me up as an example]; I am made a target for their spitting [or a drum for their beating; either makes sense.] ז וַתֵּ֣כַהּ מִכַּ֣עַשׂ עֵינִ֑י וִֽיצֻרַ֖י כַּצֵּ֣ל כֻּלָּֽם׃ My eye [notice the eyes again] is worn out by anger; my limbs are all like a shadow. [Without substance.]
    < /twentyeighthclass >


    'Eyes' refers to hope for the future (as well as literal eyes).
    ח יָשֹׁ֣מּוּ יְשָׁרִ֣ים עַל־זֹ֑את וְ֝נָקִ֗י עַל־חָנֵ֥ף יִתְעֹרָֽר׃ Those who are righteous are silenced [upset, outraged - מלשון שממה, destruction, and I'm not sure how that becomes silence] by this, and the one who is innocent should be aroused against the חנף [remember that it's general wickedness in this book, despite usual meaning of 'flatterer.'] ט וְיֹאחֵ֣ז צַדִּ֣יק דַּרְכּ֑וֹ וּֽטֳהָר־יָ֝דַ֗יִם יֹסִ֥יף אֹֽמֶץ׃ One who is righteous will pursue his path [of righteousness]; one who is of pure hands will increase strength. This pasuk may be a response to Eliphaz's accusation that Iyov is encouraging corruption among the listeners. (per Daat Mikra) י וְֽאוּלָ֗ם כֻּלָּ֣ם תָּ֭שֻׁבוּ וּבֹ֣אוּ נָ֑א וְלֹֽא־אֶמְצָ֖א בָכֶ֣ם חָכָֽם׃ And all of you - I don't find anyone wise among you. יא יָמַ֣י עָ֭בְרוּ זִמֹּתַ֣י נִתְּק֑וּ מ֖וֹרָשֵׁ֣י לְבָבִֽי׃ My days have passed; my זימה [DM:connections; plots, like עידים זוממים- plans] have been cut off; my heart's מורישים [like reins on a horse] [have been severed (R'Torcz translated that way; note that there isn't actually another verb here, and see below.)].
    This is the same gasping meter we saw at the beginning of this section. I don't know why the verb נתקו gets to map onto nouns before and after it. We saw the same thing in the previous "gasping" sentence: the last clause is still missing either a verb, or something else to make it part of a sentence.
    17:11-16 The severity and hopelessness of my suffering
    יב לַ֭יְלָה לְי֣וֹם יָשִׂ֑ימוּ; א֝֗וֹר קָר֥וֹב מִפְּנֵי־חֹֽשֶׁךְ׃ They [the visitors] turn night into day. The light is near in the face of darkness. Night into day? Usually sounds positive.
    DM: They're claiming that night is day - that everything that happened to me is a good thing, but it's nonsense.
    Another interpretation: 1. Metzudat David to 17:12 לילה ליום ישימו - רוב המכאוב יבלבלו מחשבותי וישימו עתה לי חשוכים ונעלמים כחשכת הלילה את הדברים המבוארים ונגלים כאור היום: אור קרוב - הארת החכמה שהיתה מאז קרובה לי הלכה לה מפני חשכת הצרות: "They turn day into night" – The magnitude of the pain confuses my thoughts, darkening and hiding like the darkness of night that which had been clear and revealed like the light of day. "Light is near" – The illumination of wisdom which was once close to me has gone due to the darkness of trouble. "They" is not the visitors but the pain. לילה, ליום ישימו. Night, they turn day into.
    Light that has been near, they chase away.
    יג אִם־אֲ֭קַוֶּה שְׁא֣וֹל בֵּיתִ֑י בַּ֝חֹ֗שֶׁךְ רִפַּ֥דְתִּי יְצוּעָֽי׃ If I will have any hope [hope again] שאול [the grave] will still be my home, and in the darknesss I will make my bed. [רפד - bed, and יצוע - also bed.] יד לַשַּׁ֣חַת קָ֭רָאתִי אָ֣בִי אָ֑תָּה אִמִּ֥י וַ֝אֲחֹתִ֗י לָֽרִמָּֽה׃ To destruction I say: you are my father. I say of רימה: you are my mother, you are my sister. [Compare: אמר לחכמה אחותי את] טו וְ֭אַיֵּה אֵפ֣וֹ תִקְוָתִ֑י וְ֝תִקְוָתִ֗י מִ֣י יְשׁוּרֶֽנָּה׃ Where is my hope? And who can see my hope? [more hope.] טז בַּדֵּ֣י שְׁאֹ֣ל תֵּרַ֑דְנָה אִם־יַ֖חַד עַל־עָפָ֣ר נָֽחַת׃ (ס) They will descend to שאול [the grave. Who?] [Strange אם] they are all going to the dust together.
    Eliphaz's First Speech (4-5) Job's Reply (6-7)
    I never asked for your help [and the help you're giving me isn't helpful anyways.]
    People deserve their suffering Gd has smashed me, or allowed me to be smashed [if you take the stars-running-the-show read]
    Outrage is foolish Gd has forced my outrage
    Turn to Gd for help There is no hopeful narrative; [I am going to turn to Gd, but not in the way you want.] I turn to Gd in defiance
    Eliphaz's Second Speech (15) Job's Reply (16-17)
    Job, you wickedly deny the value of goodness! [You're going to lead people astray.]
    Job, you are arrogant! [You claim that you can judge]Stop judging me! [Replying to both.]
    The wicked suffer psychologically and lack a future(Iyov doesn't really answer that.)
    Gd has become my enemy;
    I suffer greatly;
    I demand justice from Gd
    They're talking past each other. When Eliphaz claims the wicked suffer, Iyov doesn't deny the suffering of the wicked, but he isn't interested in that as a demonstration of Divine justice.
    Iyov is arguing that he is suffering unfairly, and demanding justice from Gd, and Eliphaz really isn't responding to that (except perhaps with his accusation of arrogance).
    Bildad, again, is younger than Eliphaz, speaks more sharply and more concisely, without Eliphaz's flowery prose but with metaphors and a certain amout of playing-with-words, as we saw before. Like Eliphaz, received authority. Bildad is concerned with defending Divine Justice, and we will see him do so again in this chapter. In Ch. 8 he was emphatic that a person may suffer and be paid back later. Pain may not be punishment for a wrong; it may be to help them later. (We don't see that in this chapter; where did it go? Has he given up hope for redeeming Iyov?)
    We've seen that Bildad is harsh; he is a very jarring friend to Iyov, as we saw in his first speech: he asserted that if Iyov's children died they must have sinned somehow.

    This will be a two-part speech: Rebuke and statements about the doom of wicked people.
    (Note that Malbim has an entirely different understanding of what's happening in this perek: he thinks it's a debate about the survival of the soul after death. However, we aren't going to look at that view. Storing Malbim's alternative view in comments.

    18:1-4 Rebuke – but for whom?
    א וַ֭יַּעַן בִּלְדַּ֥ד הַשֻּׁחִ֗י וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Bildad haShuchi declared and said: ב עַד־אָ֤נָה ׀ תְּשִׂימ֣וּן קִנְצֵ֣י לְמִלִּ֑ין תָּ֝בִ֗ינוּ וְאַחַ֥ר נְדַבֵּֽר׃ How long will you place קנצי [another hapax!] to words? Understand, and then we will speak.
    ג מַ֭דּוּעַ נֶחְשַׁ֣בְנוּ כַבְּהֵמָ֑ה נִ֝טְמִ֗ינוּ בְּעֵינֵיכֶֽם׃ Why are we thought of as animals? We are sealed up in your [plural] eyes. קנצי - there are other ancient Near Eastern languages that sometimes have a floating נ in the middle of a root. Compare איש / אנשים, and there are others. Dropping the נ gives you the root - קץ, end. An ending to words: How long will you keep cutting off people's speech, not listening to what they say? (Fits with end of sentence, too.)
    If this is directed at Iyov, as it seems to be, why is it plural?
    Daat Mikra does take it as directed at Iyov, as we instinctively read. 2. Daat Mikra to 18:2 היטב חרה לו לבלדד על שאיוב עומד בדעתו ואינו מוותר כלום, אף על פי שהרעים מדברים וחוזרים ומדברים אליו. Bildad was enraged ["good and angry"] because Job maintained his view and admitted nothing, even though the friends repeatedly addressed him. Why aren't you changing your mind, Iyov? We're talking to you!
    (A possible reason for use of the plural form is that they're speaking to the imaginary righteous people Iyov said should side with him. R'Torcz doesn't like this read.) 3. Malbim to 18:2 המתוכח עפ"י השכל והראיות יכלה הוכוח עם הראיה האחרונה והמופת הצודק המכריע, ואז יהי' קץ להוכוח, אבל המתוכח בדברים בלא ראיות רוצה לתת קץ אל הוכוח ע"י מלים ודברים. שמי שירבה לדבר עד שילאה את חברו זה ישים קץ להוכוח, וזה אינו מהראוי. כי ראוי "שתבינו תחלה ואחר נדבר"... When one disputes with intellect and proof, the dispute will end with the final proof and the decisive, correct evidence, and then there will be an end to the dispute. But one who disputes with words, without proof, wishes to end the dispute via words, for the one who speaks more, to the point of exhausting the other, will end the dispute. This is inappropriate; it would be appropriate "for you to understand first, and then we will speak."… Don't just talk us to death, Iyov. Listen to what we're saying; debate properly, with logic. (He doesn't address the plural; also, R'Torcz points out that we don't see them debating this way, responding to the points Iyov raises.) 4. Metzudat David to 18:2 עד מתי תעריכו אמרים, תשימון סוף להדברים? וזאת עשו: תנו לב להבין מאמרי איוב ותוכן ויכוחו, ואחר נדבר להשיב עליהם... How long will you arrange statements, and place an end to words? Do this: Set your heart to understand Job's statements and the content of his dispute, and then we will speak to respond to it… Metzudat David thinks Bildad is talking to his fellow-pesterers. Listen to what Iyov has to say, guys, and then our answers will actually suit what he's thinking.
    This makes Bildad sound a little better, but the rest of Bildad's speech doesn't really fit this argument; he himself continues to speak without (apparently) listening.

    ד טֹֽרֵ֥ף נַפְשׁ֗וֹ בְּאַ֫פּ֥וֹ הַ֭לְמַעַנְךָ תֵּעָ֣זַב אָ֑רֶץ וְיֶעְתַּק־צ֝֗וּר מִמְּקֹמֽוֹ׃ One who tears himself up in his anger, should the land be abandoned for [because of] you? And the stone [or Gd] should move from its [His] place? What is this? An allegation of wickedness?
    Also, there's a weakness in the approach that takes the first three psukim as directed at the other speakers: this one certainly has to be directed at Iyov, and there doesn't seem to be any indication of switching to a different audience.
    So Daat Mikra points out that language is chosen very carefully in this book. (They are sort of listening to each other.) Go back to 16:9:
    Iyov said, "חָרַ֣ק עָלַ֣י בְּשִׁנָּ֑יו; צָרִ֓י ׀ יִלְט֖וֹשׁ עֵינָ֣יו לִֽי׃ אַפּ֤וֹ טָרַ֨ף ׀ וַֽיִּשְׂטְמֵ֗נִי" when he talked about Gd as his enemy. He tore in his anger, and He was my enemy, He hated me. (Or, as we said then: "His anger has torn at me and He has despised me; He gnashed his teeth against me; my Foe brandishes/flashes his eyes at me.")
    אפו טרף - echoed by our current pasuk, טֹֽרֵ֥ף נַפְשׁ֗וֹ בְּאַ֫פּ֥וֹ. He's using Iyov's words about Gd tearing in His anger to say that Iyov is tearing himself in his anger.
    Further, in Iyov's response to Tzofar in 14:18 he said, "וְ֝צ֗וּר יֶעְתַּ֥ק מִמְּקֹמֽוֹ׃" ("A stone shifts from its place.") - the human being is not like a tree. If a tree dies, something can grow from the stump. When a boulder or a mountain is ground down, that's it.
    Daat Mikra says Bildad is using Iyov's words to mock him. 5. Daat Mikra to 18:4 יסורי איוב לא באו באקראי, אלא לפי כללים קבועים, שבהם העולם נוהג. ואם איוב מתלונן על יסוריו, הרי הוא כמבקש לעקור סדרי בראשית ולהחזיר העולם לתוהו ובוהו. Job's suffering did not occur by chance, but via fixed principles by which the world works. If Job complains about his suffering, he is as one who wishes to uproot the order of Creation and return the world to nothing. Should Gd undo the world because you don't like how it works, Iyov? Kach alah b'machshava lifanav*, Iyov. Silence. Deal.
    * Strange. This is apparently _not_ in Menachot 29b where I found Rabbi Akiva tying the crowns and being killed by the Romans. Where _is_ the place where someone questions Gd and He threatens to return the world to tohu va'vohu? (It seems to be in Yamim Noraim liturgy, but that shouldn't be the source. I haven't found it elsewhere yet. ~D)
    You believe, in your rage, that the whole world should be uprooted.
    Or, another interpretation of 18:4 6. Metzudat David to 18:4 וכי ע"י צעקתך, שתאמר צדיק אתה ומיוסר על לא חמס, וכי בעבור זה נחליט לומר שהארץ עזובה ביד מערכת השמים והיוצר נעתק ממקום העולם ולא ישגיח בו? Because of your complaint, saying you are righteous and you suffer for no guilt, because of this shall we decide that the world is abandoned to the constellations, and the Creator has left this world and does not observe it? Should our understanding of the way the world works be shaken by your claims? Should we assume Gd has left?
    No, Iyov, you can't kick Gd out on the basis of your suffering; we have to figure out what's up with your life, but we're not assuming Gd's out of the picture. 7. Rabbi Moshe Chaim Luzzato, Mesilat Yesharim 11 יש הרגזן שאמרו עליו, כל הכועס כאלו עובד עבודה זרה, והוא הנכעס על כל דבר שיעשו נגד רצונו ומתמלא חימה עד שכבר לבו בל עמו ועצתו נבערה. והנה איש כזה כדאי להחריב עולם מלא אם יהיה יכולת בידו, כי אין השכל שולט בו כלל והוא סר טעם ממש ככל החיות הטורפות ועליו נאמר (איוב יח): טורף נפשו באפו הלמענך תעזב ארץ? והוא קל ודאי לעבור על מיני עבירות שבעולם אם חמתו תביאהו להם, כי כבר אין לו מניע אחר אלא כעסו ואל אשר יביאהו ילך There are angry people about whom they have said, "All who are angry are as though they worship idols." This is someone who is angered by everything done against his will, filled with rage to the point that his heart is not with him, and his counsel becomes foolish. One such as this would destroy the world if he could, for the intellect does not control him at all; he is actually bereft of logic, like predatory beasts. Regarding him Job 18 says, "One who tears himself in his rage, for you would the land be abandoned?" He would easily transgress every sin in the world if his anger would bring him to them, for he has no engine besides his anger, and he will go wherever it takes him. טֹֽרֵ֥ף נַפְשׁ֗וֹ בְּאַ֫פּ֥וֹ - People who are angry will do anything if they let themselves be controlled by their anger. One who tears himself in his rage - you'd be someone without any nefesh. You'd be a beast. Iyov, you're letting your rage get the better of you, and it's driving you to inappropriate lengths.
    < /twentyninthclass >

    Linkback: Who's Bildad again? What point is he trying to make?
    The rest of Bildad's speech is one block:
    18:5-21 Wicked people suffer
    ה גַּ֤ם א֣וֹר רְשָׁעִ֣ים יִדְעָ֑ךְ וְלֹֽא־יִ֝גַּ֗הּ שְׁבִ֣יב אִשּֽׁוֹ׃ The light of the wicked ידעך. [We saw this word (and noted its oddness) in 17. (I suppose R'Torcz means its parallel-word יזעך, with its ז-ד interchange; 17:1) To be cut off or to jump from its place.("Crush," there.) When a flame jumps from its place, it is extinguished.] The spark of its flame will not יגה. [The word נגה - light. The planet Venus is called נוגה.] ו א֭וֹר חָשַׁ֣ךְ בְּאָהֳל֑וֹ וְ֝נֵר֗וֹ עָלָ֥יו יִדְעָֽךְ׃ Light becomes darkness in his tent, and his flame will ידעך - go out. He's being poetic in his language again - look at all the different words for light. Five synonyms in 14 words. A few words for darkness, too.
    What does he mean that a wicked person's light is "cut off"?
    MD: Light is a reference to success. 1. Talmud, Sanhedrin 22a אמר רבי אלכסנדרי, כל אדם שמתה אשתו בימיו - עולם חשך בעדו, שנאמר "אור חשך באהלו ונרו עליו ידעך." רבי יוסי בר חנינא אמר פסיעותיו מתקצרות, שנאמר "יצרו צעדי אונו." רבי אבהו אמר עצתו נופלת, שנאמר "ותשליכהו עצתו." Rabbi Alexandri said: For a man whose wife dies in his lifetime, the world is dark, as it says, "The light is dark in his tent, and his lamp is cut off upon him." Rabbi Yosi bar Chanina said: His steps become small, as it says, "The steps of his strength are bounded." Rabbi Avahu said: His counsel collapses, as it says, "His counsel will cast him down." 2. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 119 Read literally, 18:5-6 makes a series of banal statements about the lamp in the tent of the wicked going out. But no one versed in the conventions of Israelite poetry could take the statement literally, for "light" has traditional metaphorical resonances of "life," "vitality," "presence," and so forth… Thus, the metaphorical claim obviously has to do with the fading vitality and death of the wicked. ז יֵֽ֭צְרוּ צַעֲדֵ֣י אוֹנ֑וֹ וְֽתַשְׁלִיכֵ֥הוּ עֲצָתֽוֹ׃ The steps of his strength with be bounded in metzarim - boundaries, and his counsel will cast him down. Kind of playing with the duplicated צ sound, and the אונו we used before to refer to children.
    ח כִּֽי־שֻׁלַּ֣ח בְּרֶ֣שֶׁת בְּרַגְלָ֑יו וְעַל־שְׂ֝בָכָ֗ה יִתְהַלָּֽךְ׃ He is thrown into a net [snare, trap] in his feet; he will walk upon a שבכה [netting] ט יֹאחֵ֣ז בְּעָקֵ֣ב פָּ֑ח יַחֲזֵ֖ק עָלָ֣יו צַמִּֽים׃ The trap will grab his heel; the snare will strengthen itself around him. י טָמ֣וּן בָּאָ֣רֶץ חַבְל֑וֹ וּ֝מַלְכֻּדְתּ֗וֹ עֲלֵ֣י נָתִֽיב׃ The rope that will catch him is hidden in the earth, his trap on the path. The noun is at the end of the clause; kind of poetic effect. Also, look how he used six different words for "trap."
    He is safe nowhere. Everywhere he goes, he has to fear being ensnared.
    Besides the traps, fear itself can immobilize:
    יא סָ֭בִיב בִּֽעֲתֻ֣הוּ בַלָּה֑וֹת וֶהֱפִיצֻ֥הוּ לְרַגְלָֽיו׃ He is surrounded by things that frighten him. [בעתה is a tremendous panic, and that's why he's not able to move.] בלהות Sometimes it's not about traps. Sometimes it's not about what other people did at all. Sometimes it's just fear, and that's what he describes about the life of the wicked person. Perhaps he's afraid of revenge from those he wronged, or perhaps he fears someone will come for his accumulated wealth, or perhaps just that he knows his own mind, and projects that on other people. He knows what he would do to other people, and how he would come after them, and he thinks to himself, that's what they're all out to do to me.
    בלהות? See Yechezkel 26:21 : "בַּלָּהוֹת אֶתְּנֵךְ, וְאֵינֵךְ..." "I will make you a terror..." (Referring to the punishment of Tzur - Tyre, Lebanon.)
    יב יְהִי־רָעֵ֥ב אֹנ֑וֹ וְ֝אֵ֗יד נָכ֥וֹן לְצַלְעֽוֹ׃ [אונו is his children again; Reuven is called the first of his father's strength, ראשית אוני] His children wil go hungry, and איד - a time [of downfall in particular, here] is ready for his צלע. [Rib/side.] His wife. (Catch the reference to חוה there.) This is why we can understand the previous description of loss of light as the loss of his wife; many allusions here.
    יג יֹ֭אכַל בַּדֵּ֣י עוֹר֑וֹ יֹאכַ֥ל בַּ֝דָּ֗יו בְּכ֣וֹר מָֽוֶת׃ His skin will be consumed; בכור מוות will consume his skin. "Firstborn of death"? Bechor is sometimes a reference to an officer, בכיר - it's the malach hamaves being described here. His skin will be consumed - this has gotten very personal. (Iyov's boils.)
    יד יִנָּתֵ֣ק מֵ֭אָהֳלוֹ מִבְטַח֑וֹ וְ֝תַצְעִדֵ֗הוּ לְמֶ֣לֶךְ בַּלָּהֽוֹת׃ That which he trusted in will be separated from his tent, and will lead him to the King of בלהות [demons/fear]. 4. Rashi to 18:14 ינתק מאהלו – מאשתו...
    ותצעדהו - והיא תצעידהו ותשלחהו (מעליה) לקבר, למלך השדים:
    "He is separated from his tent" – his wife…
    "And she walks him" – She walks him and sends him to the grave, to the king of the demons.
    This "walking him to the grave" fits with what we saw of Iyov's wife: she told him to blaspheme and die. She is walking him to the grave.
    טו תִּשְׁכּ֣וֹן בְּ֭אָהֳלוֹ מִבְּלִי־לּ֑וֹ יְזֹרֶ֖ה עַל־נָוֵ֣הוּ גָפְרִֽית׃ Somebody who is not his will dwell in his tent instead. [His wife is going to bring somebody else into his tent.] Sulfur will be scattered up his dwelling. Destruction is coming. He has no future, no survival. He has been utterly betrayed and driven out.
    This is cold. This is Bildad describing things that will happen to an utterly doomed evil man - and many of them have happened to Iyov. 3. Ralbag, Summary of the chapter תשכון הבהלה באהלו מפני שלא היה שלו אבל בנאו בעושק וגזל... Confusion will live in his tent, because it was not his; he built it with corruption and theft… Bildad's allegation is that this is all measure for measure.
    So in summary so far, Bildad has said: טז מִ֭תַּחַת שָֽׁרָשָׁ֣יו יִבָ֑שׁוּ וּ֝מִמַּ֗עַל יִמַּ֥ל קְצִירֽוֹ׃ From below, the roots of the wicked dry out. [Back to the tree metaphors] And from above, his harvest [the new growth] will be cut off. [Like מילה.] יז זִֽכְרוֹ־אָ֭בַד מִנִּי־אָ֑רֶץ וְלֹא־שֵׁ֥ם ל֝֗וֹ עַל־פְּנֵי־חֽוּץ׃ His memory will be lost from the land, and he will have no reputation outside. He has no future. No roots, no branches... Nobody will remember he was ever there. It will be as though he never lived. (We'll see in Iyov's response that he's very concerned about being forgotten.)
    יח יֶ֭הְדְּפֻהוּ מֵא֣וֹר אֶל־חֹ֑שֶׁךְ וּֽמִתֵּבֵ֥ל יְנִדֻּֽהוּ׃ He is pushed along [perhaps by Gd] from light to darkness [back to the light-and-dark imagery]. He is excommunicated from the earth. [ינדהו - this word first shows up in נע ונד תהיה בארץ - he will be like Cain.] יט לֹ֘א נִ֤ין ל֣וֹ וְלֹא־נֶ֣כֶד בְּעַמּ֑וֹ וְאֵ֥ין שָׂ֝רִ֗יד בִּמְגוּרָֽיו׃ He has no grandchild; nobody from him remains.
    Like Kayin again: Kayin has no descendants, as they were all wiped out in the flood. (Really? check-lineage on Noach's daughters-in-law.) There's no mark left for him.
    כ עַל־י֭וֹמוֹ נָשַׁ֣מּוּ אַחֲרֹנִ֑ים וְ֝קַדְמֹנִ֗ים אָ֣חֲזוּ שָֽׂעַר׃ People will be stunned at what happened to him. [Contradiction - they know, this way, at least.] The early ones to hear about this will be disturbed, distraught. 5. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 121 The dominant figure is merismus, which expresses totality by naming paired opposites: root and branch, above and below, field and pasture, light and darkness, kin and place of sojourn, west and east (18:15-19). Thus, through the symbolic action of language is the wicked "driven out of the world" (18:18). כא אַךְ־אֵ֭לֶּה מִשְׁכְּנ֣וֹת עַוָּ֑ל וְ֝זֶ֗ה מְק֣וֹם לֹא־יָדַֽע־אֵֽל׃ (ס) These are the dwellings of wickedness, and this is the place of the one who did not know Gd. 6. Ralbag, Summary of the chapter אפשר שחטא איוב, ואם לא עשה עול, מפני שלא השתדל בשידע ד' כפי היכולת, כי זה גם כן חטא אצלו. ולזה אמר "וזה מקום לא ידע קל." Perhaps Job sinned, even if he committed no wrong, because he did not try to know Gd to the extent of his abilities; this would also be a sin, to him. Thus he said, "This is the place of one who does not know Gd."
    Bildad's First Speech (8) Job's Reply (9-10)
    Job/Job's children sinned
    There is Divine Justice and Punishment; the reed collapses
    One might suffer, but it can improve; the transplanted tree
    Gd will not admit injustice
    I cannot even get a date in court!
    The world is run unjustly
    Challenges to Gd
    Bildad's Second Speech (18) Job's Reply (19)
    Wicked people cause their own suffering
    The wicked lose home and family
    The wicked lack a future


    < /thirtiethclass >
    1. Outline of Chapter 19: The Search for Sympathy
  • 19:1-4 You are making me miserable
  • 19:5-12 I am surrounded and crushed
  • 19:13-20 I am alone, without any aid
  • 19:21-25 Please help me, by recording my words!
  • 19:26-29 Frustration, and a curse for the visitors
  • 2. Malbim, Introduction to Chapter 19 גם על שיטת בלדד לא ערך תשובתו עדיין, כי חכה להשיב לשלשת הריעים יחד... רק התמרמר מאד על מה שמכאיבים אותו בדברים מרים ובחרפה ובוז He also did not arrange his answer against Bildad's view yet, for he waited to respond to the three friends together… He only expressed great bitterness against the way they pained him with bitter words, shame and scorn. (R'Torcz doesn't actually agree with this idea that Iyov isn't responding to what Bildad said. Remember, Malbim sees different philosophical themes here, which don't appear to be logical responses. The basic text level, however, seems to have direct responses.) 3. Rabbi Shlomo Kluger (grandson of the more famous Rabbi Shlomo Kluger), Siach Shlomo אמנם כל זה יתכן באם יקרה לו לאדם פרטי אסון הנוגע רק אל עצמו ובשרו אז כל אשר יראת ד׳ נוססה בקרבו... מחויב להצדיק עליו את הדין ולברך על הרעה כמו על הטובה כי זה דרך כל איש ישר הולך לסבול במנוחת נפש כל התלאות הבאות עליו... אכן שוד ושבר אם יקרו
    ויאתיו על איש ועל בני אדם יחד... אז אין להאיש ההוא אף כי פגעי הזמן נחתו בו יתר מבזולתו להרגיע את רוחו לבל יצר לו בצרת אחרים... באמרו כי מקבל הוא על עצמו באהבה, זאת היא מדה מגונה ודרך מכוערה דאין לקבל באהבה מכאוב, צער וצרת אחרים, והעושה ככה חולה על ראשו קללת חכמנו ז״ל, "ת״ר בזמן שישראל שרויין בצער ופירש אחד מהם באים שני מלאכי השרת ומניחים ידיהם על ראשו, 'פלוני זה שפירש מן הצבור אל יראה בנחמת הצבור"...
    When a person suffers tragedy which only afflicts him and his flesh, then anyone who has awe of Gd within him… is obligated to accept the Divine verdict as just and to bless for the bad as he does for the good. This is the path of a person who walks righteously, to suffer all ailments that come upon him with a calm spirit…
    But if harm comes upon a person and upon others… then that person, who may even suffer more than others, may not calm himself and avoid feeling the pain of others… saying that he accepts it upon himself with love. This is a repugnant trait and an ugly path; one may not accept with love the ailment, pain and trouble of others! One who does so is subject to the curse of our sages, "When Israel is in pain and one of them separates from the community, two ministering angels place their hands on his head and say, 'So-and-so who separated from the community shall not see the comfort of the community.'"
    19:1-4 You are making me miserable
    א וַיַּ֥עַן אִיּ֗וֹב וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Iyov declared and said: ב עַד־אָ֭נָה תּוֹגְי֣וּן נַפְשִׁ֑י וּֽתְדַכְּאוּנַ֥נִי בְמִלִּֽים׃ How long will you give me תוגה [agony - like יגון. Great sorrow] and you will render me דכא [depressed; דכאון in Modern Hebrew is depression] with your words? ג זֶ֤ה עֶ֣שֶׂר פְּ֭עָמִים תַּכְלִימ֑וּנִי לֹֽא־תֵ֝בֹ֗שׁוּ תַּהְכְּרוּ־לִֽי׃ Ten times you have shamed me. You yourselves are not ashamed at all! You act as a stranger to me. [נכר, though it's an odd word.]
    Where are the ten? (There have been ten speeches so far, but half of those were Iyov himself.)
    Maybe it's a metaphorical round-complete number? ("We don't have umpteen in Hebrew, so we say ten.")
    Daat Mikra: Iyov's own speeches count, because they didn't listen to him, and that is shaming as well. 4. Ibn Ezra to 19:3 אמר הגאון רב סעדיה ז"ל בין בדברי איוב ותשובת חבריו הם עתה עשר פעמים, והנכון בעיני שהוא כמו ואפו עשר נשים בעבור היות חשבון עשרה סך חשבון: Rav Saadia Gaon z"l said that between Job's words and his friends' words, there were ten occasions. It appears correct in my eyes to say that this is like "And ten women will bake (Vayikra 26:26)", because ten is a total. Also like, "You have changed my salary ten times." וַתַּחֲלֵף אֶת-מַשְׂכֻּרְתִּי, עֲשֶׂרֶת מֹנִים. (Yaakov@Lavan.)
    So there's a good basis for saying it's just a round number.
    ד וְאַף־אָמְנָ֥ם שָׁגִ֑יתִי אִ֝תִּ֗י תָּלִ֥ין מְשׁוּגָתִֽי׃ Even if I sinned, my sin lies with me. [... משוגע has an ע. No relation - this is like שוגג] You don't know what I've done wrong. You don't have anything on me. We've had ten speeches, and we have yet to see you identify an actual sin of mine.
    19:5-12 I am surrounded and crushed
    5. A response to 18:7-11? 6. A poem of suffering
    19:5 Attacked [?Crushed] and surrounded
    19:6 Surrounded 19:7 Attacked [?Crushed]
    19:8 Surrounded 19:9 Attacked [?Crushed]
    19:10 Surrounded 19:11 Attacked [?Crushed]
    19:12 Attacked [?Crushed] and surrounded
    (It's hard to imagine someone actually spoke this way, supporting the hypothesis that this isn't a record of actual dialogue.) ה אִם־אָ֭מְנָם עָלַ֣י תַּגְדִּ֑ילוּ וְתוֹכִ֥יחוּ עָ֝לַ֗י חֶרְפָּתִּֽי׃ You rise up upon/around me ["upon" is an expression of aggression; compare ויקהלו על משה in פרשת קרח]; you rebuke me, you bring my shame to light. ו דְּֽעוּ־אֵ֭פוֹ כִּי־אֱל֣וֹהַּ עִוְּתָ֑נִי וּ֝מְצוּד֗וֹ עָלַ֥י הִקִּֽיף׃ You should know, Gd has cheated me. [You keep talking about justice - Gd is the agent of injustice, the one who has been corrupt with me.] He has surrounded me with his barriers [מצודה - fortress, or trap. The word הקיף - trap, boundary]. ז הֵ֤ן אֶצְעַ֣ק חָ֭מָס וְלֹ֣א אֵעָנֶ֑ה אֲ֝שַׁוַּ֗ע וְאֵ֣ין מִשְׁפָּֽט׃ I cry out that חמס is being done to me and no one answers me; I cry out, and there is no justice. Daat Mikra: See Eicha 3:7-8, where the Lamenter says, He has fenced me in and I can't get out; even when I cry out, my prayers are sealed in.
    ח אָרְחִ֣י גָ֭דַר וְלֹ֣א אֶעֱב֑וֹר וְעַ֥ל נְ֝תִיבוֹתַ֗י חֹ֣שֶׁךְ יָשִֽׂים׃ He fences in my paths, and I can't cross, and upon my paths he places darkness [and therefore I can't go]. ט כְּ֭בוֹדִי מֵעָלַ֣י הִפְשִׁ֑יט וַ֝יָּ֗סַר עֲטֶ֣רֶת רֹאשִֽׁי׃ He has stripped me of my honor/dignity, and He removed the crown from my head. י יִתְּצֵ֣נִי סָ֭בִיב וָאֵלַ֑ךְ וַיַּסַּ֥ע כָּ֝עֵ֗ץ תִּקְוָתִֽי׃ He destroys me from all around [ינתץ - knock down] and [ללכת לאיבוד] I go down to destruction. He has removed my hope like a tree. Trees again. (Plant metaphors.) Bildad's tree regrows, even better. Iyov... probably doesn't mean that. (Though it's odd, because Iyov didn't object to Bildad's botany so much as his metaphor: trees have hope; they regrow, he acknowledged, as Bildad said; it is man who does not, and Bildad said the same, at least for the wicked. [Implicitly Iyov.] "The roots of the wicked dry out, and the new growth will be cut off." So what is this removing of hope "like a tree"?)
    7. Metzudat David to 19:10 עקר ממני תקותי כמו המסיע לעקור עץ אילן ממקומו אשר לא ישוב עוד למקומו לתקעו שוב כשהיה כן לא אקוה עוד לחזור לקדמותי: He has uprooted my hope from me, like one who uproots a tree from its place. He will not return to its place, to plant it again as it was. So I harbor no hope of returning to my earlier state. יא וַיַּ֣חַר עָלַ֣י אַפּ֑וֹ וַיַּחְשְׁבֵ֖נִי ל֣וֹ כְצָרָֽיו׃ And he kindled against me his rage [vayachar, not vayichar. He made Himself angry, rather than it arising organically]; He considered me like his enemies. Gd created this; it's fictitious. I never was His enemy! He trumped-up charges against me. He went looking for reasons to be angry at me. And it's _true._
    יב יַ֤חַד ׀ יָ֘בֹ֤אוּ גְדוּדָ֗יו וַיָּסֹ֣לּוּ עָלַ֣י דַּרְכָּ֑ם וַיַּחֲנ֖וּ סָבִ֣יב לְאָהֳלִֽי׃ His forces all come against me together, and they pave their road upon me [metaphorically] and they camp surrounding my tent. 19:13-20 I am alone, without any aid
    יג אַ֭חַי מֵעָלַ֣י הִרְחִ֑יק וְ֝יֹדְעַ֗י אַךְ־זָ֥רוּ מִמֶּֽנִּי׃ He has distanced my brothers from me, and those who know me have been estranged from me. [Gd has done this.] יד חָדְל֥וּ קְרוֹבָ֑י וּֽמְיֻדָּעַ֥י שְׁכֵחֽוּנִי׃ Those who had been close to me have stopped being around, and those who knew me [or 'whom I knew'] have forgotten me. 8. The magic word: זר z 19:13, 15, 17 9. Metzudat David to 19:13 גדודי המכאוב הרחיקו מעלי את קרובי כי בעבורם יחשבוני לרב פשע: The cuts/legions of pain have distanced from me those who had been close to me, for due to them they think me a great sinner. The suffering is distancing them.
    טו גָּ֘רֵ֤י בֵיתִ֣י וְ֭אַמְהֹתַי לְזָ֣ר תַּחְשְׁבֻ֑נִי נָ֝כְרִ֗י הָיִ֥יתִי בְעֵינֵיהֶֽם׃ Those who dwell in my house [not family - לגור - temporary dwellers] and my maids consider me a זר. I was a stranger in their eyes. טז לְעַבְדִּ֣י קָ֭רָאתִי וְלֹ֣א יַעֲנֶ֑ה בְּמוֹ־פִ֝֗י אֶתְחַנֶּן־לֽוֹ׃ I call my servants and they don't answer. With my very mouth I plead with him. We saw that מו earlier - it's emphasis.
    At the beginning of the sentence, קרא - sounds like he's summoning. By the end, חנן - pleading with them, but still no answer. יז ר֭וּחִֽי זָ֣רָה לְאִשְׁתִּ֑י וְ֝חַנֹּתִ֗י לִבְנֵ֥י בִטְנִֽי׃ My spirit is foreign to my wife [callback to Bildad's statement that his wife is going to leave him - Iyov says that his wife sees him as a stranger.] and my charm is estranged from my children. ... Q:But they're gone.
    Yeah, but the servants probably are too. This is just an expression of his loneliness. It isn't a statement implying the presence of either.
    יח גַּם־עֲ֭וִילִים מָ֣אֲסוּ בִ֑י אָ֝ק֗וּמָה וַיְדַבְּרוּ־בִֽי׃ Even urchins/youths reject me; [when I get up, they speak against me. /didn'ttranslate]
    The word עויל usually connotes corruption, as we used it in 6:30. hence urchins, not just youths. (Don't-mix-up: there's also אויל, with an א, in Eliphaz's first speech in 5:2. translated as fool when we read it and wicked person when we made reference to it later.) (See also later 21:11 for another instance that means "youths" which doesn't seem to have any connotations of evil, and 27:7 where it is just corruption. And 29:17)
    יט תִּֽ֭עֲבוּנִי כָּל־מְתֵ֣י סוֹדִ֑י וְזֶֽה־אָ֝הַ֗בְתִּי נֶהְפְּכוּ־בִֽי׃ All those who are in on my secrets abhor me, and the one I loved - they have turned on me. כ בְּעוֹרִ֣י וּ֭בִבְשָׂרִי דָּבְקָ֣ה עַצְמִ֑י וָ֝אֶתְמַלְּטָ֗ה בְּע֣וֹר שִׁנָּֽי׃ My bones stick to my hide and my flesh, and I escape by the skin of my teeth. ... whatever that means.
    Rashi: My gums; that's all I have left. (That's the skin of my teeth.)
    Ralbag: The only skin I have left is that which cleaves to the roof of my teeth - also the gums.
    But ibn Ezra renders it the way we do, in the popular form, that I only escape by the skin of my teeth - that's all I have.

    Look how this subsection flows: First, his 'brothers', those who knew him - his equals - have abandoned him. They were close to him, but not anyone he had any claim on.
    Then his social inferiors: The people he took into his house to take care of when they were passing through, his maids, his slaves
    His family: his wife and children.
    The people who were taken into his confidence, those who loved him, even they betrayed him. The people who showed up at his doorstep as he was suffering, and he thought - they're going to comfort me! And they opened their mouths and blamed him.
    < /thirtyfirstclass >

    19:21-25 Please help me, by recording my words! 1. A response to 18:16-20? Bildad claimed that Iyov (or "a wicked person") will have no future, and be remembered by no one. In asking that his words be recorded, Iyov demands a future, at least of words. It's his תקוה, hope for a future.
    כא חָנֻּ֬נִי חָנֻּ֣נִי אַתֶּ֣ם רֵעָ֑י כִּ֥י יַד־אֱ֝ל֗וֹהַּ נָ֣גְעָה בִּֽי׃ Give to me - have mercy upon me, you my friends, because the hand of Gd has struck me.
    (Reminds R'Torcz of Naami - call me Marah, because Gd has dealt bitterly with me. She's accepting Gd's justice. Iyov is distinctly not. He's saying this as an indictment of Gd.)
    Also - go back to 1:11: "וְאוּלָם שְׁלַח נָא יָדְךָ וְגַע בְּכָל אֲשֶׁר לוֹ; אִם לֹא עַל פָּנֶיךָ יְבָרֲכֶךָּ." "Send forth your hand and touch all he has. See if he doesn't then 'bless' against you." (Same phrase is in 2:5)
    He's actually getting it right - Gd is striking him.
    כב לָ֭מָּה תִּרְדְּפֻ֣נִי כְמוֹ־אֵ֑ל וּ֝מִבְּשָׂרִ֗י לֹ֣א תִשְׂבָּֽעוּ׃ Why are you chasing me [and this is how the commentators traditionally translate] as Gd does? [R'Torcz likes the possibility of "chasing me as if I'm a powerful being" - we saw something similar when Iyov complained that he should be beneath Gd's notice.] You're not satisfied with my flesh? [Literally - he has boils already, for goodness' sake. Why are they piling on further?] כג מִֽי־יִתֵּ֣ן אֵ֭פוֹ וְיִכָּתְב֣וּן מִלָּ֑י מִֽי־יִתֵּ֖ן בַּסֵּ֣פֶר וְיֻחָֽקוּ׃ [We've seen this מי יתן before.] Would that my words would be recorded! I wish that they would be engraved in the book! 'The' Book? The court record.
    כד בְּעֵט־בַּרְזֶ֥ל וְעֹפָ֑רֶת לָ֝עַ֗ד בַּצּ֥וּר יֵחָצְבֽוּן׃ With an iron pen and lead ... 5. Rashi to 19:24 יחצבון בצור ואח"כ מעבירין את העופרת עליהם לתת לאותיות מראה שחרורית להכירם וכן דרך חוקק אבן ולא יתכן לפרש עט של עופרת שהרי רך הוא אצל האבן They inscribe in the stone and then pass lead over it, to give the letters a dark appearance which makes them visible. So they engrave stone. It cannot be explained as a lead pen, for that would be too soft for stone. This was, for a while, thought to be anachronistic - people assumed this lead-filling technology came much later, but it turns out this practice dates all the way back to Persian times. 4. Behistun The Behistun was a stone used in Persian times - military victories would be inscribed for travellers to see.
    Iyov wants his story to be inscribed for everyone to see and remember. 2. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, pg. 157 The necessity of giving witness becomes so strong that when he thinks of death as preventing him from bringing his accusation or defending himself, Job's imagination supplies surrogates who will speak for him (the earth, 16:18; a heavenly witness, 16:19; an inscribed text, 19:23-24; a go'el, 19:25). 3. Daat Mikra to 19:23 איוב מרגיש שתחנתו לא רככה את לבם של רעיו, ודבריו לא נתקבלו עליהם. לפיכך מתיאש הוא מההווה ומתנחם בעתיד: אם בדור הזה אני בודד ואין מי שעומד לצדי, מובטחני שבדורות הבאים יקום אדם שיבינני ויצדיקני. אבל לשם כך צריך שדברי איוב ישארו בכתב לדורות... Job feels that his plea has not softened the hearts of his friends, and his words have not been accepted by them. Therefore, he abandons hope of the present, and takes comfort in the future. If in this generation I am alone and none stand by me, I trust that in future generations one will arise who will understand me and justify me. But for this, Job's words must remain in writing for generations… Iyov gives up on his friends and his current generation.
    כה וַאֲנִ֣י יָ֭דַעְתִּי גֹּ֣אֲלִי חָ֑י וְ֝אַחֲר֗וֹן עַל־עָפָ֥ר יָקֽוּם׃ I know that my go'el [redeemer] exists/lives; the last one on earth will stand/rise. Goel? Go'el hadam? Goel for yibum? [It says about a goel for yibum that he has a son and the name of his lost brother is carried on - that some sign of his having existed at all is left.]
    כו וְאַחַ֣ר ע֭וֹרִֽי נִקְּפוּ־זֹ֑את וּ֝מִבְּשָׂרִ֗י אֶֽחֱזֶ֥ה אֱלֽוֹהַּ׃ And after my hide, they נקפו-זאת [generally, נקף is a term of violence - to bang on something. ... why doesn't he also translate it as from the root הקף, surrounding? Iyov is full of surrounding... ~D and there's a phrase נקף-זית that this may be a play on. Olive harvesting, which is done by beating the tree.] you [visitors] are hitting this [my flesh], and from my flesh I will see Gd. כז אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִ֨י ׀ אֶֽחֱזֶה־לִּ֗י וְעֵינַ֣י רָא֣וּ וְלֹא־זָ֑ר כָּל֖וּ כִלְיֹתַ֣י בְּחֵקִֽי׃ I will see [like חזון (I think the problem here is my modern hebrew. That word looks like it should be grabbing, gripping, or reaching.)] this for me, and my eyes have seen it and it is not זר [not that somebody else saw it but that I saw it, whatever 'it' is.] My innards are destroyed within me. כח כִּ֣י תֹ֭אמְרוּ מַה־נִּרְדָּף־ל֑וֹ וְשֹׁ֥רֶשׁ דָּ֝בָ֗ר נִמְצָא־בִֽי׃ If you should say, why/how shall we pursue him, the root of the matter is found within me. כט גּ֤וּרוּ לָכֶ֨ם ׀ מִפְּנֵי־חֶ֗רֶב כִּֽי־חֵ֭מָה עֲוֺנ֣וֹת חָ֑רֶב לְמַ֖עַן תֵּדְע֣וּן שדין [שַׁדּֽוּן׃] (ס) You should be very afraid of the sword, because anger is aroused for the sins of [or 'that deserve'] the sword so that you will know [some combination of שד-י and דין, apparently] Divine justice.
    So: 1) There is a go'el, says Iyov, who is going to take my side.
    2) פס כט is a warning that bad stuff is in store for the visitors.
    And the rest of these pesukim are fairly opaque.
    Four approaches: two from classic Jewish sources; one, R'Torcz 'can see Jews liking a lot', and a fourth, which R' Torcz himself likes. 7. Rashi – Self-righteous anger כה וַאֲנִ֣י יָ֭דַעְתִּי גֹּ֣אֲלִי חָ֑י וְ֝אַחֲר֗וֹן עַל־עָפָ֥ר יָקֽוּם׃
    19:25 – But I know that my Redeemer lives, and He will be the last to stand on earth.
    My Redeemer, Gd, is eternal; He stands forever.
    כו וְאַחַ֣ר ע֭וֹרִֽי נִקְּפוּ־זֹ֑את וּ֝מִבְּשָׂרִ֗י אֶֽחֱזֶ֥ה אֱלֽוֹהַּ׃
    19:26 – You pursue me, after my hide, and in my flesh I see judgment [inflicted on me].
    You attackers pursue me. From my skin I see Gd. I see - prophetic-type vision, אחזה - Divine justice coming in the future.
    כז אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִ֨י ׀ אֶֽחֱזֶה־לִּ֗י וְעֵינַ֣י רָא֣וּ וְלֹא־זָ֑ר כָּל֖וּ כִלְיֹתַ֣י בְּחֵקִֽי׃
    My eyes see it; it is not foreign; even as my innards are destroyed within me, nonetheless,
    כח כִּ֣י תֹ֭אמְרוּ מַה־נִּרְדָּף־ל֑וֹ וְשֹׁ֥רֶשׁ דָּ֝בָ֗ר נִמְצָא־בִֽי׃
    19:28 – You will never ask, “Why do we pursue him? Why does he bear suffering?”
    The root of the matter is within me - there's evil within me, that's why you're attacking
    כט גּ֤וּרוּ לָכֶ֨ם ׀ מִפְּנֵי־חֶ֗רֶב כִּֽי־חֵ֭מָה עֲוֺנ֣וֹת חָ֑רֶב לְמַ֖עַן תֵּדְע֣וּן שדין [שַׁדּֽוּן׃]
    19:29 – Be afraid. Be very afraid.
    You should be afraid, because Divine justice is coming for you.
    Rashi: Iyov is warning them of punishment. He's done asking them to record his words. It's a new thought: Bad things are coming for you; Gd is on my side. 8. Daat Mikra - Frustration
    Iyov does not believe that Gd is on his side, nor that He will help him. Just the opposite: Iyov knows history is written by the victors, and in his case, the Victor. That's what upsets him, and that's why he wants his words recorded. כה וַאֲנִ֣י יָ֭דַעְתִּי גֹּ֣אֲלִי חָ֑י וְ֝אַחֲר֗וֹן עַל־עָפָ֥ר יָקֽוּם׃
    19:25 – I long for a redeemer, even the last person on earth!
    I know that my redeemer - somebody, someday - is going to take my point of view and believe me.
    כו וְאַחַ֣ר ע֭וֹרִֽי נִקְּפוּ־זֹ֑את וּ֝מִבְּשָׂרִ֗י אֶֽחֱזֶ֥ה אֱלֽוֹהַּ׃
    כז אֲשֶׁ֤ר אֲנִ֨י ׀ אֶֽחֱזֶה־לִּ֗י וְעֵינַ֣י רָא֣וּ וְלֹא־זָ֑ר כָּל֖וּ כִלְיֹתַ֣י בְּחֵקִֽי׃
    19:26 -27- Instead of me recording my narrative, Gd records His narrative on my skin
    What's happening in that _Gd_ is writing the narrative. It's being inscribed into my flesh (that is, via this suffering), and all I see when I look at my flesh is Gd, Gd's handwriting.
    I see it myself, it is not foreign; my innards are being destroyed
    כח כִּ֣י תֹ֭אמְרוּ מַה־נִּרְדָּף־ל֑וֹ וְשֹׁ֥רֶשׁ דָּ֝בָ֗ר נִמְצָא־בִֽי׃
    כט גּ֤וּרוּ לָכֶ֨ם ׀ מִפְּנֵי־חֶ֗רֶב כִּֽי־חֵ֭מָה עֲוֺנ֣וֹת חָ֑רֶב לְמַ֖עַן תֵּדְע֣וּן שדין [שַׁדּֽוּן׃]
    19:28-29 – You pursue me for my words, but you will know Divine justice.
    When you say, How can we pursue him, not Why pursue him, because the roots of my words are within me. (I keep maintaining my words. Every time I say that Gd is wrong, it angers you more.)
    You should know, in the end I will prove right; you will know Divine justice by the sword. The same way I did. That's what you're going to experience.
    Daat Mikra: Iyov is frustrated: "I told you I want my words written, but Gd is writing them on my skin! Nonetheless, you'll see. You'll see what happens in the end."

    JPS:
    ("And I left it in its full 'ye' and 'hath' glory.")
    9. Jewish Publication Society – Self-righteousness
    It's talking about the Next World, and Iyov cares because he's still going to be here.
    19:25 But as for me, I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that He will witness at the last upon the dust;
    (note the capitals.)
    19:26 And when after my skin this is destroyed, then without my flesh shall I see G-d;
    (the floating 'this' is lost in the Hebrew as well.) They take מבשרי not as "As a result of my skin" but "when I'm rid of my skin."
    19:27 Whom I, even I, shall see for myself, and mine eyes shall behold, and not another's. My reins are consumed within me.
    They're stuck on this כליותי. 'Reins' may not have helped though.
    19:28 If ye say: 'How we will persecute him!' seeing that the root of the matter is found in me;
    You're looking to attack me?
    19:29 Be ye afraid of the sword; for wrath bringeth the punishments of the sword, that ye may know there is a judgment.
    You will be zapped by Gd.
    JPS: Gd will vindicate me in the Next World.
    Fits very well with Iyov's words from 13:6-19 when he said "I am the faithful one! You are attributing falsehood to Gd!" Now he says, "I am going to be vindicated in the Next World, not here.
    Not one of the classical commentators in the whole Mikraot Gedolot takes this approach. Not even Malbim, who has been reading this whole section (the last several perakim) to be about life in the next world.
    Why? One reason: Because it doesn't really matter: we don't really care what Iyov himself believes about the Next World.. We don't even know if he's Jewish. We don't even know if this story is our story. Ibn Ezra claimed the whole thing was written in another Semitic language and translated to Hebrew. If there's a reference to the Next World, fine, but... I'm not sure that's a valid reason to dismiss it quite as thoroughly as R'Torcz seems to be doing here. He walks it back, saying that the point of the Anshei Knesset haGdola's decision to canonize Sefer Iyov is not because of a reference to the Next World, that there's more in this book that we care about. The commentators don't jump on this - they don't seem particularly interested. He didn't say that we ignore it because of the Christians. Censorship / polemics, etc... ? 6. Malbim to 19:25 כי "גואלי חי". שימצא בעת מן העתים איש חי בימים האלה אשר יקרא את דברי ויגאל את דמי ויריב ריבי להצדיק אותי. הגם שה"אחרון על עפר יקום". הגם שאיש הזה יהיה מן הדור האחרון שיקום עוד על עפר. עכ"פ בהכרח ימצא איש בעת מן העתים שיקבל דעתי ושטתי ויצדיק אותי עת יקרא דברי הכתובים על ספר ועל לוחות אבנים: "For my redeemer lives" – In some era, a man living at that time will read my words and redeem my blood and fight my battle to justify me. He may be "the last to stand upon dirt". This man may be from the last generation to stand on dirt. Still, there must be a man, in some era, who will accept my view and approach, and he will justify me when he will read my words, recorded in a text and on tablets of stone. 10. James Zink, Impatient Job, Journal of Biblical Literature 84:2 (1965) – Impatience and self-righteousness (Quoting Tur-Sinai.)
    19:25 I know that my vindicator lives and will at last arise upon the earth.
    19:26 But (that will be) after my flesh has been stripped away (like) this. But I would see Gd will still in my flesh.
    I want to see Gd while I still have my skin. I don't want to wait!
    19:27 I want to see him for myself; and my eyes behold (him) and no other. Oh! My desire is so overwhelming!
    I want my eyes to see it, and I am dying here. My innards are collapsing inside me.
    (28-29 are still the warning to the others.)
    Gd is going to accept my narrative in the end, but I'm upset that it's taking too long and it's going to be too late.
    So we have a few things this complex knot of pesukim may be: Key points from this chapter
    11. A response to Bildad
    Bildad's First Speech (8) Job's Reply (9-10)
    Job/Job's children sinned
    There is Divine Justice and Punishment; the reed collapses
    One might suffer, but it can improve; the transplanted tree
    Gd will not admit injustice
    I cannot even get a date in court!
    The world is run unjustly
    Challenges to Gd
    Bildad's Second Speech (18) Job's Reply (19)
    Wicked people cause their own suffering My suffering is a sign of injustice
    The wicked lose home and family and skin – as Job did This suffering is a sign of injustice. [Not a sign that I am wicked]
    The wicked lack a future You lack a future; [Gd will take my side in the end] /
    [Someone will take my side in the end.]
    12. Key takeaways
  • Job’s loneliness
  • Job’s desire for posterity
  • Job’s possible expression of faith that Gd will take his side
  • < /thirtysecondclass >

    A Brief Review: 1-19
    Chapter 1
    Gd seeks to prove the possibility that a human being could want a relationship with Gd
    Satan strikes Job’s children and property
    Job responds by acknowledging the Divine right to all that is his
    • and the Satan says, yes, he still seems loyal, but You limited his suffering. When it's not someone else's pain...
    Chapter 2
    Job suffers physically
    Job rebukes his blasphemous wife, but is less pious
    • She's not a person, but another test.
    • From here the tests leave the realm of the physical and become instead psychological and emotional. His own wife is telling him to reject Gd.
    Visitors arrive from afar, express their grief with actions, and remain in silence for 7 days
    • Which Iyov does not appreciate.
    Chapter 3
    Job lashes out against his birthday/the stars
    • (predestination instead of Divine oversight - Malbim's read)
    Job desires to roll back his own creation, and perhaps all of Creation
    Chapter 4-5
    Round One: Does approaching Gd lead to a happy ending?
    • The statements are so stylized that they don't sound like people - feeds into the idea that it's a parable, which doesn't actually rule out historicity (with the arguments recorded more poetically than they were spoken).
    Eliphaz argues for a narrative of hope – Gd helps those who seek it
    • Outrage is self-defeating, Iyov. Gd is benevolent and just. You're a good guy. Go to Gd. It will be good.
    People deserve their suffering, for their wickedness
    One cannot be more righteous than Gd
    Eliphaz urges Job to appeal to Gd
    • It's not clear whether his evolution over the course of his speeches from relatively light recommendation to turn to Gd to indignant and accusatory is a loss subtlety on his part or a change in his view of Iyov, caused by the things Iyov has said.
    • He's also, by the way, the example of onaat dvarim. He's not the good guy here.
    Chapters 6-7
    New element: Job’s anger at Gd
    Job rebukes Eliphaz for not helping; the lack of empathy makes Job bitter
    Job makes a statement about Gd:
    1. Either Job challenges Gd to leave him alone, or
    2. Job claims that Gd does not run the world, as that would be beneath Him
    There is no hopeful narrative; I will turn to Gd, but in defiance, not for help
    • ("Linguistic sabotage": "Gd, you are so mighty and powerful. So why are you turning it against me?")
    Chapter 8
    Bildad defends Divine justice
    Bildad offers two plant parables:
    1. The Thirsty Reed – Those who are wicked will perish
      • (a reed with no water source will dry up)
    2. The Lush Plant – May be the same as the Reed, or may be describing suffering ending in prosperity, proving that the pain was actually building toward a positive end
    Chapters 9-10
    New element: Job’s desire to sue Gd in court
    Job rebukes Bildad; I cannot convince Gd that I am right, and Gd is hostile to me
    The world is run unjustly
    I cannot even get a day in court!
    If I were to talk to Gd, it would be to challenge Him for what He has done to me
    • For all that we disagree with what they're saying, remember that there must be some merit to these arguments, and they shouldn't be dismissed. If they were empty arguments, we wouldn't need to spend chapter after chapter on them. Even if they're going to be rejected, they have merit. Even if they're being quoted only to be rejected.
    Chapter 11
    Tzofar says that Gd's wisdom involves hidden elements, beyond human ken
    An example of a hidden element: One may be judged for failure to fulfill potential
    • He's introduced a factor that we cannot assess, safeguarding his assertion from being falsified.
    Turn to Gd, and life will improve
    Chapters 12-14
    New element: Job insists that he is the pious one
    Job responds to the entire set of speakers from the first round
    You cannot convince me that there is justice in this world; you only mock me with your speech
    I will speak truth, regardless of what Gd does to me
    I am the true believer. You are false flatterers who misrepresent Gd, and Gd will punish you.
    • You believe in some false idolatrous concept of Gd, and you are changing things, describing reality as it isn't, to support your imaginary version of Gd. That makes you idolatrous. I am speaking the truth.
    Job wishes to bring Gd to justice in court, on three claims:
    1. I am righteous
    2. Even if I have sinned, I am insignificant and unworthy of Your attention
    3. I am temporary and lowly, and therefore I am no threat to You.
    There is no hope for a happy ending, including resurrection of the dead
    Chapter 15
    Round Two: Do the wicked suffer?
    Eliphaz tries again, arguing that Job fails to value righteousness
    • You're robbing people of incentive to be righteous by saying that Gd is manipulating everything so that if someone is righteous it's because Gd makes him so. They will think that if Gd wants them to be good, He'll jut make them be good.
    Job is arrogant
    The wicked may not appear to suffer, but they suffer psychologically
    The wicked lack a future
    Chapter 16-17
    New elements: Gd as Enemy; A plea for empathy
    Job demands that Eliphaz stop judging him; if I were in your shoes, I would offer empathy
    Gd has become my enemy
    I demand justice from Gd
    Chapter 18
    Bildad rebukes Job, or his fellow visitors, for not listening
    Wicked people cause their own suffering
    Wicked people lose everything – as Job did
    Wicked people lack a future
    Chapter 19
    New element: An elaborate plea for empathy, companionship, and aid with his cause
    Job responds that the visitors are making him miserable
    Job feels surrounded, crushed and estranged from all around him
    Job pleads for someone to record his words, creating his posterity
    In a cryptic ending, Job says that someone, someday, will take his side – and that the visitors, and those who take their side, will be punished.
    Why don't people learn Iyov?
    It's depressing and difficult, with challenging language and confusing structure. The commentaries are making a point rather than explaining what's happening, and it's long.
    Apparently some Sephardim read it publicly on Tisha v'Av.
    < /thirtythirdclass >

    Tzofar's second and last speech.

    Remember, Tzofar is young, direct, straightforward. (See above, where we discussed him in more detail.) 1. Tzofar’s previous approach:
  • Gd’s wisdom is great and hidden; Gd rewards and punishes based on factors you do not perceive
  • Prescription: Repent, and approach Gd, and then your turmoil (רגז) and rage will end! (Ch.11)
  • The wicked will suffer for their crimes
  • 2. Job’s response to Tzofar’s first foray:
  • Gd is the source of all destruction
  • You are misrepresenting Gd; I am the truly pious one (response to all, not specifically Tzofar.)
  • The case against Gd: I am no sinner; Paying attention to my sins is unworthy of Gd and inappropriate
  • There is no hope after death
  • 3. Outline
  • 20:1-4 Introduction: I am compelled to answer you, even though you know this
  • 20:5-11 The wicked fall from heights and disappear – them, or their children
  • 20:12-23 Metaphor: Wickedness as cooking, its fruits as poison, wicked appetites destroy people
  • 20:24-28 Gd and Man will turn against the wicked
  • 20:29 Conclusion: Gd will orchestrate all of this
  • It's like a checklist of all the wrong thing to say to someone in pain. He also seems to have dropped "breadth of Divine wisdom" in favor of just pounding Iyov down. Why? 4. Malbim, Introduction to the chapter המתוכח הנעמתי עזב עתה את שטתו הפילוסופית אשר הציע במענהו הקודם... יען שאיוב לעג על שטתו לעג הרבה, ושטה זו לא תמצא חן רק לעוסקים בתבונה ובעומק העיון, עזב עתה דרך זה, והתנצל בדבריו כי לא ישיב עתה כפי שטה זאת, מפני שידע שאיוב יכלים אותו ויתלוצץ מדבריו. The Naamite debater now abandoned the philosophical approach he had laid out in his previous speech… Job had mocked his approach with great scorn, and his approach would find favour only among those who involved themselves in logic and the depths of analysis. Tzofar now abandoned this, and justified it by saying that now he would not respond in this way, because he knew that Job would shame him and mock his words. We saw Iyov ridiculing Tzofar's approach. Tzofar noticed that philosophy wasn't working, and so he's trying something else.
    A second justification: 5. Malbim to Job 20:3 בעת שרציתי לענות עפ"י דרכי התבונה שהיא לבדה תבין בעניני מה שאחר הטבע, שמעתי "מוסר כלימתי", מה שהכלים איוב את דרכי הפילוסופי הזה. לכן בחרתי להשיב לך ע"פ הבחינה והנסיון, כפי שטתך, שאתה סומך על השגת החוש: When I wanted to answer along logical lines, which is the only way to understand that which is behind nature, I heard “the rebuke that shamed me,” as Job shamed this philosophical approach. Therefore, I have chosen to respond to you based on tested experience, taking your approach, as you rely on that which your senses grasp. Tzofar switches from philosophical to observational (what he has seen about the world) and from intellectual to personal. We're also going to see much more accusation than before, and he loses the optimism that's characterized the speeches previously; he's no longer expressing the possibility of a better future. (And we'll have to think about why.) 6. Indirect accusations: Hunger; Heaven and Earth; Speech against Gd 20:1-4 Introduction
    א וַיַּעַן צֹפַר הַנַּעֲמָתִי וַיֹּאמַר׃ Tzofar declared and said: ב לָכֵן שְׂעִפַּי יְשִׁיבוּנִי וּבַעֲבוּר חוּשִׁי בִי׃ My שעיפּים [usually building-support beams. My thoughts, per Artscroll. Something internal, anyways] are going to make me respond, and because of my חוש within me. [feeling ~MD, or silence ~Rashi] When I'm silent, I'm so agitated I have to respond - silence is only pushing me further. Ibn Ezra: חוש is haste - being driven from inside. ג מוּסַר כְּלִמָּתִי אֶשְׁמָע וְרוּחַ מִבִּינָתִי יַעֲנֵנִי׃ I hear the rebuke of my shame, and a spirit that comes from my understanding will make me answer. As Malbim said - it's about his personal experiences and perceptions.
    (No, I don't really know what it means that he hears the rebuke of his shame.)

    ד הֲזֹאת יָדַעְתָּ מִנִּי־עַד מִנִּי שִׂים אָדָם עֲלֵי־אָרֶץ׃
    [Multiple possibile translations:]
    Do you know everything that ever happened?
    [Not "you, Iyov," but] People know. [I know. It means he's not talking to Iyov at all.]

    Whether he's aggravated or agitated by the insults (the rebuke of his shame) and therefore pushed to speak, or whether he's still using his motivation from chapter 11 of the need to correct Iyov's words for the sake of the other listeners, whom he must save from Iyov's errors, it seems he's no longer speaking to Iyov.
    He's speaking to express his feelings, even though he knows he's not convincing anybody. 7. Daat Mikra to 20:4 והכינוי הנוכח ב'ידעת' מוסב אל צופר (ולא לאיוב, שאליו אין צופר פונה בכלל). The second-person in “You know” refers to Tzofar (not Job, for Job does not turn to him at all). 20:5-11 The fall of the wicked, or their children
    ה כִּי רִנְנַת רְשָׁעִים מִקָּרוֹב וְשִׂמְחַת חָנֵף עֲדֵי־רָגַע׃ The song of the wicked, their joy is מקרוב [just happened - it's recent in the sense that their is indeed brief joy for them]; the joy of the חנף [we've seen that word before; usually it means flattery, but in Iyov it tends to mean general corruption, as in 8:13, 17:8] is only there for a moment. ו אִם־יַעֲלֶה לַשָּׁמַיִם שִׂיאוֹ וְרֹאשׁוֹ לָעָב יַגִּיעַ׃ If his שיא [often 'entourage'; also 'eminence', 'height'] is all the way up in the heavens, and his head reaches the clouds, ז כְּגֶלֲלוֹ לָנֶצַח יֹאבֵד רֹאָיו יֹאמְרוּ אַיּוֹ׃ He'll be lost forever like גלל [excrement]; those who see him will say, "Where'd he go? [What happened to him?]" [And he sinks all the way into the sewer.] ח כַּחֲלוֹם יָעוּף וְלֹא יִמְצָאוּהוּ וְיֻדַּד כְּחֶזְיוֹן לָיְלָה׃ Like a dream he flies away [echoes of Yamim Noraim], and they're never going to see him again; he is made to go away [ידד, like נודד] like a vision in the night. ט עַיִן שְׁזָפַתּוּ וְלֹא תוֹסִיף וְלֹא־עוֹד תְּשׁוּרֶנּוּ מְקוֹמוֹ׃ [שזפתו is an interesting combination word. "Too be seen." Similar seen in ספר רות.] The eye that saw him will see him no more, and no longer will the place where he was see him. [תשורנו] י בָּנָיו יְרַצּוּ דַלִּים וְיָדָיו תָּשֵׁבְנָה אוֹנוֹ׃ His children will be forced to satisfy the needy. [Those people whom their father had abused - the children will have to pay them back.] His own hands will have to restore אונו [like אונאה - that which he had cheated people of, that which he had taken from other people.] יא עַצְמוֹתָיו מָלְאוּ עלומו [עֲלוּמָיו] וְעִמּוֹ עַל־עָפָר תִּשְׁכָּב׃ His bones were full in his youth [he was very energetic in his youth - or, his youth was strong in his bones] and it [all of that strength] is going to go with him to the grave. [Others translate: When his bones are still filled with youth, he will already die.]
    Hm. He's agreeing with Iyov about life being fleeting. 9. Ralbag to 20:10 בעודו ברום הצלחתו ותקפו ובעודו עוסק ברשעו עד שבניו ירצצו את הדלים החלשים, והוא בעצמו ברוב תקפו, "ידיו תשבנה אונו." When he is still at the height of his success and strength, and he is still involved in his wickedness, to the point that his children crush the weak paupers, and he himself is in his great strength, “his hands will return [what he had taken with] his strength.” Others take these pesukim as a statement that he and his children will descend and eventually serve the victims they had been above.
    However you read this, it is a statement that punishment is indeed coming, and he says this is what he has seen
    There's another reason for him to mention children: because Iyov has lost his. This is one of his personal stabs against Iyov. This is your experience because of your wickedness. It's your fault, Iyov. 8. Talmud, Yoma 86b-87a רבא כי הוה נפיק לדינא אמר הכי: בצבו נפשיה לקטלא נפיק, וצבו ביתיה לית הוא עביד, וריקן לביתיה אזיל, ולואי שתהא ביאה כיציאה. וכי הוי חזי אמבוהא אבתריה אמר "אם יעלה לשמים שיאו..." When Rava went out to judgment, he said thus: “He willingly goes out to death, and he does not fulfill the desires of his own house, and he goes home empty-handed; if only he would return home as [whole as when] he departed!” And when he saw an entourage behind him, he said, “Even if his entourage would ascend to the heavens, etc.” Rava wanted to be sure he would retain his humility, and used this line from Iyov about the fleeting nature of this status. Ultimately it's all nothing.
    Tzofar's terrible sentence gets recycled as not-so-bad.

    20:12-23 Wickedness as cooking
    יב אִם־תַּמְתִּיק בְּפִיו רָעָה יַכְחִידֶנָּה תַּחַת לְשׁוֹנוֹ׃ If wickedness is sweet in his [the wicked one's] mouth, he keeps it beneath his tongue. [Either to prolong the enjoyment or to hide it from the world] יג יַחְמֹל עָלֶיהָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶנָּה וְיִמְנָעֶנָּה בְּתוֹךְ חִכּוֹ׃ He cherishes this wickedness, and he's never going to leave it, and he keeps it within his palate. [He savours the wickedness.] יד לַחְמוֹ בְּמֵעָיו נֶהְפָּךְ מְרוֹרַת פְּתָנִים בְּקִרְבּוֹ׃ [But bad news:] His bread is going to turn in his innards; the bitterness of פתנים [poisonous snakes - rendered by JPS as asps] is in his midst טו חַיִל בָּלַע וַיְקִאֶנּוּ מִבִּטְנוֹ יוֹרִשֶׁנּוּ אֵל׃ He swallowed wealth [the wealth he stole] but now he vomits it up. From his belly Gd will take it out.
    Ultimately it's going to turn within him. He's not going to be able to keep that which he took. You see it destroying him from the inside. טז רֹאשׁ־פְּתָנִים יִינָק תַּהַרְגֵהוּ לְשׁוֹן אֶפְעֶה׃ He is going to nurse from the poison of the snakes [asps mentioned above]; he will be killed by the tongue of אפעה [another poisonous snake; rendered as a cobra.] יז אַל־יֵרֶא בִפְלַגּוֹת נַהֲרֵי נַחֲלֵי דְּבַשׁ וְחֶמְאָה׃ He will not get streams, rivers of honey and milk. [(butter?) What he's going to get instead is poison.] יח מֵשִׁיב יָגָע וְלֹא יִבְלָע כְּחֵיל תְּמוּרָתוֹ וְלֹא יַעֲלֹס׃ He will have to return that which was worked for, [that which others worked for that he took] and he will not be able to swallow it. He will have to exchange it to them and he will have no exaltation, [he will not rejoice].
    יעלז is rejoice. Why יעלס? R'Torcz thinks it's all part of the image. ללעוס - chewing. It fits, with the ס.
    יט כִּי־רִצַּץ עָזַב דַּלִּים בַּיִת גָּזַל וְלֹא יִבֶנֵהוּ׃
    [Two translations:]
    He crushes and abandons the indigent; he stole a house and he does not build it back up.
    He has crushed the house of the indigent, etc.
    כ כִּי לֹא־יָדַע שָׁלֵו בְּבִטְנוֹ בַּחֲמוּדוֹ לֹא יְמַלֵּט׃ He has no peace in his belly; with that which he desired he's never going to escape. כא אֵין־שָׂרִיד לְאָכְלוֹ עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יָחִיל טוּבוֹ׃ There is no remnant of his food, [one interpretation: he leaves nothing behind, confident that he can always steal from someone else.] and as a result, his wealth will not last. כב בִּמְלֹאות שִׂפְקוֹ יֵצֶר לוֹ כָּל־יַד עָמֵל תְּבוֹאֶנּוּ׃ When his measure is full, [from everything he has taken,] he will experience pain. At that point, suffering is going to befall him. כג יְהִי לְמַלֵּא בִטְנוֹ יְשַׁלַּח־בּוֹ חֲרוֹן אַפּוֹ וְיַמְטֵר עָלֵימוֹ בִּלְחוּמוֹ׃ He will try to fill his stomach, but what will be sent is Divine rage, and Gd will rain down upon him בלחומו [both לחם, bread, and מלחמה, war, are probably intended here.] (Familiar tripartite sentence as an end-of-section.)

    Back in Ch.6-7, Iyov describes his pain in terms of food he does not want, and describes himself as starving. This may be Tzofar's deliberate reference to that: Oh, you wicked people hunger all the time. In fact, what you hunger for is the food of others, and all your wealth came from other people. You are guilty of having taken from others. He's making it personal to Iyov. 10. Rabbi Saadia Gaon, Emunot v’Deiot, Introduction ואני משביע באלקים בורא הכל, כל חכם לב שיעיין בספר הזה ויראה בו שום טעות שיתקנה, או מלה מסופקת שישיבנה אל הישרה, ואל יעכבהו מזה ענין שאין הספר שלו, או שאני הקדמתיו לגלות מה שלא נזדמן לו. כי לחכמים חמלה על החכמה, והם מוציאים לה חנינה, כחנינת אנשי הקרבה, וכאשר אמר (משלי ז' ד') אמור לחכמה אחותי את, אעפ"י שהכסילים חומלים על סכלותם ואינם מניחים אותה, כמו שאמר (איוב כ' י"ג) יחמול עליה ולא יעזבנה: And I forswear, by Gd, Creator of all, any wise person who examines this text and sees any error, that he should correct it, or any vague word that he should direct it in a straight direction. He should not be prevented by the fact that the text is not his, or by concern that I preceded him in revealing that which he did not. For the wise have compassion for wisdom and favour it, as warriors favour [battle], and as Proverbs 7:4 says, “Say of wisdom: You are my sister,” although the fools have compassion for their foolishness and do not abandon it, as Job 20:13 says, “He will have compassion for it, and he will not leave it.” 11. Talmud, Sanhedrin 92a ואמר רבי אלעזר: כל שאינו מהנה תלמידי חכמים מנכסיו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם, שנאמר "אין שריד לאכלו על כן לא יחיל טובו", אין 'שריד' אלא תלמידי חכמים שנאמר "ובשרידים אשר ד' קרא." (יואל ג:ה)
    ואמר רבי אלעזר: כל שאינו משייר פת על שלחנו אינו רואה סימן ברכה לעולם, שנאמר "אין שריד לאכלו, על כן לא יחיל טובו."
    And Rabbi Elazar said: One who does not benefit scholars from his property will never see a sign of blessing, as it says, “There is no remnant of his eating; therefore, his benefit will not last.” ‘Remnant’ is only a term of scholars, as Joel 3:5 says, “And the remnants who call in the Name of Gd.”
    And Rabbi Elazar said: One who does not leave bread on his table will never see a sign of blessing, as it says, “There is no remnant of his eating; therefore, his benefit will not last.”
    That one should leave something over from his food. The 'remnant' is not the food, but the scholar. In general, leave food on the table.
    In addition to the Rambam's idea that you shouldn't, in general, fill yourself too completely, this is also understood as being about self-discipline.

    He's responding to Iyov that he shouldn't be looking to be full. You want the wealth of others, it will be poison for you, and Gd is going to take it away.
    Daat Mikra sees in this statement of not leaving any remnant of his food behind: Not אוכלו his food, but his act of eating. He spares no one, and eats/steals from everybody, and so consumes the market, harming everybody. The result is that he runs out of victims, having razed the entire area. It's not a punishment for him that there's nothing left, but a consequence of his actions. 12. Talmud, Sotah 9a אמר רב המנונא אין הקב"ה נפרע מן האדם עד שתתמלא סאתו שנאמר במלאות סִפְקו יֵצֶר לו וגו' Rav Hemnuna said: Gd does not punish a person until his se’ah is full, as it says, “When his measure is full, he will be besieged.”
    < /thirtyfourthclass >

    Back in 16:18-19, he said אֶ֭רֶץ אַל־תְּכַסִּ֣י דָמִ֑י וְֽאַל־יְהִ֥י מָ֝ק֗וֹם לְזַעֲקָתִֽי - let my cries not be hidden away; let them be out in the open, where everyone will hear them and see what I have to say and how I have suffered. גַּם־עַ֭תָּה הִנֵּה־בַשָּׁמַ֣יִם עֵדִ֑י וְ֝שָׂהֲדִ֗י בַּמְּרוֹמִֽים׃ He called heaven and earth to testify on his behalf. He said they would testify for him, and Tzofar is going to rob him of that. Describing the fate of this wicked person who was about to fill his belly, and then Gd zapped him:

    20:24-28 Gd and Man will turn against him
    כד יִבְרַח מִנֵּשֶׁק בַּרְזֶל תַּחְלְפֵהוּ קֶשֶׁת נְחוּשָׁה׃ He [the wicked person] will flee from iron weapons; he is made to pass on by the copper bow. [Bronze is still copper and tin, brass copper and zinc.] Also echoes the tochacha.
    כה שָׁלַף וַיֵּצֵא מִגֵּוָה וּבָרָק מִמְּרֹרָתוֹ יַהֲלֹךְ עָלָיו אֵמִים׃ The weapon is drawn, and it emerges from [the sheath, or] the body. [There isn't even a blink of time to think before it strikes the body.] And lightning from its bitterness [or spleen - place of מרה] will bring upon him אמים [intimidation, or fright]. The image of him being struck down by a weapon, but also lightning.
    כו כָּל־חֹשֶׁךְ טָמוּן לִצְפּוּנָיו תְּאָכְלֵהוּ אֵשׁ לֹא־נֻפָּח יֵרַע שָׂרִיד בְּאָהֳלוֹ׃ All darkness is stored away - lies in wait for that which he had hidden [taken from others for himself and hidden]. He will be consumed by an unfanned flame. Those who remain in his tent will also suffer [from whatever is befalling him]. This has been taken as a flame that doesn't require fanning - possibly a heavenly fire. Like back in :21, אֵין־שָׂרִיד לְאָכְלוֹ עַל־כֵּן לֹא־יָחִיל טוּבוֹ, there is no remnant when he eats, therefore he will be consumed by the fire, and the remnant in his tent will also be consumed - he doesn't get a שריד because he doesn't leave a שריד for anybody else.
    כז יְגַלּוּ שָׁמַיִם עֲוֺנוֹ וְאֶרֶץ מִתְקוֹמָמָה לוֹ׃ The heavens will reveal his sin, and the land מתקוממה [will stand as an enemy, will rise up against him]. כח יִגֶל יְבוּל בֵּיתוֹ נִגָּרוֹת בְּיוֹם אַפּוֹ׃ All of the fortune of his house [יבול is usually his field's crop] will be revealed for the world to see; it will run out as a stream on the day of Gd's rage. Back in 16, Iyov, you said that the heavens and the earth are your allies, who will testify to your righteousness. Just the opposite - the heavens and the earth with their weapons will demonstrate that you have sinned. [This link is one reason we stuck with the simple translation of ברק into lightning.] 1. Midrash, Sifri Devarim 306 אמר להם משה לישראל: שמא אתם סבורים לברוח מתחת כנפי שכינה או לזוז מעל הארץ? ולא עוד אלא שהשמים כותבים שנאמר "יגלו שמים עוונו." ומנין שאף הארץ מודעת? שנאמר "וארץ מתקוממה לו." Moshe said to Israel: Perhaps you think to flee from beneath Divine wings, or to leave the land? Further, the heavens themselves record, as it says, “The heavens will reveal his sin.” And how do we know that even the land is informed (or informs)? “And the land stands against him.” Heaven and earth standing against the one who sinned.

    Tzofar is turning Iyov's message on his head. You claim you're righteous, and I'm the sinner who has Gd wrong? Just the opposite: Gd punishes the wicked, and it's quicker than you think, and the heavens and earth that you are calling upon to testify for you are actually the ones who will testify against you.
    Trial by Ordeal, which we've mentioned before - if he betrays pain you know he must be guilty. We saw Iyov accuse them of judging him that way, seeing that he's suffering and taking that as evidence that he is guilty. Iyov thinks it's a false test, but that's what Tzofar is doing here. The fact that you are suffering reveals your guilt. The heavens reveal his sin by punishing him - otherwise why would this be happening?

    20:29 Conclusion: This is the portion Gd sends to the wicked
    כט זֶה חֵלֶק־אָדָם רָשָׁע מֵאֱלֹהִים וְנַחֲלַת אִמְרוֹ מֵאֵל׃ This is the portion a wicked person will receive from Gd, and the portion that Gd declares for him. 2. Metzudat David to 20:29 הגמול הזה בעצמו הוא נחלת האיש אשר אמרתו הוא מן הא ל, לדבר עליו שלא כהוגן ולגנות מעשיו. This payback itself is the portion of the man whose speech is “from Gd”, speaking of Him inappropriately and degrading His actions. Nice envelope structure - this closes the statement from פסוק ד. Parallel uses of זה - this is what happens to wicked people, and that's why you're suffering.
    All he's giving Iyov is insults - you deserve what you're getting.
    Tzofar responds to his own state of insult by becoming less philosophical, more personal, and less positive.
    He says that the wicked harm themselves due to their overlarge appetites - it's going to happen to them, and to their families. They're going to disappear. Heaven and earth, which ou thought were on your side, are going to conspire to destroy you, and Iyov, you are personally bad.
    And this may be why this is the last we hear of Tzofar. He really seems not to have anything left to say. He's reduced to throwing insults. Introduction to Chapter 21
    Tzofar's First Speech (11) Job's Reply (12-14)
    Gd knows more,
    and punishes according to information that only Gd has
    Gd is indeed the greatest, and source of all destruction
    You are misrepresenting Gd; I am the pious one
    Prescription: Repent and approach Gd!
    Then your turmoil will end
    My case against Gd:
    I am no sinner
    Paying attention to my lowly sins is not worthy of You
    I am here today, gone tomorrow
    Tzofar's Second Speech (20) Job's Reply (21)
    Personal attacks:
    You and your children are being punished
    Personal response:
    Prepare to be shocked!
    The wicked bring it upon themselves with their appetites Do not claim to prove wickedness from suffering
    Heaven and Earth turn on the wicked My narrative: The wicked do not suffer; there is no Divine justice

    < / 35athclass >
    With each speech, Iyov introduces something new, as each speaker pushes him further. Tzofar's allegations, like all the speeches, are another element of the test Iyov is being put through, and he has succeeded in pushing Iyov into new territory. Here Iyov will say that there is no moral order. (Or, pushed beyond human endurance, that there are five lights. ~D) The wicked do not suffer.
    Now, Iyov has already said that he is suffering for nothing, but not made the overall statement that wicked people don't suffer. He has not made the overall statement that there is no moral order, but that's exactly where he's going here.
    Question for R'Torcz: You claim here (beginning of Week 35/2nd half) that Iyov has not yet rejected the idea of a moral order. What about 9:22 - אַחַ֗ת הִ֥יא עַל־כֵּ֥ן אָמַ֑רְתִּי תָּ֥ם וְ֝רָשָׁ֗ע ה֣וּא מְכַלֶּֽה - Gd destroys the righteous and the wicked? 9:24 - אֶ֤רֶץ ׀ נִתְּנָ֬ה בְֽיַד־רָשָׁ֗ע פְּנֵֽי־שֹׁפְטֶ֥יהָ יְכַסֶּ֑ה אִם־לֹ֖א אֵפ֣וֹא מִי־הֽוּא׃? (Also, couldn't you infer that from his complaints about predestination, for those who read that way?)
    What motivates him to say that wicked people aren't going to suffer? It isn't about his personal case with Gd, because that is personal. He doesn't care whether wicked people suffer or not; his point was to say, Gd, lay off of me. Two levels: One, it's a response to Tzofar and co, because every speaker in Round 3 used the opportunity to say that wicked people are punished. The other piece of it is that Iyov is adding to his charges against Gd. Remember that there are two ways to read Iyov's basic accusation: one, "Gd, you are punishing me inappropriately, harming me for nothing," to which he's now going to add, "You don't even punish wicked people, so why harm me?" Two, according to the take of "Gd has left things to the universe to run itself, astrology/whatever, he's saying, "The fact that wicked people don't suffer is proof that you're not paying attention, Gd! If you were, this wouldn't be happening. All is Fate." 3. Outline of Chapter 21: The Wicked do not Suffer
  • 21:1-6 Introduction: Prepare to be shocked
  • 21:7-16 The wicked are not punished
  • 21:17-26 Don’t bring proof from cases in which wicked people suffer
  • 21:27-28 Suffering is not proof of wickedness
  • 21:29-34 Everyone knows that wicked people thrive
  • 21:1-6 Introduction: Prepare to be shocked!
    א וַיַּ֥עַן אִיּ֗וֹב וַיֹּאמַֽר׃ Iyov declared and said: ב שִׁמְע֣וּ שָׁ֭מוֹעַ מִלָּתִ֑י וּתְהִי־זֹ֝֗את תַּנְח֥וּמֹֽתֵיכֶֽם׃ Hear my words [doubled word for emphasis] and this will be your comfort. This is what will comfort me, he says. Eliphaz said, back in Ch15, Are the tanchumot that we're offering you nothing for you? Too little for you, the comforts we offer? And Iyov responds here by saying that if they want to comfort him, they should hear his words. They should listen.
    (Note that that's the opposite of what they want to do - see for instance Tzofar's intro to his most recent speech.) 4. Daat Mikra to 21:2 שמעו שמוע מלתי – כנגד דברי צופר בפתיחת מענהו הקודם: "מוסר כלמתי אשמע". ואומר איוב: "אף על פי שדברי מכלימים אתכן, בבקשה מכם שמעו אותם." “Hear my words” – Parallel to the words of Tzofar in his previous speech: “I hear the rebuke of my shame.” Job says: “Even though my words shame you, please, listen to them.” ג שָׂ֭אוּנִי וְאָנֹכִ֣י אֲדַבֵּ֑ר וְאַחַ֖ר דַּבְּרִ֣י תַלְעִֽיג׃ Bear with me [fairly literally. "Carry me"] and I will speak, and then, [once I'm done speaking,] then you can make fun of me. He's insulting their rejoinders by calling them mockery. (Though we were also calling Tzofar's last set of comments 'insults.') ד הֶ֭אָנֹכִי לְאָדָ֣ם שִׂיחִ֑י וְאִם־מַ֝דּ֗וּעַ לֹא־תִקְצַ֥ר רוּחִֽי׃ Is my speech only to man? [MD] And so why shouldn't I be angry? 5. Metzudat David to 21:4 וכי אנכי אדבר דברי אל אדם לשאחשוב אין דעתו עליו להשיב אמרי? הלא אל ד' אדבר! ואם כן הוא שאל ד' אדבר והוא איננו משיב לי, מדוע א"כ לא תקצר רוחי, ואיך לא אצעק במר נפש? Do I speak my words to Man, such that I might think that he lacks the wisdom to respond to my words? I speak to Gd! If it is so that I speak to Gd and He does not respond to me, why should I not be upset, and why should I not cry out with a bitter spirit? Iyov says that he's not really talking to Eliphaz and Bildad and Tzofar. He's talking to Gd. Which is fair, because Tzofar said he wasn't really talking to Iyov. And why is Iyov so angry? Because Gd has the means of responding, and he's not.
    ה פְּנוּ־אֵלַ֥י וְהָשַׁ֑מּוּ וְשִׂ֖ימוּ יָ֣ד עַל־פֶּֽה׃ Turn to me and be stunned [or laid desolate] and put your hand to your mouth. [Image that conveys shock/amazement.] 6. Hand on mouth Michah 6:16; Mishlei 30:32 ו וְאִם־זָכַ֥רְתִּי וְנִבְהָ֑לְתִּי וְאָחַ֥ז בְּ֝שָׂרִ֗י פַּלָּצֽוּת׃ [It's not just you who are going to be shocked - ] when I think of my own words, I am shocked, and my flesh is gripped by פלצות [trembling or splitting]. He is also shocked by what he is seeing and complaining about. It is shocking.
    < /thirtyfifthclass >

    So Tzofar has just alleged directly that this is all Iyov's own fault, as wicked people are punished and Iyov is evidently wicked, and Iyov has begun his answer by warning: Prepare to be shocked: The wicked are not punished.
    Every speaker in round two said that wicked people suffer, and Iyov's response is that this is not so. Eliphaz said the wicked live in fear; Iyov says they're happy and secure. Bildad said their line is cut off (they don't have descendants) and Iyov says that's not true either.

    21:7-16 The wicked are not punished 1. Malbim, Introduction to Chapter 21 לא כמ"ש אליפז שהרשעים מלאים פחד תמיד ואינם בוטחים בהצלחתם, כי נמצאו רשעים בוטחים ושלוים (ט' י' י"א), ולא תשובת בלדד שיכרת מינם ושאריתם המיני והאישיי, כי נמצאו רשעים שבניהם חיים ומצליחים (ח'), וביתם מתקיים זמן רב (כ' - כ"ט)... It is not as Eliphaz said, that the wicked are filled with perpetual fear and they do not trust their own success, for wicked people who are secure and at peace are to be found (21:9-11). It is not as Bildad replied, that their species and its species-wide or personal remnant will be cut off, for wicked people whose children live and thrive are to be found (21:8), and their house endures for a long time (21:20-29)… 2. Carol Newsom, The Book of Job: A Contest of Moral Imaginations, page 162 To hear it simply as parodic play with a familiar topos is not quite accurate. It misses part of Job’s rhetorical strategy. Job does not begin his utterance in strict imitation of the friends. They begin with declarative statements, Job with the question “Why?” Job thus sets his speech in relation to another genre, the psalmic complaint, where objections to the prosperity of the wicked were a traditional topic (eg., Psalms 10; 73). But as with Job’s evocation of the lament tradition in chapter 16, so here, too, it is employed as a setup, which depends for its effectiveness upon the expectation of a patterned sequence of ideas that Job disrupts…. We're going to see Iyov pull the same linguistic bait-and-switch he did earlier: he starts with a tehillim-esque speech, and turns the whole thing on its head. (The analogy coming to mind is chess: reveal-double-check. ~D) Tehillim regularly asks Gd why the wicked thrive, and so will Iyov - but he won't end like tehillim by praying for justice or justifying it. ז מַדּ֣וּעַ רְשָׁעִ֣ים יִחְי֑וּ עָ֝תְק֗וּ גַּם־גָּ֥בְרוּ חָֽיִל׃ Why do the wicked live? They become strong [עתק is something strong. Morfix: huge], they amass wealth and strength [חיל in general is not valor but wealth or strength - like אנשי חיל]. [How is it that they could be so well off?] ח זַרְעָ֤ם נָכ֣וֹן לִפְנֵיהֶ֣ם עִמָּ֑ם וְ֝צֶאֱצָאֵיהֶ֗ם לְעֵינֵיהֶֽם׃ Their seed are all arranged beautifully before them, their grandchildren before their eyes. ט בָּתֵּיהֶ֣ם שָׁל֣וֹם מִפָּ֑חַד וְלֹ֤א שֵׁ֖בֶט אֱל֣וֹהַּ עֲלֵיהֶֽם׃ Their houses are at peace, [there is] no fear, and the rod of Gd is not upon them [this is a response to Eliphaz's contention that they live in fear]
    י שׁוֹר֣וֹ עִ֭בַּר וְלֹ֣א יַגְעִ֑ל תְּפַלֵּ֥ט פָּ֝רָת֗וֹ וְלֹ֣א תְשַׁכֵּֽל׃ Their ox becomes pregnant, and it does not lose the pregnancy. [הגעלה is to spit something out - in the kashering process it's the absorbed taste.] The cow will produce young, and it will never lose them יא יְשַׁלְּח֣וּ כַ֭צֹּאן עֲוִילֵיהֶ֑ם וְ֝יַלְדֵיהֶ֗ם יְרַקֵּדֽוּן׃ They will send forth their young like sheep [compare earlier use of עויל for 'youth' rather than 'corruption' in 19:18.] and their children will go dancing. [Everything is wonderful for them.] Note the emphasis on how their kids survive - they don't get killed off. He's responding to Tzofar's claim that the loss of Iyov's children demonstrates that he's wicked.
    יב יִ֭שְׂאוּ כְּתֹ֣ף וְכִנּ֑וֹר וְ֝יִשְׂמְח֗וּ לְק֣וֹל עוּגָֽב׃ They raise up [in song - like שאו זמרה] like the drum and the stringed instrument, and they rejoice to the sound of the עוגב. יג יבלו [יְכַלּ֣וּ] בַטּ֣וֹב יְמֵיהֶ֑ם וּ֝בְרֶ֗גַע שְׁא֣וֹל יֵחָֽתּוּ׃ They wear out their days in goodness/bounty, and in an instance they descend to the depths. This isn't switching into negativity. They are happy to the end, and then they disappear, without any suffering at all (unlike his prolonged agony).
    יד וַיֹּאמְר֣וּ לָ֭אֵל ס֣וּר מִמֶּ֑נּוּ וְדַ֥עַת דְּ֝רָכֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א חָפָֽצְנוּ׃ They say to Gd, go away! We don't need to know Your ways. טו מַה־שַׁדַּ֥י כִּֽי־נַֽעַבְדֶ֑נּוּ וּמַה־נּ֝וֹעִ֗יל כִּ֣י נִפְגַּע־בּֽוֹ׃ What is this Gd you speak of, that we should worship Him? What benefit will he provide if we were to pray? [like ויפגע במקום] טז הֵ֤ן לֹ֣א בְיָדָ֣ם טוּבָ֑ם עֲצַ֥ת רְ֝שָׁעִ֗ים רָ֣חֲקָה מֶֽנִּי׃ It's not that they have produced the good that they enjoy [the bounty that they have is not בידם, from their hand]; and therefore, their ideas [that they created their wealth themselves] are distant from me. [I can't accept what these wicked people are saying.] There are multiple explanations of that pasuk; this is Daat Mikra's. 3. Talmud, Sanhedrin 108a דור המבול לא נתגאו אלא בשביל טובה שהשפיע להם הקב"ה, ומה כתיב בהם? "בתיהם שלום מפחד ולא שבט אלוק עליהם"... אמרו, "כלום צריכין אנו לו אלא לטיפה של גשמים? יש לנו נהרות ומעינות שאנו מסתפקין מהן!" אמר הקב"ה, "בטובה שהשפעתי להן בה מכעיסין אותי, ובה אני דן אותם," שנאמר "ואני הנני מביא את המבול מים. (בראשית ו:יז)" The generation of the flood were arrogant only because of the good which Gd flowed upon them. And what is written regarding them? “Their house is at peace from fear, and the rod of Gd is not upon them”… They said, “Do we need Him for anything other than a drop of rain? We have rivers and streams from which we fill our needs!” Gd replied, “They anger Me with the good that I have flowed upon them, and with this I will punish them,” as Bereishit 6:17 says, “And I [in response to them], behold, I will bring upon them a flood of water.” Takes this passage from Iyov and applies it to the generation of the flood. The trait of the wicked is that they think they have everything, and that they don't need Gd at all.

    Interestingly, Malbim notes that Tzofar also described the wicked as being cut off suddenly; see back in 20:7-9. Tzofar meant it as a negative, but Iyov seems to mean it as a positive - death without suffering.
    Iyov is reasserting his claim of piety. He said so in the first round, and he's reiterating. Iyov believes Gd is mighty - he just doesn't think He runs the world with justice.
    This section really would have been at home in Tehillim. For instance, look at Tehillim 10:1-11 - לָמָה יְהוָה, תַּעֲמֹד בְּרָחוֹק... Why, Gd, do you stand away? Tehillim 73:4-16 calls on Gd and says, there are terrible people out there and You seem to be doing nothing, and they know You're doing nothing.
    Iyov is setting us up, in doing this, because he's not going to conclude as the tehillim does.
    Read 73:17-28. Tehillim's statement is that wicked people say that Gd isn't watching, that there's no justice in the world, and then follows it up with his own certainty that Gd is there and will take care of the vulnerable and punish those who abuse them, righting the wrongs he complained about initially. 4. Examples of the Psalmic Complaint
    • Psalms 10:1-11 10:12-18
    • Psalms 73:4-16 73:17-28
    (He's setting his listeners up, allowing them to think he's been convinced.)
    21:17-26 Don’t bring proof from cases where the wicked suffer
    (There are a lot of different ways to read this section; we're going with Metzudat David's take.)
    יז כַּמָּ֤ה ׀ נֵר־רְשָׁ֘עִ֤ים יִדְעָ֗ךְ וְיָבֹ֣א עָלֵ֣ימוֹ אֵידָ֑ם חֲ֝בָלִ֗ים יְחַלֵּ֥ק בְּאַפּֽוֹ׃ How many times does it actually happen that the wicked are crushed and their day comes for them, such that Gd is going to divide them up in portions [or cause them to suffer] in His rage? יח יִהְי֗וּ כְּתֶ֥בֶן לִפְנֵי־ר֑וּחַ וּ֝כְמֹ֗ץ גְּנָבַ֥תּוּ סוּפָֽה׃ That they will be scattered like straw before the wind, or like chaff sto